Cover Image
close this book Developing the non-farm sector in Bangladesh
View the document Foreword
View the document Abstract
View the document Acknowledgements
View the document Summary
View the document Imperatives and models
View the document Macroeconomic trends in Bangladesh
Open this folder and view contents What drives growth?
Open this folder and view contents Pattern of development
View the document Choosing appropriate technologies
Open this folder and view contents Other lessons from comparative experience
Open this folder and view contents Rural industry in Bangladesh
Open this folder and view contents Rural industry and export-led growth
View the document Growth poles
View the document Concluding observations
View the document Tables and chards
View the document Bibliography

Tables and chards

 

Table 1

Sources of growth in gross domestic output in Bangladesh percent)

Contribution of

Growth of gross Year

Total domestic product

Domestic Agriculture

Resource Industry

Services Consumption

Investment

Balance

1970

6.2

2.9

0.1

3.2

8.7 -1.3

-1.1

1971

-3.9

-2.4

-3.0

1.4

-1.7 -3.9

1.7

1972

-11.1

-5.6

-6.0

0.5

-3.0 -7.1

-1.0

1973

-0.2

0.1

5.4

-5.7

-16.9 6.2

10.4

1974

13.4

3.9

4.5

5.0

23.7 -0.6

-3.7

1975

-1.3

-2.7

-1.0

2.4

-1.7 -1.2

1.6

1976

4.5

2.9

-0.6

2.2

6.4 0.5

-2.4

1977

1.0

-1.8

1.8

1.0

-6.4 1.9

5.6

1978

7.3

4.9

0.3

2.1

10.9 3.1

-6.6

1979

5.9

0.5

3.0

2.4

4.9 0.6

0.4

1980

1.4

0.4

-0.9

1.8

1.0 5.3

-4.9

1981

9.5

1.4

0.5

7.6

7.0 0.6

1.9

1982

3.8

2.9

0.2

0.7

3.5 -0.4

0.6

1983

4.6

1.9

0.2

2.5

7.1 -3.2

0.7

1984

4.8

2.2

1.5

1.0

5.2 0.6

-1.1

1985

3.9

0.4

0.4

3.0

6.1 1.4

-3.5

1986

4.4

1.4

0.4

2.6

2.1 -0.9

3.2

1987

4.1

0.2

1.2

2.8

4.0 1.2

-1.0

1988

2.8

-0.3

0.8

2.4

3.4 0.2

-0.7

1989

2.5

-0.4

0.7

2.2

3.6 -1.0

-0.1

1990

6.6

3.8

1.0

1.9

5.9 0.3

0.5

1991

3.4

0.6

0.7

2.1

2.2 -1.3

2.5

1992

4.2

0.8

1.1

2.2

2.1 0.8

1.3

1993

4.4

0.7

11.3

2.4

3.5 1.0

-0.1

1994

4.6

         

Source: World Bank date.


Chart 1 GDP growth in Bangladesh


Chart 2 Sources of Growth


Table 2 Annual growth of GDP in a sample of African and Asian countries (percent)

 

 

Table 3

Incremental capital output ratios for a sample of African and Asian countries

Country

1970-74

1975-79

1980-84

1985-89

Bangladesh

.

2 87

3 67

 

Ghana

4.00

9.34

-6.40

2 41

India

12.98

8.77

3.78

3.25

Indonesia

.

.

4 56

4 15

Korea, Republic of

1.97

2.41

3 02

2 79

Malaysia

2.47

2.77

5 09

4 08

Myanmar

3.97

1 94

3.19

-3.75

Pakistan

6.21

3.49

2 64

2 82

Philippines

2.74

3.58

3.35

 

Sri Lanka

3.11

2 77

4.10

8 43

Thailand

4.48

2.99

4.15

2 31

Zambia

14.80

5 64

   

Zimbabwe

4.46

-17.68

6 59

5.93

Note:1 ICOR -, = (Fixedlnv) (GDP, - GDP. - )

 

J. A

2 Data in constant 1987 pricer. Source: World Bank data.

Table 4

Estimates of total factor productivity growth in a sample of African and Asian countries, 1960-90 (percent)

Total factor productivity

Country

growth

Bangladesh

0.58

China

2.27

Ghana

-2.70

India

-0.36

Indonesia

0.12

Kenya

2.24

Korea, Republic of

0.55

Malawi

0.01

Myanmar

0.51

Pakistan

0.58

Philippines

0.02

Sri Lanka

0.74

Thailand

0 75

Zaire

-1.37

Zambia

-1.60

Source: Nehru and Dhareshwar(1994)

Table 5

Gross domestic savings in a sample of African and Asian countries (percentage of GDP)

Country

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1993

Bangladesh

7.2

0.9

2.1

2.0

2.9

7.5

Egypt, Arab Republic

9.4

12.3

15.2

14.5

6.8

6.0

Gambia, The

5.1

15.2

0.7

5.1

8.8

8.5

Ghana

12.8

13.7

4.9

7.6

6.0

-1.4

India

16.4

20.4

17.4

20.8

23.7

23.8

Indonesia

13.9

25.9

37.1

29.8

32.1

30.5

Kenya

23.6

13.5

18.1

24.9

19.1

21.1

Malawi

10.8

17.0

10.8

12.9

9.7

1.8

Myanmar

10.6

8.8

17.6

11.5

11.2

11.5

Nigeria

12.0

20.7

32.3

12.6

29.5

18.5

Pakistan

9.0

4.9

6.9

6.7

11.1

12.0

Philippines

21.9

24.8

24.2

17.4

18.4

15.6

Sri Lanka

15.8

8.1

11.2

11.7

14.1

15.8

Thailand

21.2

22.1

22.9

25.5

33.6

35.9

Togo

25.9

17.4

24.8

15.4

13.6

-2.3

Zaire

12.2

12.7

10.1

14.4

   

Zambia

45.1

21.2

19.3

15.4

17.8

14.2

Source: World Bank data.

