| Wind systems for pumping water: A training manual |
The first thing to understand about this training is the fact that it is centered around the needs of the people and the place in which it is carried out. Traditional training programs of this type focus on particular technology. In this case, the emphasis is on the people participating; their skills, their needs and the things about which they want to learn.
There are several implications of this adaptive training approach. One is that the projects (machinery) selected to be built must he easily constructed from local materials. Another is that the sessions to be used should be selected from the possible sessions listed in the manual, and they should be selected on the basis of what the participants need to do and know. A choice also needs to be made as to how much mathematics to include. Optional evening sessions might be needed, if some of the participants are not familiar with the use of the tools or with the materials selected for construction. The skills of the participants and the general skill level of the people who are the eventual users of the wind pumping system also need to be considered.
In short, every time this training is done in a different place and for another group of people it should be adapted accordingly. Everyone has something to learn from this training including the trainers themselves.
Although this particular training program is designed to train people in the design construction and maintenance of wind systems it was developed in a more general format which can be used for design and construction training of any type of simple device or machinery. The trainer is encouraged to substitute sessions as the need arises and include the sessions that apply to the larger issues of siting design methods and material testing to name a few.
The training program is divided into two basic forms: in one form a session on the design process is included and the participants are expected to do some design work in groups. The other form uses a preselected design and does not include the design process. In either case a clear explanation of the considerations and constraints leading to the selection of the finished designs should be and is included. The session "Design Consideration for Pumps and Windmills" is used for this purpose.
The order and content of the sample schedule or the sessions in the manual is not fixed. For example mathematics may be postponed until such a time that people are familiar with the situation and are therefore more at ease to begin calculations. The trainers should consider the order and the particular training needs for their situation then arrange the training curriculum accordingly. Include sessions on a need-to-know basis and leave most of your time for construction if you are planning a big project. Fit the training program to the participants' training needs.
The opening session is very important. Everyone comes to a training with different expectations based on varying degrees of truth rumor wishful thinking and selective listening. A common expectation is extensive information on wind-generated electricity. How much time will you spend on that? Everyone should know from the start what can and cannot be accomplished given the time and the resources. Clarity in the beginning can save much difficulty later.
The beginning session is also used to explore what the people in the group know and what they have done in their lives. Those who have experience in the theory, tools, or materials should be invited to share their skills and knowledge with the rest of the group. This is also the time to find out what the people do not know and what they would like to learn. The training can then be best designed to fill the needs of the participants.
The training can be centered around either the construction of a preselected wind system design or around group design and construction of a wind system based on a proven concept. The "Construction Manual for a Cretan Windmill" was used as the construction text in the Paraguay training program, and the system described in the text was built with minor variations. it is an excellent text and also contains a section on building a treadle-powered lathe which could be adapted to wind power.
The key text, however, is "The Homemade Windmills of Nebraska." This book has line drawings of the wind systems put together by the farmers of Nebraska in the late 1890's, mills made of every conceivable material. The book is very innovative where the application of wood, wire, nails, and whatever is handy is concerned. It also contains descriptions of the use and construction of the illustrated windmills.
The final reports on the two pilot trainings and the schedule for each of these trainings as appendices are included. Also, a bibliography and a list of construction materials is included.