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close this book A training manual in conducting a workshop in the design, construction, operation, maintenance and repair of hydrams
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Attachment 13-A

Session 13, Handout 13A

Exercise 1: h:H Ratio Has On Efficiency

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT THE h:H RATIO HAS ON EFFICIENCY

Variables: efficiency (n), water delivered (q), water used (Q.), time of experiment, water wasted (Qw)

Controlled Variables: Delivery head (h)

Constants: Drive head (H),frequency (f), volume of air in the accumulator

Range: 2:1 to 20:1

PROCEDURE:

1. Install a hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator with air and then close the snifter for the duration of the experiment.

6. Calculate the impulse valve frequency.

7. Simultaneously measure the time of the experiment, water delivered (q) and water wasted (Qw)

8. Calculate the efficiency (n).

9. Repeat the experiment making sure to keep the drive head, frequency and the volume of air in the accumulator the same and change the delivery head in order to develop a new h:H ratio.

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT THE h:H RATIO HAS ON EFFICIENCY

Experiment #

                   

h:H ratio

                   

H

                   

h

                   

Qw

                   

q

                   

Q

                   

f

                   

s

                   

w

                   

t

                   

n

                   

Notes

                   


The effect of the delivery head to drive head ratio on efficiency

Exercise 2: frequency on the maximum delivery head to drive head ratio

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF THE FREQUENCY ON THE MAXIMUM DELIVERY HEAD TO DRIVE HEAD RATIO

Variables: delivery head (h), water used (Q.), water wasted(Qw), water delivered (q)

Controlled Variables: amount of air in the accumulator, frequency (f)

Constants: drive head

Range: high frequency to low

PROCEDURES:

1. Install a hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator and then

6. Set the frequency to as fast as possible.

7. With delivery valve shut measure the maximum delivery head with a pressure gauge. (Make certain that the hydram that is used is designed for the pressures that will be encountered.)

8. Repeat the experiment while slowing down the frequency by even increments making certain that the volume of air in the accumulator remains the same.

9. From the pressure reading calculate the delivery head and the h:H ratio.

TOOLS AND MATERIALS NEEDED:

TASK: Determine the effect of the frequency on the maximum delivery dead to drive head ratio

Experiment #

                   

h:H ratio

                   

H

                   

h

                   

Qw

                   

q

                   

Q

                   

f

                   

s

                   

w

                   

t

                   

n

                   

Notes

                   


The effect of the frequency on the maximum delivery head to drive head ratio

Exercise 3: frequency on efficiency, quantity of water entering the hydram and quantity of water delivered.

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF FREQUENCY ON EFFICIENCY, QUANTITY OF WATER ENTERING THE HYDRAM AND QUANTITY OF WATER DELIVERED.

Variables: time of the experiment, efficiency (n), water used (Q.), water delivered (q), water wasted (Qw)

Controlled Variables: frequency

Constants: drive head (H), delivery head (h), volume of air in the accumulator

Range: slow to fast

PROCEDURE:

1. Install a hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator with air and then close the snifter for the duration of the experiment.

6. Calculate the impulse valve frequency.

7. Simultaneously measure the time of the experiment, water delivered (q) and water wasted (Qw)

8. Calculate the efficiency (n).

9. Repeat the experiment making certain to keep the volume of air in the accumulator, drive head, and delivery head the same while changing the frequency.

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF FREQUENCY ON EFFICIENCY, QUANTITY OF WATER ENTERING THE HYDRAM AND QUANTITY OF WATER DELIVERED

Experiment #

                   

h:H ratio

                   

H

                   

h

                   

Qw

                   

q

                   

Q

                   

f

                   

s

                   

w

                   

t

                   

n

                   

Notes

                   


The effect of frequency on efficiency, quantity of water entering the hydram and quantity of water delivered

Exercise 4: volume of air in the accumulator on efficiency.

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF THE VOLUME OF AIR IN THE ACCUMULATOR ON EFFICIENCY.

Variables: time of the experiment, efficiency (n), water wasted (Qw), water pumped (q), water used (Q)

Controlled Variables: volume of air in the accumulator

Constants: drive head (H), delivery head (h), frequency (f)

Range: no air - 24" of air

PROCEDURES:

1. Install a hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator with air and then close the snifter for the duration of the experiment.

6. Calculate the impulse valve frequency.

7. Simultaneously measure the time of the experiment, water delivered (q) and water wasted (Qw)

8. Calculate the efficiency (n).

9. Repeat the experiment making certain to keep the drive head, delivery head and frequency the same while changing the volume of air in the accumulator.