Table 6

Gross domestic investment in a sample of African and Asian countries (percentage of GDP)

Country

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1993

Bangladesh

11.3

6.1

14.9

12.9

12.8

13.

Egypt, Arab Republic

13.9

33.4

27.5

26.7

21.9

17.0

Gambia, The

4.8

12.2

26.2

12.5

19.7

20.5

Ghana

14.2

12.7

5.6

9.6

14.5

14.8

India

17.1

20.8

20.9

23.9

26.6

24.1

Indonesia

15.8

23.7

24.3

28.0

30.1

28.3

Kenya

24.4

18.1

29.2

26.0

24.3

16.1

Malawi

25.7

33.7

24.7

18.6

19.7

12.3

Myanmar

14.2

10.0

21.5

15.5

13.4

12.1

Nigeria

14.8

25.2

22.2

9.0

14.6

15.1

Pakistan

15.8

16.2

18.5

18.3

1 8.9

20.7

Philippines

21.3

30.9

29.1

15.3

24.2

24.1

Sri Lanka

18.9

15.6

33.8

23.4

21.9

25.3

Thailand

25.6

26.7

29.1

28.2

41.1

40.0

Togo

15.1

27.7

30.1

24.1

25.4

6.0

Zaire

14.9

17.8

10.0

12.5

   

Zambia

28.2

40.9

23.3

14.9

17.3

15.3

Source: World Bank data.

Table 7

Direct foreign investment in a sample of African and Asian countries (percentage of GDP)

Country

1985

1990

1992

1993

Bangladosh

0.01

0.04

0.07

 

China

0.36

0.75

1.71

5.43

Egypt, Arab Republic of

0.61

0.39

1.01

1.15

Ghana

0.12

0.24

0.33

0.00

India

0.07

0.06

0.16

1.64

Indonesia

0.35

1.03

1.39

1.38

Korea, Republic of

0.21

-0.04

-0.16

-0.16

Malaysia

2.23

5.45

7.70

6.75

Pakistan

0.25

0.50

1.15

0.60

Philippines

0.04

1.20

0.43

1.41

Sri Lanka

0.41

0.52

1.23

1.79

Tanzania

0.00

0.00

0.47

0.84

Thailand

0.42

2.69

1.77

1.20

Zambia

2.29

6.17

0.00

0.09

Source: World Bank data.

Table 8

Aggregate net resource flows in a sample of African and Asian countries (current US dollars per capita)

Country

1980

1985

1990

1991

1992

Bangladesh

18.4

10.5

14.6

14.8

15.1

China

2.0

5.5

8.8

9.5

19.5

Egypt

79.0

95.9

99.9

76.4

54.5

Ghana

16.9

16.0

50.3

54.2

49.1

India

3.1

4.0

5.4

5.2

5.0

Indonesia

12.8

9.7

34.3

35.3

41.8

Korea, Republic of

64.0

73.0

30.2

115.1

135.1

Malaysia

149.1

54.8

112.2

224.0

284.7

Pakistan

15.2

6.9

12.9

14.0

16.2

Philippines

26.2

23.8

31.3

22.7

53.0

Sri Lanka

28.8

32.7

33.9

52.7

29.1

Tanzania

46.9

16.5

38.9

37.7

39.5

Thailand

44.7

35.6

86.6

91.3

66.1

Zaire

13.9

6.2

16.3

18.6

14.9

Zambia

92.7

61.2

119.5

69.3

76.1

Note: Aggregate net nesource flows are loan disbursoments minus principal nopaymonts plus FDI, portfolio equlty flows, and official grants. Technical co-op grants are not included. Official development finance, which includes ODA (official grants plus officlal concessional loans, both bila

teral and multilaterall plus nonconcessional loans, is thus a subset of aggregate net resource flows.

Source: World Bank data.

Table 9

Government current tax and nontax revenue for a sample of African and Asian countries (percentage of GDP at market prices)

Country

1980

1985

1990

1992

1993

Bangladesh

14.0

8.8

9.3

10.9

12.0

China

.

.

8.9

   

Egypt, Arab Republic of

44.1

40.0

29.8

41.3

 

Ghana

6.9

11.8

13.2

12.2

18.3

India

12.0

13.8

13.5

14.5

14.3

Indonesia

21.3

21.0

20.2

19.5

18.6

Korea, Republic of

17.4

16.7

17.5

17.8

18.8

Malaysia

26.3

30.0

27.1

28.6

27.3

Pakistan

17.0

16.7

20.0

18.5

18.9

Philippines

14.1

12.1

76.4

17.8

17.6

Sri Lanka

24.1

23.9

22.8

21.8

21.0

Tanzania

20.3

16.7

     

Thailand

14.6

15.8

18.8

17.7

18.1

Zambia

25.8

22.1

     

Source: World Bank data.

