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close this book A training manual in conducting a workshop in the design, construction, operation, maintenance and repair of hydrams
close this folder Session 8: Hydram construction - Pipefitting (4 - 6 hours)
View the document Handout 8A: Pipefitting hydram w/ Modified factory valves
View the document Handout 8B: Pipefitting hydram w/ Field-made valves
View the document Handout 8C: Materials and procedures: fabricated ram

Session 8: Hydram construction - Pipefitting (4 - 6 hours)

Time: 4 - 6 hours

OBJECTIVE: To build a hydram out of plumbing parts, with modified and/or fabricated valves.

OVERVIEW: This session provides the opportunity for participants to build two variations of the pipefitting hydram. The first, a modified pipefitting hydram, is made exclusively from parts usually found in a plumbing supply house, with minor modifications to the check and foot (impulse) valve. The second hydram is made from pipe fittings, with valves constructed by trainees using simple steel fabrication. The finished hydrams are installed on a test stand or other water source and set in operation.

MATERIALS NEEDED FOR MODIFIED PIPE-FITTING HYDRAM

Handouts 8A, 8B, 8C

1 1" 90 sweep

4 1" nipples-

1 1" union

1 1" tee

1 ¼" union

1 1"x 1"x ¼" tee

2 ¼" nipples

1 2"x 1" reducing bushing

1 ¼" gate valve

1 3"x 1" reducing bushing

1 3" female adapter

1 2" foot valve

1 3" cap

1 1" check valve with tapped holes

1 3"x 18" metal pipe

1 ¼" plug

pipe joint compound or TFE tape

1 1/8" gas cock

assorted washers

TOOLS NEEDED FOR MODIFIED PIPE-FITTING HYDRAM

two pipe wrenches, two pair pliers

MATERIALS NEEDED FOR FABRICATED PIPE-FITTING HYDRAM

Handouts 8B.

30" 3/8-16 althread

pipe joint compound or TFE tape

4 3/8-16 nuts

. 1 3" cap

1 ¼-20xl" bolt (drilled out)

2 3" tees

1 ¼-20 x 3/4" bolt

3 3"x 1" reducing bushings

1 ¼-20 x 4" althread

1 3"x ½ reducing bushing

1 2½" OD washer

1 3"x 18" nipple

6 1½" OD washer

1 ¼" x 4" nipple

4 ¼-20 nuts

1 1" 90° sweep

1 3/4" OD washer

6"x 8"x ¼" sheet rubber

5 8-32 x 3/4" screws

6"x 6"x ¼" steel plate

2 8-32 x 3/4" bolts

3"x l"x 1/8" angle iron

 

TOOLS NEEDED FOR FABRICATED PIPE-FITTING HYDRAM

two pipe wrenches

knife

electric or hand drill

flat file, half round file

drill bits (3/8, 13/64, and 1/8)

hack saw

2" hole saw

1" pipe threader

¼-20 and 8-32 taps

tape measure

screwdriver

adjustable wrench

access to metalworking shop

sandpaper (medium & fine)

*NOTE: Consider "charging" trainees for parts they use to determine on site cost.

Post parts, price list and ask trainees to price the rams they're constructing.

 

PROCEDURES

NOTES

1.

State the objective of this session.

 

2.

Distribute Handouts 8A and 8B

 

3.

Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the modified and fabricated pipe-fitting hydrams.

 

4.

Divide the trainees into groups of two or three to work on designs & responsibilities.

The two pipe-fitting hydrams are quite similar. If it is likely that trainees will be constructing hydrams from plumbing Parts in their projects, it may be useful to have the group build both types; if concrete or manufactured hydrams are planned for the projects, trainers may choose to introduce only one. The modified valve ram requires considerably less time, but experience in fabricating valves may be helpful for trainees building a concrete ram.

Some advantages and disadvantages of each hydram are

5.

Ask the groups to build the hydrams using the following sequence:

MODIFIED

FABRICATED

   

ADVANTAGES:

 
   

one hour construction time

3 hours construction time

   

efficient operation

efficient operation

   

fairly inexpensive

inexpensive

   

easy to service/replace parts

impulse valve easily removed

     

excellent longevity

   

DISADVANTAGES:

 
   

w valves last approx 1 yr

requires ability to drill and tap sheet metal

   

valves may be hard to find

maximum practical size 1"

   

maximum practical size 1 1/4"

check valve difficult to remove when rusted

   

fittings difficult to remove when rusted (especially larger sizes)

 
   

Try to make sure that the skill levels of each group are roughly equal. If you wish, have each group build a different size hydram. Allow 45 minutes to design

 

(FOR MODIFIED PIPE-FITTING HYDRAM)

 

5.

A. remove the spring from both the foot valve and the check valve;

 
 

B. add washers in the foot valve for both the weight and stroke adjustment;

See Handout 8A, detail A

 

C. assemble all the fittings as shown in Handout A using either pipe joint compound of TFE tape.

 

6.

Have each group install their hydram on the test stand or another source of water and start the hydram working.

 

7.

Discuss the applicability of the modified pipe-fitting hydram.

Discussion should include skills of communitv, availability of materials, financial resources available.

(FOR FABRICATED PIPE-FITTING HYDRAM)

   

The instructions describe the building If you wish, have each group of a 1" hydram build a hydram of a different size. Allow 3-4 hours for construction, organize parts ahead of time. Time constraints may require that trainer have impulse valve plates pre-cut, and cut sheet rubber into correct size squares.

6.

Impulse Valve

 
 

A. Sand, grind or file the aim of a 3" tee (#3) until it has a smooth surface.

 
 

B. Bend two pieces of 3/8 x 15" althread (#27) around the body of the tee so that the 4 ends extend 1" above the arm.

 
 

C. Drill a 2" hole in the center of a 6"x 6" piece of steel (#14), then drill 3/8" holes in the corners of the steel where the althread goes through (approx. 4½" apart). Be certain to sand smooth and round off all edges. Drill and tap two 8-32 holes in plate as shown in Handout 9B, detail A #14 and attach the stroke adjustment bracket (#22).

 
 

D. Cut out a piece of rubber (#15) with the same outside dimensions and hole pattern as the steel plate but with a horseshoeshaped hole in the middle as shown in Handout 9B (#15).

 
 

E. Assemble the impulse valve as shown in Handout 9B, Detail A.

 

7.

Snifter

 
 

Extend the thread on one end of a 1" 90° sweep (#7) to extend through a 1 x 3" reducing bushing (#4). Drill and tap a ½-20 hole near the extended end of the sweep and assemble the snifter as shown in Handout 9B, Detail C, so that the air hole can be covered and uncovered by the lock nut.

 

8.

Check Valve

 
 

A. Drill and tap two holes in the bottom and one in the side of a 1 x 3" reducing bushing for 8-32 screws as shown in the Handout, detail B.

The hole in the side should be located so that the 832 screwhead will be l/16" above the check valve rubber.

 

B. Cut out a piece of rubber (#20) for the check valve, bolt washers to the rubber and screw the valve to the 1 x 3" reducing bushing.

 
 

C. Drill and tap a hole in the bottom of the bushing opposite the 2 previously drilled holes. When a 8-32 screw is inserted the head will overlap the check valve, creating an adjustable stroke. (See Detail B)

 

9.

Body of the Ram

 
 

Attach all the fittings as shownin Handout 8B, using either pipe joint compound or TFE tape.

 

10.

Have each group install their hydram on the test stand or another source of water and start the hydram working.

 

11.

Discuss the applicability of the fabricated pipe-fitting hydram.

Discussion should include skills available in community, availability of materials, financial resources.