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close this book A training manual in conducting a workshop in the design, construction, operation, maintenance and repair of hydrams
View the document Contents
View the document Foreword
View the document Introduction
Open this folder and view contents Guidelines for users
Open this folder and view contents Session 1: Introduction to training (1½ hours)
Open this folder and view contents Session 2: Introduction to hydrams (3½ hours)
Open this folder and view contents Session 3: Water measurement techniques (3 hours)
Open this folder and view contents Session 4: Measuring heads and distance (2-4 hours)
Open this folder and view contents Session 5: Review exercise #1 (2 hours)
Open this folder and view contents Session 6: Hydram theory (2-3 hour)
Open this folder and view contents Session 7: Basic plumbing tools and materials (1-1½ hours)
Open this folder and view contents Session 8: Hydram construction - Pipefitting (4 - 6 hours)
Open this folder and view contents Session 9: Hydram design theory and parameters (2 hours)
Open this folder and view contents Session 10: Hydram construction - concrete (18 hours over a 7 day period)
Open this folder and view contents Session 11: Hydram component design criteria (1-1½ hours)
Open this folder and view contents Session 12: Hydram selection (1½ - 3 hours)
Open this folder and view contents Session 13: Inter-relationships within the hydram (11-15 hours)
Open this folder and view contents Session 14: Repair and maintenance (2-4 hours)
Open this folder and view contents Session 15: Review exercise #2 (2 hours)
Open this folder and view contents Session 16: Use of multiple rams (1½ hours)
Open this folder and view contents Session 17: Site development (2 hours)
Open this folder and view contents Session 18: Hydram system site selection (2-4 hours)
View the document Session 19: Project planning (2-4 hours)
View the document Session 20: Wrap up and evaluation (2-4 hours)
View the document Glossary of terms
View the document English-metric units conversion table
View the document References
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Glossary of terms

Accumulator - (air dome) the air chamber on the hydram which cushions the water hammer, eliminating delivery pulsations and helps provide rebound.

Atmospheric pressure - the pressure at sea level caused by the weight of air; atmospheric pressure = 14.7 and 0 psig.

Battery of Hydrams - (or parallel hydrams) a hydram installation where two or more hydrams are connected to the same source with different drive pipes, but usually with the same delivery pipe. This type of installation is used where the size of the hydram is limited.

Check Valve - (non-return valve, secondary valve, internal valve) the internal valve in the hydram that prevents the delivery head pressure from forcing water back through the hydram body.

Delivery head - the vertical distance between the hydram and the highest level of water in the storage tank that the hydram is pumping to.

Delivery pipe - the pipe which connects the output of the hydram to the storage tank.

Drive head - the vertical distance between the hydram and the highest level of water in the supply system.

Drive pipe - a rigid pipe usually made of galvanized steel that connects the hydram to the source reservoir or stand pipe.

Efficiency - (n) the ratio of the energy input to the energy output; a measure of how well a hydram functions;




Force - to move something against resistance, pressure times the area measured in pounds, newtons or dynes.

Frequency - (f) the number of times a hydram cycles in one minute. h:H ratio - (delivery to drive head ratio) the ratio of lift to fall. The inverse of this ratio times the efficiency of the hydram will determine the percentage of water the hydram will pump. The higher the h:H ratio, the lower the hydram efficiency (n). The usual range of the h:H ratio is from 2:1 to 20:1 but h:H ratios have been measured up to 60:1.

Holding tank - (storage tank) the means of storing water once it has been pumped to the desired head.

Hydram - (hydraulic ram, hydraulic ram pump, automatic hydraulic ram pump, ram) an ingenious device that uses the force of water falling through a drive pipe to pump water to a height greater than its source, making use of hydraulic principles and requiring no fuel.

Hydram capacity - the maximum amount of water a hydram can use. This is determined by the drive pipe size and length, the drive head, and the impulse valve size and design.

Impulse Valve - (clack valve, out-side valve, impetus valve, waste valve) the valve on the hydram that creates and controls the water hammer.

Impulse valve stroke - the distance the impulse valve travels during a cycle.

Impulse valve weight - the total weight or downward force of the impulse valve and its springs or weights.