 

Table 10

Illiteracy rates for a sample of African and Asian countries (percentage of population above age 15)

Male and female

Female

1980

1981

1985

1990

1985

1990

Bangladesh

70.8

67.8

64.7

81.0

78.0

China

34.5

31.8

26.7

44.7

38.2

Ghana

47.2

39.7

57.8

49.0

 

India

59.2

55.9

51.8

70.9

66.3

Indonesia

32.7

28.2

23.0

36.5

32.0

Kenya

52.9

35.0

31.0

46.8

41.5

Korea, Republic of

5.3

3.7

8.9

6.5

 

Malawi

58.8

69.2

     

Malaysia

26.0

21.6

35.0

29.6

 

Myanmar

22.0

19.4

31.4

27.7

 

Pakistan

73.8

69.0

65.2

82.3

78.9

Philippines

16.7

12.3

10.3

12.7

10.5

Sri Lanka

13.2

13.3

11.6

19.1

16.5

Thailand

12.0

9.3

7.0

13.3

10.1

Zaire

34.1

28.2

46.8

39.3

 

Zambia

47.5

32.6

27.2

41.3

34.7

Source: World Bank data.

 

Table 11

Gross primary school enrollment ratios in a sample of African and Asian countries

(percentage of school age population)

 

1980

1985

1991

1992

Country

Total

Female

Total

Female

Total

Female

Total

Female

Bangladesh

62

46

60

50

       

China

112

103

124

114

123

118

121

116

Egypt, Arab Republic

78

65

91

82

101

93

   

Ghana

80

71

76

74

67

     

India

83

67

96

80

100

86

102

90

Indonesia

107

100

117

114

115

113

   

Kenya

115

110

98

95

       

Korea, Republic of

110

111

97

98

107

109

105

106

Malawi

60

48

59

51

       

Malaysia

93

92

101

100

93

93

93

94

Myanmar

91

89

98

96

       

Pakistan

39

27

45

31

       

Philippines

113

113

106

107

110

109

   

Sri Lanka

103

100

103

101

108

106

107

105

Tanzania

93

86

72

71

69

68

68

67

Thailand

99

97

96

97

       

Zaire

95

80

89

71

72

62

70

60

Zambia

90

82

99

93

97

92

   

Source: World Bank data.

Table 12

Gross secondary school enrollment ratios (percentage of school age population)

 

1980

 

1985

 

1990

 

Country

Total

Female

Total

Female

Total

Female

Bangladesh

18

9

18

10

19

12

China

46

37

39

32

48

42

Egypt, Arab Republic

54

41

66

54

81

73

Ghana

41

31

40

38

29

 

India

32

22

38

26

44

32

Indonesia

29

23

41

     

Kenya

20

16

21

16

29

25

Korea, Republic of

76

71

90

88

88

87

Malawi

3

2

4

2

4

3

Malaysia

48

46

53

53

56

58

Myanmar

22

23

       

Pakistan

14

8

18

10

21

13

Philippines

65

69

64

66

73

 

Sri Lanka

55

57

63

66

74

77

Tanzania

3

2

3

2

5

4

Thailand

29

28

30

33

32

 

Zaire

24

13

23

14

   

Zambia

16

11

18

13

   

 

Source: World Bank data.

Table 13A

Access to health care in a sample of African and Asian countries (percentage of total population)

Country

1981

1985

1988

1991

Bangladesh

80

45

38

74

China

       

Ghana

64

65

76

 

India

50

75

100

100

Indonesia

43

     

Kenya

       

Korea, Republic of

80

100

100

 

Malawi

40

54

80

 

Malaysia

88

     

Myanmar

30

48

   

Pakistan

65

64

85

85

Philippines

       

Sri Lanka

90

90

   

Thailand

30

93

59

 

Zaire

80

33

59

 

Zambia

70

75

   

 

Note: Access is defined as the percentage of the population that can reach the local health

services by usual means of transportation in no more than one hour.

Source: World Bank data.

Table 13B: Expenditure on health ( % of GNP)

Country

1983

1985

1988

1991

1993

Bangladesh

0.4

1.6

1.1

0.9

1.1

China

3.2

3.1

     

Ghana

1

1.4

1.2

   

Indonesia

3

2.5

3.7

   

India

1.2

4.1

3.2

3.2

 

Kenya

2

2.1

2.1

5.2

5

Korea, Republic of

3

6.4

6.4

5.1

 

Sri Lanka

4.4

1.7

2.1

2.3

1.9

Myanmar

0.9

1.1

1.1

0.8

0.9

Malawi

3

3

12.5

6.4

 

Malaysia

1.6

1.6

1.6

1.7

 

Pakistan

3.2

4.5

     

Philippines

2.8

2.4

5.3

1.6

 

Thailand

1.1

5.1

5.6

6.3

 

Zambia

4.3

8.3

2.5

   

Source: World Bank data.

Table 14

Population per physician in a sample of African and Asian countries

Country

1980

1981

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

Bangladesh

8,572

6,595

6,996

5,757

5,543

         

China

1,100

1,003

1,007

1,011

1,012

         

Ghana

15,162

20,682

23,178

             

India

2,700

3,704

2,515

2,446

           

Indonesia

12,637

9,500

7,033

             

Kenya

10,071

6,512

9,851

             

Korea, Republic of

1,690

1,388

1,156

1,141

1,067

1,007

       

Malawi

54,089

11,453

50,360

             

Malaysia

3,917

3,921

3,158

2,960

2,829

2,675

2,609

2,502

   

Myanmar

4,952

3,743

12,897

             

Pakistan

3,615

2,999

2,950

2,978

           

Philippines

7,847

6,711

6,559

6,562

8,037

         

Sri Lanka

7,211

7,512

5,613

7,366

           

Thailand

6,803

6,648

6,216

6,199

5,872

5,457

5,482

4,743

4,272

4,411

Zaire

13,553

                 

Zambia

13,221

7,940

7,259

7,269

11,431

         

Note: Physicians include the total number of rogistered medical practitioners in the country.