TASK: Determine the effect of the volume of air in the accumulator on efficiency

Experiment #

                   

h:H ratio

                   

H

                   

h

                   

Qw

                   

q

                   

Q

                   

f

                   

s

                   

w

                   

t

                   

n

                   

Notes

                   


The effect of the volume of air in the accumulator on efficiency

Exercise 5: drive pipe length on efficiency

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF THE DRIVE PIPE LENGTH ON EFFICIENCY

Variables: efficiency (n) water wasted (Qw) water used (Q) water delivered (q), time of the experiment

Controlled Variables: length of the drive pipe

Constants: frequency (f), drive head(H), delivery head (h) volume of air in the accumulator

Range: 10' - 80'

PROCEDURE:

1. Install a hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator with air and then close the snifter for the duration of the experiment.

6. Calculate the impulse valve frequency

7. Simultaneously measure the time of the experiment, water delivered (q) and water wasted (Qw)

8. Calculate the efficiency (n).

9. Repeat the experiment making certain to keep the volume of air in the accumulator, drive head (H), delivery head (h) and frequency the same while changing the length of the drive pipe.

TASK: determine the effect of the drive pipe length on length on efficiency

Experiment #

                   

h:H ratio

                   

H

                   

h

                   

Qw

                   

q

                   

Q

                   

f

                   

s

                   

w

                   

t

                   

n

                   

Notes

                   


The effect of the drive pipe length of efficiency

Exercise 6

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF THE DRIVE PIPE DIAMETER ON EFFICIENCY.

Variables: water wasted (Q ), water used (Q.), water delivered (q), time of the experiment

Controlled Variables: drive pipe diameter (D)

Constants: drive head (H), delivery head (h), frequency (f), volume of air in the accumulator

Range: ½, 3/4, 1"

PROCEDURES:

1. Install hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator with air and then close the snifter for the duration of the experiment.

6. Calculate the impulse valve frequency.

7. Simultaneously measure the time of the experiment, water delivered (q) and water wasted (Qw)

8. Calculate the efficiency (n).

9. Repeat the experiment making certain to keep the volume of air in the accumulator, drive head, delivery head, length of drive pipe, and frequency the same while changing the diameter of the drive pipe.

TASK: Determine the effect of drive pipe diameter on efficiency

Experiment #

                   

h:H ratio

                   

H

                   

h

                   

Qw

                   

q

                   

Q

                   

f

                   

s

                   

w

                   

t

                   

n

                   

Notes

                   


Effect of the drive pipe diameter on efficiency

Exercise 7

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF THE SNIFTER ON EFFICIENCY

Variables: time of experiment, water wasted (Qw) water used (Q), water delivered (q), efficiency

Controlled Variables: Snifter open, snifter closed, one way snifter

Constants: drive head (H), delivery head (h), volume of air in the accumulator

Range: sucking air and spitting water

PROCEDURES:

1. Install a hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator with air.

6. Calculate the impulse valve frequency.

7. Simultaneously measure the time of the experiment, water delivered (q), and water wasted (Qw)

8. Calculate the efficiency.

9. Repeat the experiment making certain to keep the volume of air in the accumulator, drive head (H), delivery head (h), and frequency the same while changing the snifter from an open snifter, a one way snifter to no snifter at all.

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT SNIFTER HAS ON EFFICIENCY

Experiment #

                   

h:H ratio

                   

H

                   

h

                   

Qw

                   

q

                   

Q

                   

f

                   

s

                   

w

                   

t

                   

n

                   

Notes

                   

Exercise 8

TASK: DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF THE DRIVE MATERIAL ON EFFICIENCY

Variables: efficiency (n), water wasted ( Qw), water used (Q.), water delivered (q), time of the experiment

Controlled Variables: volume of air in the accumulator, delivery head (H), frequency (f)

Constants: frequency (f), drive head (h), delivery head (h), volume of air in the accumulator

Range: 5.1, 10:1, 15:1, 20:1 for both steel and plastic pipes.

PROCEDURE:

1. Install a hydram to a drive head.

2. Accurately measure the drive head.

3. Attach and set an adjustable pressure relief valve and a pressure gauge to the discharge.

4. Start the hydram.

5. Open the snifter in order to fill the accumulator with air and then close the snifter for the duration of the experiment.

6. Calculate the impulse valve frequency.

7. Simultaneously measure the time of the experiment, water delivered (q) and water wasted (Qw)

8. Calculate the efficiency (n).

9. Repeat the experiment making certain to keep the drive head frequency, volume of air in the accumulator, and drive pipe material the same until you have accurate efficiency calculations for h:H ratios of 5:1, 10:1, 15:1, 20:1.

10. Repeat the series of experiments after changing the drive pipe to a different material making certain that everything else stays the same.

TASK: Determine the effect of the drive pipe material on efficiency

Experiment #

                   

h:H ratio

                   

H

                   

h

                   

Qw

                   

q

                   

Q

                   

f

                   

s

                   

w

                   

t

                   

n

                   

Notes

                   


The effect of the drive pipe material on efficiency