Cover Image
close this book Renewable energy technologies
View the document Foreword
View the document Abstract
View the document Acknowledgments
View the document Abbreviations and acronyms
Open this folder and view contents 1. Overview
Open this folder and view contents Biomass Energy
Open this folder and view contents 3. Solar-thermal
Open this folder and view contents 4 Photovoltaics
View the document Bibliography
Open this folder and view contents Annexes

Renewable energy technologies

A Review of the Status and Costs of Selected Technologies

KuIsum Ahmed

with an overview by Dennis Anderson and Kulsum Ahmed



The World Bank

Washington, D.C.

Copyright © 1994

The International Bank for

Reconstruction and Development/


1818 H Street,

N.W. Washington, D.C.

20433, U.S.A.

All rights reserved

Manufactured in the United States of America

First priming January 1994

Technical Papers are published to communicate the results of the Bank's work to the development community with the least possible delay. The typescript of this paper therefore has not been prepared in accordance with the procedures appropriate to formal printed texts, and the World Bank accepts no responsibility for errors. Some sources cited in this paper may be informal documents that are not readily available.

The findings interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the author(s) and should not be attributed in any manner to the World Bank to its affiliated organizations or to members of its Board of Executive Directors or the countries they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication and accepts no responsibility whatsoever for any consequence of their use. The boundaries, colors, denominations, ant other information shown on any map in this volume do not imply on the part of the World Bank Group any judgment on the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.

The material in this publication is copyrighted. Requests for permission to reproduce portions of it should be sent to the Office of the Publisher at the address shown in the copyright notice above. The World Bank encourages dissemination of its work and will normally give permission promptly and, when the reproduction is for noncommercial purposes, without asking a fee Permission to copy portions for classroom use is granted through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., Suite 910, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, Massachusetts 01923, U.S.A.

The complete backlist of publications from the World Bank is shown in the annual Index of Publications, which contains an alphabetical title list (with full ordering information) and indexes of subjects, authors, and countries ant regions. The latest edition is available free of charge from the Distribution Unit, Office of the Publisher, The World Bank, 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C 20433, USA, or from Publications, The World Bank, 66, avenue d'Iéna, 75116 Paris, France

Cover photos (clockwise from top right-hand corner): (1) Central receiver tower and heliostat field at Solar One, a 10-MW solar-thermal plant in the Mojave Desert, California, now under conversion to Solar Two, a central receiver plant with storage capabilities. (2) Solar-thermal parabolic trough collectors at a Solar Electric Generating Systems (SEGS) plant in Kramer Junction , California. Nine SEGS plants, with a total capacity of 354 MW, are operating in Southern California (3) A prototype 75 kW solar-thermal parabolic dish-Stirling engine near Barstow, California (4) Photovoltaic arrays at the PVUSA site in Davis, California

Credits: Kulsum Ahmed (1,3, and 4); Said R Mikhail (2).

ISSN: 0253-7494

Kulsum Ahmed is a consultant with the Global Environmental Facility.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Ahmed, Kulsum, 1964

Renewable energy technologies : a review of the status and costs of selected Technologies / Kulsum Ahmed ; with an overview by Dennis Anderson and Kulsum Ahmed p. cm—(World Bank technical paper, ISSN 0253 7494; no. 240. Energy series)

Includes bibliographical references.

ISBN 0-8213-2744-5

1. Renewable energy sources - Costs.

I. Anderson, Dennis, 1942 -

II. Title.

III. Series World Bank technical paper: no. 240.

IV. Series: World Bank technical paper. Energy series.

TJ808.A44 1994

333.79'4-dc20 93-46726