Source: World Bank data.

Table 15

Growth rates of output and gross value added in agriculture in selected Asian countries (percent per year)

Total

Gross

Value

 

Country

Period

Output

Added

India

1951-61

3.9

3.8

 

1961-71

2.8

2.5

 

1971-81

2.3

2.0

 

1951-81

2.9

2.7

Indonesia

1951 -66

2.7

2.6

 

1966-80

3.8

3.2

 

1951-80

3.2

2.9

Japan

1945-53

2.8

1.2

 

1953-68

3.9

2.9

 

1968-80

0.3

-1.2

 

1945-80

2.4

1.1

Korea, Republic of

1946-52

0.9

0.7

 

1952-54

10.3

10.3

 

1954-65

4.0

3.9

 

1965-78

4.9

4.2

 

1978-80

-2.0

-4.1

 

1946-80

3.8

3.3

Malaysia

1961 -65

4.9

 
 

1966-70

8.0

 
 

1971-75

5.7

 
 

1976-80

6.0

 
 

1960-80

6.1

 

Pakistan

1950-55

1.8

1.6

 

1955-60

2.4

2.3

 

1960-65

3.8

3.5

 

1965-70

5.2

5.5

 

1970-78

2.7

2.5

 

1978-83

4.0

3.5

 

1950-83

33

3.1

Philippines

1950-60

5.0

4.9

 

1960-70

3.2

3.0

 

1970-80

6.3

6.1

 

1950-80

4.9

4 7

Taiwan (China)

1951-66

4.8

4.4

 

1966-75

3.4

1.6

 

1975-81

3.4

2.5

 

1951-81

4.1

3.2

Thailand

1951-61

7.4

7.9

 

1967-71

4.5

4.2

 

1971-81

5.4

5.7

 

1951-81

5.8

5.9

 

Source: Sidhu and Sidhu (1994).

Table 16

Growth rates in land productivity in selected Asian countries (percent)

Total

Output

Growth

rates

in input

use

per ha

Total capital

Period

output

per ha

Fert.

Chem.

Total

current

 

India

1951-81

3.9

2.1

17.6

52.0

   
 

1961-71

2.8

1.9

22.7

11.1

   
 

1971-81

2.3

2.3

9.8

3.4

   
 

1951-81

2.9

2.0

16.5

17.9

   

Indonesia

1951-66

2.7

1.6

7.2

11.0

6.0

1.4

 

1966-80

3.8

2.7

16.7

21.9

16.1

3.0

 

1951-80

3.2

2.2

11.7

16.2

10.8

2.2

Japan

1945-53

2.8

2.7

18.6

36.2

17.2

1.3

 

1953-68

3.9

3.9

5.5

17.9

7.6

3.1

 

1968-80

0.3

1.0

-1.3

8.1

3.9

3.7

 

1945-80

2.4

2.6

6.0

18.2

8.4

2.9

Korea, Republic of

1946-52

0.9

0.9

13.2

-7.1

6.9

 
 

1952-54

10.3

9.7

18.6

64.9

11.8

 
 

1954-65

4.0

2.8

6.3

25.2

4.8

 
 

1965-78

4.9

4.9

5.7

24.7

12.7

 
 

1978-80

-2.0

-1.4

1.3

19.7

12.9

 
 

1946-80

3.8

3.4

7.6

20.2

9.0

 

Pakistan

1950-55

1.8

1.1

54.3

2.0

   
 

1955-60

2.4

1.1

20.8

1.4

   
 

1960-65

3.8

1.6

22.8

1.6

   
 

1965-70

5.2

4.3

29.1

3.1

   
 

1970-78

2.7

2.2

12.8

3.1

   
 

1978-83

4.0

3.5

9.8

3.1

   
 

1950-83

3.3

2.3

23.1

2.5

   

Philippines

1950-60

5.0

1.7

10.0

11.0

1.7

 
 

1960-70

3.2

1.8

8.2

9.3

1.9

 
 

1970-80

6.3

4.8

6.8

8.3

1.3

 
 

1950-80

4.9

2.9

8.3

9.5

1.7

 

Taiwan (China)

1951-66

4.8

4.7

5 8

23.8

7.4

 
 

1966-75

3.4

3.1

3.7

14.0

12.8

 
 

1975-81

3.4

3.8

2.0

5.1

7.6

 
 

1951-81

4.1

4.0

4.4

16.9

9.1

 

Thailand

1951-61

7.4

5.1

0.2

0.2

   
 

1967-71

4.5

-0.3

3.2

-2.1

   
 

1971-81

5.4

2.8

0.4

-0.7

   
 

1951 -81

5.8

2.5

1.1

-0.8

   

 

Source: Sidhu and Sidbu 119941.