Kenetic energy - active energy, ½ the mass times the velocity squared

EK = ½ mv2

L:D ratio - drive pipe length to diameter ratio, should be kept between 150-1000.

L:H ratio - drive pipe length to head ratio, when it is less than 15 ft. L:H should equal 6.

When H is greater than 15 ft. but less than 25 should = 4

When H is greater than 20 ft. but less than 25 should = 3

When H is greater than 50 L:H ratio should equal 2. (see Glossary, Session 6 for metric equivalents)

Potential energy - energy derived from position or height; is equal to the height that a mass can fall times its weight.

Pressure - force applied over a surface measured as force per unit of area such as pounds per square inch (psi) (a head of 28" of water develops a pressure of 1 psi) or a pascal (Pa) which is equal to 1 newton per square meter (a head of 1 cm = 98 Pa) 18" of water equals 71.1 cm of water equals 1 psi = 6895 Pa.

Ram box - the small structure usually made out of concrete and/or wood which houses a hydram protecting it from freezing, weathering and possibly from vandalizing.

Rebound - the flow of water in the ram reversing direction due to the air pressure in the accumulator, closing the check valve.

Series hydram - a hydram installation where two or more hydrams are used in series to pump water higher than one hydram could.

Settling basin - a small tank usually made of steel or concrete that is used in place of a stand pipe in an installation where additional settling is necessary.

Snifter valve - (air valve, spit valve) the small valve just below the check valve that allows air to enter the hydram.

Spring box - a concrete box built around a spring to facilitate water collection and to protect the water source from surface contaminates.

Spring box overflow pipe - a pipe placed in the wall of a spring box near the top for unused water to exit through.

Stand pipe - an open-ended, vertical pipe sometimes used at the beginning of the drive pipe.

Static head - a column of water without motion. The static drive head of a hydram can be measured with a pressure gauge but only when ram is stopped and the drive pipe is full of water.

Supply pipe - everything in a hydram system before the drive pipe, usually including some, but not necessarily all, of the following; spring box, supply pipe, stand pipe, settling basin.

Supply system - everything in a hydram system before the drive pipe, usually including some but not necessarily all of the following; spring box, supply pipe, stand pipe, settling basin.

Time of cycle - (t) the time it takes for a hydram to complete one cycle, such as the time lapse between the impulse valve closing twice.

Velocity - speed usually measured in feet per second or meters per second.

Waste water - (Qw) the water coming out of the impulse valve and the snifter.

Waste water drain - the drain in the bottom of a ram box which allows the waste water from the hydram to drain out.

Waste water series hydrams - a hydram installation where one hydram uses the waste water from another as a source to pump a higher percentage of the water.

Hater delivered - (q) the rate at which water is delivered to the storage tank; Q x H x n q = h

Water flow to the hydram - (Q) all the water used by a hydram which is equal to the waste water (Qw) plus the water delivered (q).

Water hammer - the effect created when water flowing through a pipe is suddenly stopped. In a hydram this causes the closing of the impulse valve and opening of check valve.

Water used - (Q) the amount of water that flows through the drive pipe during a unit of time (as in gallons per minute or liters per second) which is equal to the water pumped (q) plus the water wasted (Qw)

The flow rate range of hydrams are as follows:

Drive pipe diameter

Flow rate

mm

in

U.S.

gal/min

Imperial

gal/min

liters/min

 

19

¾

0.8 -

2

0.6 -

1.7

2.8 -

7.6

25

1

1.5 -

4

1.3 -

3.3

5.7 -

15.0

32

1.5 -

7

1.3 -

5.8

5.7 -

26.0

38

1 2

2.5 -

13

2.0 -

10.8

9.4 -

49.0

50

2

6.0 -

20

5.0 -

17.0

23.0 -

76.0

63

10.0 -

45

8.0 -

38.0

38.0 -

170.0

75

3

15.0 -

50

13.0 -

42.0

57.0 -

189.0

100

4

30.0 -

125

25.0 -

104.0

113.0 -

473.0

125

5

40.0 -

150

33.0 -

125.0

151.0 -

567.0

IMPORTANT NUMBERS TO REMEMBER

1440 minutes in a day

433 psi per foot (measured vertically ) of water column

28 inches of C, water column produces 1 psi

14.7 psi atmospheric pressure

7. 48 gallons per cubic foot