Table 17

Growth rates in labor productivity on the basis of total output in selected Asian countries (percent)

Labor

 

Land Cultivated land

Fixed capital

 

Period

productivity

productivity

per worker

per worker

India

1951-61

1.8

2.6

-0.8

-0.4

 

1961-71

1.1

2.4

-1.3

0.5

 

1971-81

0.9

2.0

-1.1

2.4

 

1951-81

1.1

2.2

-1.1

1.6

Indonesia

1951-66

1.0

1.6

-0.6

0.8

 

1966-80

2.4

2.6

-0.2

2.8

 

1951-80

1.7

2.1

-0.5

1.8

Japan

1945-53

1.3

2.7

-1.3

0.0

 

1953-68

6.7

3.9

2.7

5.8

 

1968-80

4.1

1.0

3.1

7.0

 

1945-80

4.6

2.6

1.9

4.8

Korea, Republic of

1946-52

1.8

0.9

0.8

1.4

 

1952-54

6.8

9.7

-2.6

3.8

 

1954-65

0.8

2.8

-1.9

-2.2

 

11965-78

8.0

4.9

2.9

6.0

 

1978-80

-1.5

-1.9

0.0

-2.2

 

1946-80

3.9

3.4

0.5

1.9

Pakistan

1950-55

0.0

1.1

-9.3

 
 

1955-60

0.5

1.1

-0.6

3.3

 

1960-65

1.8

1.6

0.2

0.4

 

1965-70

3.1

4.3

-1.1

0.5

 

1970-78

0.8

2.2

-1.3

1.5

 

1978-83

2.1

3.5

-1.4

1.9

 

1950-83

1.3

2.3

-0.9

1.2

Philippines

1950-60

2.0

1.7

0.3

2.0

 

1960-70

1.9

1.8

0.1

2.0

 

1970-80

2.2

4.8

-2.6

-1.3

 

1950-80

2.0

2.9

-0.8

0.9

Taiwan (China)

1951-66

4.4

4.7

-0.2

2.0

 

1966-75

4.2

3.1

1.0

4.5

 

1975-81

8.2

3.8

4.1

10.7

 

1951-81

5.1

4.0

1.1

4.6

Thailand

1951-61

4.9

5.1

-0.2

0.0

 

1967-71

2.6

-0.3

2.9

0.5

 

1971-81

3.5

2.8

0.7

0.0

 

1951-81

3.7

2.5

1.1

0.2

Source: Same as in Table 15.

Table 18

Growth rates of inputs used in agriculture in selected Asian countries, 1950-80 (percent)

Total

No. of non-farm

Cultivated

Cropped

agricultural

Agr.

Current

       

Country

area

area

workers

Man-days

Machinery

Fertilizers

chemicals

inputs

India

0.6

1.0

1.7

2.6

16.6

17.9

16.9

 

Indonesia

1.0

1.7

1.5

2.0

15.7

12.9

17.3

11.9

Japan

-0.2

-0.7

-0.2

-3.1

9.3

6.0

17.1

8.2

Korea, republic of

0.4

0.0

-0.1

11.0

8.0

20.6

9.4

 

Pakistan 0.9

1.4

1.9

3 4.

24.0

       

Philippines 2.0

2.8

2.8

2.8

6.4

10.3

10.3

11.5

 

Taiwan (China) 0.1

-0.2

-1.0

-0.9

8.1

4.5

17.0

9.2

 

Thailand 3.1

3.4

2.1

3.0

2.3b

4.4

     

a. Capital Stock.

b. Fixed Capital.

Source: Sidhu and Sidhu (1994).

Table 19

Average yield, fertilizer consumption and irrigation intensity for selected Asian countries

Fertilizer consumption b

Average yield of cereals.

(hundred gm per ha of

Irrigated land° (percentage

(kg per ha)

 

arable land)

 

of crop land)

   

Country

1980-82

1990-92

1979-80

1991-92

1979-81

1989-91

Bangladesh

1,978

2,572

445

1,098

17

31

China

3,160

4,329

1,273

3,043

45

49

India

1,363

1,935

313

752

23

27

Indonesia

3,061

3,857

440

1,093

28

37

Korea, Republic of

4,881

5,808

3,857

4,517

60

64

Malaysia

2,815

2,815

912

1,977

7

7

Myanmar

2,782

2,726

93

69

10

10

Nepal

1,585

1,854

90

272

22

38

Pakistan

1,647

1,828

488

889

73

80

Philippines

1,693

2,031

444

548

16

20

Sri Lanka

2,595

2,880

776

931

28

27

Thailand

1,936

2,052

160

365

16

19

Asia

2,179

2,854

29

33

   

World

2,260

2,757

791

933

15

17

Source: a and c, World Resources (1994-95); b, World Bank data.

Table 20

Area under high-yielding varieties (HYV) for some Asian countries (million hectares)

Total cropped

Cropped area

 

Area

 

under HYV

 

Country

Year

area

under HYV

(percent)

Bangladesh

80

10.8

2.6

24.5

 

85

10.9

3.4

31.5

 

87

10.9

3.9

35.5

 

90

11.0

5.2

47.0

India

80

44.9

   
 

85

57.3

   
 

87

58.7

   
 

90

68.7

   

Indonesia°

80

9.0

5.4

60.0

 

85

9.9

7.6

77.0

 

87

9.9

7.4

75.0

Myanmar°

80

4.8

2.0

41.0

 

85

4.7

2.2

48.0

 

87

4.5

2.3

52.0

Pakistan°

80

8.9

6.6

77.5

 

85

10.1

7.8

80.3

 

87

9.3

7.8

88.6

 

90

10.0

8.2

87.0

Philipinnes°

80

3.5

2.6

74.0

 

85

3.4

3.0

87.0

 

87

3.3

2.8

85.0

Sri Lanka°

80

0.8

0.6

71.0

 

85

0.9

0.8

91.0

 

87

0.7

0.6

91.0

Thailand°

80

9.2

1.1

12.0

 

85

9.8

   
 

87

9.1

1.4

15.0

a. Average for rice and wheat.

b. Average for rice, wheat, and maize.

c. Rice only.

Source: World rice statistics, 1990; CIMMYT report; Agricultural statistics yearbooks of India and Pakistan.

Table 21

Annual recurrent expenditure on agricultural extension in some Asian countries, 1987 (million 1980 US dollars)

Total

Arable land

Expenditure per ha

Expenditure per person in

Country

expenditure

(thousand ha)

of arable land

agriculture

Bangladesh

21.4

8895

2.41

0.99

China

470.7

94485

4.98

1.05

India

96

165350

0.58

0.47

Indonesia

5.744

15800

0.36

0.17

Korea, Republic of

61.4

2300

26.70

12.62

Malaysia

19.4

1040

18.65

8.56

Nepal

5.412

2292

2.36

0.82

Pakistan

16.83

20269

0.83

1.05

Philippines

19.57

4530

4.32

1.94

Sri Lanka

3.613

912

3.96

1.14

Thailand

154.43

17693

8.73

8.39

 

Source: FAO (1991).

Table 22

Structure of rural nonfarm activities in Bangladesh, 1990 (percent)

Rural employment as percentage of total

BSIC code

Persons engaged

Value added employment

93 - Social and community services

39.4

27.6

87.8

62 - Retail trade

27.2

45.4

61.4

95 - Personal, household services

7.7

4.7

56.5

63- Restaurants and hotels

6.2

3.4

57.3

33 - Wood and wood products, fum

5.2

2.1

79.9

31 - Food beverages and tobacco

5.1

2.9

77.3

32 - Textiles apparel and leather

2.7

0.9

69.9

36 - Non-metallic mineral products

2.0

0.5

90.5

61 - Wholesale trade

1.9

10.7

37.8

38 - Metal products, machinery

0.9

0.5

46.0

39 - Other manufacturing industries

0.6

0.4

44.2

94- Recreation, cultural services

0.5

0.5

49.5

84 - Business services

0.2

0.3

28.4

Otters°

0.2

0.1

10.9

Total

100.0

100.0

69.2

 

a. includes: 84 - Business services;34 Paper printing and publication; 71 - Transport and

storage; 37 - Basic metal industries; and 92 - sanitary and similar cervices.

Source: BBS survey of nonfarm activities 1990 and Handloom census 1990.

Table 23

Structure of rural manufacturing in Bangladesh, 1990

Percentage

Value added

Percentage of total engaged in

Percentage of total value added in rural

engaged in rural to total added in

Percentage value

Rural to

Persons engaged (thousand take)

rural

manuf.

manuf.

Bangladesh

total

Bangladesh

321-322 - Textiles (incl. handlooms

1,079,534

10,461,848

71.9

65.3

96.0

94.4

311-312 Food manufacturing

152,320

2,458,918

10.1

15.4

77,5

62.5

331 - Wood products excl. furnitur

127,564

1,248,897

8.5

7.8

90,7

79.3

361 - Pottery, china, earthenware

54,458

398,829

3.6

2.5

90.8

90.9

332 - Furnitures, fixtures exe.

29,548

534,326

2.0

3.3

52.9

41.5

381-382 - Metal prods. Exclamations

24,289

339,288

1.6

2.1

48.3

34.2

392-394 - Other mfg. industries

12,703

303,274

0.8

1.9

37.4

40.3

369 - Other nonmetal minerals

5,976

37,325

0.4

0.2

85.9

65.9

391 - Decorative handicrafts

5,385

45,958

0.4

0.3

77.2

70.9

385 - Transport equipment

2,187

64,705

0.1

0.4

53.8

50.2

383 - Non-electrical machinery

2,079

34,331

0.1

0.2

34.9

20.7

342 - Printing and publishing

1,631

34,298

0.1

0.2

12.0

10.9

314 - Tobacco manufacturing

1,172

5,397

0.1

0.0

53.0

26.0

Others

2,857

47,760

0.2

0.3

10.1

8.2

Total

1,501,703

16,015,154

100.0

100.0

86.5

74.4

Source: BBs survey of confarm activities 1990, and Handloom consus 1990.

Table 24

Growth of rural manufacturing in Bangladesh, 1980-89

1980

1989

Annual growth rate

Value added

Value added

Employment current Taka)

(millions of added

Employment current Taka)

(millions of

Employment (%)

Value

(real; %)

 

31 - Food beverages and tobacco

357,381

738.49

471,036

1892.68

3.12

3.72

 

32 - Textiles apparel and leather

1,104,657

4740.25

1,369,022

10839.20

2.41

2.41

 

33 - Wood and wood products, turn.

183,023

159.76

278,872

893

48

4.79

13.11

34 - Paper printing and publication

2,292

15.47

5,363

56.83

9.90

7.95

 

35 - Chemicals,rubber and plastics

2,182

16.52

7,493

90.13

14.69

12.81

 

36 - Non-metallic mineral products

83,886

182.86

84,903

577.80

0.13

6.16

 

37 - Basic metal industries

5,837

1.26

5,967

10.00

0.25

17.62

 

38 - Metal products, Machinery

32,495

69.07

71,517

732.72

9.16

21.45

 

39 - Other manufacturing industries

38,051

35.86

41,743

374.80

1.03

21.25

 

Total

1,884,033

5523.63

2,493,121

16304.37

3.16

5.36

 

Note:

1. Basic data are from BSCIC surveys of cottage (1980-82 and 1987-91) and small 11978 and 1987-91) industries.

2. For calculation of growth rates, the cottage industries data for 80-82 are treated as though for 1980 and 1987-91

data are treated as though for 1989 (the Survey started in Dec. 1987 and ended in June 1991).

3. The data for small industries have been extrapolated to 1980 from 1978 using the growth rates of value added and employment over 1978-89.

4. For obtaining rural levels, rural/total ratios of employment and value added for each subsector were taken from the BBS survey of nonfarm activities 1990, and the assumption made that rural-urban distribution has not changed over the period.

5. The handloom data are from Handloom Censuses 1978 and 1990 and is included in 32-Textiles, apparel, and leather.

1978 data have been extrapolated to 1980 using the 1978-90 growth rates.1980 figures have been adjusted or non - inclusion of Chittagong Hill Tract region, by using the same rate of growth as for

handlooms in rest of the country.

Table 25

Employment in major rural industries in Bangladesh

 

1980

1989

Total annual

Industry

Small

Cottage

Total

Small

Cottage

Total

growth (%)

Rice mills/husking

155,578

43,672

199,250

173,193

87,987

261,180

3.05

Oil mills /ghani

11,403

21,130

32,533

16,116

42,998

59,114

6.86

Sweet meat and dairy products

28,144

28,144

1,560

34,331

35,891

2.74

 

Biscuit and bakery

23,307

12,063

35,370

31,083

10,570

41,653

1.83

Flour mills

21,251

2,312

23,563

22,512

2,462

24,974

0.65

Gur making

 

31,443

31,443

33,856

33,856

0.82

 

Grain mills (incl. dal)

1,615

6,489

8,104

1,068

11,449

12,517

4.95

Salt producing

 

1,592

1,592

35,941

35,941

41.39

 

Hosiery and other knitted fabrics

10,285

3,999

14,284

28,010

3,632

31,642

9.24

Mats and reeds

 

40,460

40,460

47,652

47,652

1.83

 

Tailoring

 

98,465

96,465

152,364

152,364

5 21

 

Fish net

 

58,211

58,211

39,137

39,137

-4.32

 

Readymade garments

687

6,375

7,062

39,030

16,246

55,276

25.69

Saw mills

9,148

6,706

15,854

12,460

5,418

17,878

1.34

Wood products

334

32,397

32,731

53,228

53,228

5.55

 

Wooden furniture

3,119

26,905

30,024

5,860

30,936

36,796

2.29

Bamboo and cane products

125,960

125,960

179,293

179,293

4.00

   

Bamboo and cane furniture

197

4,132

4,329

9,464

9,464

9.08

 

Pottery

 

76,007

76,007

63,398

63,398

-2.00

 

Bricks, structural clay products

7,110

3,796

10,906

6,840

7,382

14,222

2.99

Hand/edge tools

 

23,609

23,609

31,323

31,323

3.19

 

Agricultural machinery

119

2,101

2,220

1,242

10,294

11,536

20.09

Jewelry of precious metals

1,760

26,600

28,360

7,187

48,912

56,099

7.87

 

Note: The industries are predominantly rural in nature, though the data include both rural and urban areas.

Basic data is from BSCIC surveys of cottage (1980-82 anal 987-911 and small (1978 and 1987-91) industries.

For calculation of growth rates, the cottage industries data for 1980-82 are treated as though for 1980 and 1987-91 data are treated as though for 1989 (the Survey started in Dec. 1987 and ended in June 19911.

The data for small industries have been extrapolated to 1980 from 1978 using the growth rates of value added and employment over 1978-89.

Table 26

Impact of infrastructure on agricultural productivity (Observations = 19)

Banks

Primary education

Secondary education constant

Rural Electrification KW

Irrigation

Road Density

Advances (students)

Density of students

Density of ( per schools)

Villages ( per consumed)

Total take (per)

Total kms. Per schools

Paved (per hens. Per persons

Density per electrified parson) cultivated

Population (sq.km.)

per 1000 sq. km.

(person irrigated/ sq. km)

Total sq. per sq. served (%) km

1. Individual regressions

1.1

25,882.2

74.2

2.594.3

340.3

17,918.9

9.8

58.2

48.6

43.3

10,131.8

33,155.8

 

(2.92)

(3.05)

(0.7)

(0.83)

(1.16)

(1.74)

(0.58)

(1.78)

(2.13)

   
 

(4.67)

(1.29)

(3.98)

               

 

2. Multiple regressions

15,883.0

-8,867.8

74.0

33.7

8,412.6

4,116.5

(1.45)

(- 91)

(0.42)

(3.41)

(0.63)

(6.39)

19,112.8

-7,644.9

126.4

36.3

4,284.8

 

(2.02)

(-.82)

(.84)

(4.15)

17.47)

 

13,894.2

151.9

34.9

3,944.6

   

(1.99)

(1.04)

(4.11)

('0.01)

   

-3.310.0

30.8

21,704.8

3,698.9

   

(-.39)

(3.13)

(2.28)

(6.4)

   

30.6

19,730.0

3,598.7

     

(3.2)

(2.5)

(7 1)

     

10,914.4

32.1

10,038.6

3,758.9

   

(1.17)

(3.36)

(.9)

(7.2)

   

Note: Unit of observation is a region or the erstwhile greater district.

The independent variable is aveargo annual productivity in eighties.

All variables are for 1991-92 except roads which are for 1992 and total cultivated area for irrigation, which is for 1983-84.

Person refers to rural person in all variables.

t-statistics are in parantheaes.

Only roads in good/average condition are included. Rural roads exduded.

Source:World Bank data and Bangladesh statistical yearbook,

Table 27

Impact of infrastructure on output (Observations = 1 9)

Secondary

Banks

Primary education

Education

Rural Electrification

Irrigation

Road

Density of Advances per person in take)

Density of Density sq.km.)

Density schools (per person)

Constant students (per km)

KW schools (per sq. person)

Total villages (per km)

Paved consumed per sq.

Total

kms. electrified Population

kms. per 1000

irrigated/Total

per sq.

per sq.

(%)

served (%)

persons

cultivated

km.

km.

               

1. Individual regressions

0.0081

125.2

0.6

25.5

2.22

106.8

.029

.051 0.65

72.2

95.9

       

(2.3)

(11.8)

(2.04)

(3.39)

(2.93)

(4.84)

(0.58)

(0.48) (.98)

(4.03)

(3.62)

       

2. Multiple Regressions

4.5

35.8

-4.6

                     

(2.7)

(1.74)

(-1.8)

                     

80.1

46.1

-2.74

                     

(3.1)

(1.7)

(-1.5)

                     

-0.8

119.8

-0.5

                     

(-1.19)

(3.64)

(-.25)

                     

-0.18

130.7

-0.24

                     

(-1.98)

(4,3)

(-.14)

                     

Note: Unrt of observation is a region or the erstwhile greater district.

All variables are for 1991-92 except roads, which are for 1992 and total cultivated area for irrigation intensity, which is 1983-84.

'Person' refers to rural person in all variables.

Only roads in good/average condition are included. Rural roads are excluded.

Independent variable is gross regional output for greater districts.

t-statistics are in brackets.

Source: World Bank data and Bangladesh statistical yearbook.

Table 28

Growth of TFP for Selected Developing Countries in Asia and Latin America

 

1970-80

1980-90

Asia

   

Korea

0.8

2.8

Taiwan

5.1

3.9

Singapore

0.7

1.6

Thailand

1.2

2.6

Malaysia

2.5

0.7

Indonesia

3.1

-0.1

Philippines

0.8

-2.2

India

-0.9

2.1

China

1 .1

2.8

Latin America

Chile

0.5

-0.1

Argentina

0.1

-1.6

Mexico

1.1

-2.1

Brazil

0.4

-1.9

Colombia

0.8

0.4

Peru

0.3

-3

Venezuela

-2.4

-0.6

Source: Computed by Hiroki Kawai of Japan Center for Economic Research, see Urata (1994, Table 1).

Table 29

Growth Poles: selected indicators across districts

Paved road

No. of bank density

Students in rural

District

(km/sq. km)

Agri. growth rate 1986-91.

branches per sq. km

primary schools per 100 rural pop.

Dhaka

0.12

1.30

0.12

15.57

Mymensingh

0.06

0.28

0.03

10.24

Jamalpur

0.06

0.16

0.03

9.70

Tangail

0.07

0.38

0.04

11.84

Faridpur

0.07

0.90

0.04

11.81

Chittagong

0.08

-0.07

0.08

13.90

Chittagong hill tract

1.21

     

Noakhali

0.08

0.77

0.04

13.06

Comilla

0.09

1.32

0.06

12.29

Sylhet

0.06

1.45

0.04

12.00

Rajshahi

0.09

2.86

0.04

11.46

Dinajpur

0.09

2.39

0.03

11.45

Rangpur

0.07

-0.09

0.03

9.89

Bogra

0.08

2.37

0.05

10.97

Pabna

0.08

1.56

0.05

13.00

Khulna

0.05

1.68

0.02

11.79

Barisal

0.05

0.71

0.03

18.12

Patuakhali

0.02

0.33

0.02

8.41

Jessore

0.08

3.08

0.04

13.36

Kushtia

0.09

2.18

0.05

13.10

a. Trend growth rate.

Source: World Bank data and Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh.

Table 30

Annual farm family income, agricultural and nonagricultural

Ratio of Nonagricultural

Income to Agricultural

Country

(percent)

China (1985)

32.7

South Korea (1985)

55.1

Japan 11984)

403.4

Malaysia (1979)

39.2

Thailand (1978-79)

61.2

 

Source: National yearbooks (various years); Osman and Rahman (1981);

World Bank.

Table 31

Ratio of vegetable, fruit, and tree crops, to cereal and root crops (percent)

Country

1969-71

1984-86

Japan

84.2

96.8

South Korea

43.4

104.8

Taiwan

 

42.4

Malaysia

57.9

62.5

Indonesia

15.4

16.4

Philippines

37.5

46.5

Thailand

20.8

20.7

Bangladesh

16.4

10.7

Burma

33

23.3

India

44.7

45.5

Nepal

8.7

11.7

Pakistan

32.5

31

Sri Lanka

34.5

55.2

 

Source: Sidhu and Sidbu (19941.