| Forestry training manual for the Africa region |
Total time 2 hours
- To instruct the trainees in procedures for presenting lesson,
- For the trainees to practice setting up simple lesson plans to demonstrate to the group,
- To discuss a method for making and presenting a slide show.
During this session, the trainees present special projects on lesson plans and slide presentations. This is a fun time and the trainees enjoy making up lesson plans. A short slide show is also presented (if slides are available).
1. How to Make a Lesson Plan
2. How to Make a Slide Show
Flip chart, marker pens, tape, crayons, old magazines, scissors, paste, material scraps and slide projector.
Exercise 1 How to Make a Lesson Plan
Total time 1 hour 30 minutes
In this exercise the trainee for whom lesson plans has been a special project gives a lecture on preparing lesson plans by demonstrating one he/she has made using "Teaching Conservation in Developing Nations" as a guide. The trainees then design a simple lesson plan and give a one minute demonstration on lesson plans either by actually presenting a lesson or describing a lesson plan they have developed.
1. The trainee responsible for lesson plans as a special project gives lecture covering:
A. Stated objectives
B. Present information
(Samples of trainees' lectures follows)
2. The trainer now assigns (or can have the trainee assign) everyone to give a one minute lesson to the group. They have 30 minutes to do an outline and prepare a lesson plan.
3. The trainees give either a short lesson or have option of describing a lesson plan they might use in the field. List of lessons given are included for reference.
List of Lessons
- Proper way to use a knife
- How to tie a figure 8 knot
- Teaching children to draw leaves
- Proper way to mulch
- Proper way to prepare an environmental collection
- Proper way to do a drum roll
- How soil erosion works
- The flower cycle
- The five senses in the environment
- Proper way to cut a tree
I. MOTIVATION FOR LEARNING
A. Why do the people you are instructing want to learn?
B. Address the reasons that make them willing to learn.
C. Adults are motivated to learn necessary things (Adults Learning Theory).
A. The kind of audience you are instructing dictates the manner in which you present the material (i.e., children, adults). Keep in mind the degree of literacy of your children.
A. Incorporate and encourage discussion before, during and after your presentation. The discussion may be formal or spontaneous.
A. State objectives. What?
1. Be specific - identify the needs of those you are teaching.
- attitude - change needs
- knowledge needs
- skill needs .
2. Identify objectives to your audience
3. Stick to your stated objectives
a) Presentation strategy - How?
b) Information selection - content of presentation?
(1) Refer to objectives - stated objectives are the basis for selection your strategy.
(2) Objectives may relate to one or more than one presentation (some may require more re-enforcement).
c) Organization of information sequence of content?
d) Evaluation - before, during and after.
INNOVATIVE WAYS OF LEARNING
I. PRESENTATION STRATEGY - How am I going to do this?
A. What are your objectives?
B. When is the best time to make your presentation?
C. Should it be in one, two or more parts (attitude changes are slow and need reinforcement; certain skills take practice)?
D. How are skill/information/attitudes transferred in your villages?
E. What does the audience already know (feel) about the subject; little to no knowledge... hands on presentation; moderate knowledge of subject...more technical?
F. Logistics - are materials available, does everyone know when and where the presentation is, have you reconfirmed guest speaker?
II. ORGANIZATION OF INFORMATION (S-E-Q-U-E-N-C-E)
A. What are the key points?
B. Is information relevant to your stated objectives?
Now prepare a content outline.
1. Is it logical? - sequencial?
2. Do you have all the points you want to cover?...or too many?
3. Decide which points should be visual and which can be verbal.
III. EVALUATION - before, during and after
A. Idea - is useful, valid - what new behavior is desired of the audience?
B. Receiver - did (does) he/she understand the message; does he/she consider it relevant; can he/she do what the message asks?
C. Message Material - is the material accurate; does it offend; will it be passed on accurately to others?
D. Presentation - was it timely, clear? Did it permit audience feedback? Try it on a small sample audience fires to eliminate the wrinkles. You can determine if the presentation has been understood by asking non yes/no questions.
I. MUTUAL LEARNING RATHER THAN TEACHING
A. Involve free flow of facts and ideas among participants.
B. Share leadership.
C. Use group discussion, demonstrations, role-playing, interviewing.
D. Visualize ideas.
II. STRATEGY FOR EDUCATIONAL SELF-RELIANCE
A. People are usually their own best resource.
1. Source of background and insight on own problems.
2. Have locally relevant skills and experience for tackling problems.
B. Mobilize skills and resources to pursue educational goals.
III. IMPORTANCE OF EXTENSION WORK
A. Utilize village resources.
B. Work yourself out of a job.
C. Work within cultural parameters.
D. Help people to recognize their own skills.
E. Do not do anything people are able to do for themselves.
INTRODUCTION - You do not have to be a school teacher to teach basic conservation education. While the school system is the moat centralized and organized medium for reaching communities, conservation education should not end there. Simple projects around your home in the backyard are just as effective and serve a. an important educational tool when shared with neighbors.
Resources: The background you already have based on your education, readings and experiences should be taken seriously as resource materials. Of special importance is the manual "Teaching Conservation in Developing Nations" which can be ordered from Peace Corps at the following address:
Peace Corps Information, Collection Exchange
806 Connecticut Avenue,
NW Washington, D.C. 20526
Other resources include:
Basic Educational Outline - a syllabus outline of basic goals and topics in a logical progression.
I. Looking at the environment
1. To develop an awareness of the environment,
2. To understand some interrelationships,
3. To learn how people use and abuse their environment.
1. Rocks and soils,
2. Plant communities,
3. Animal Communities,
4. Relationships and man in the environment.
1. Slides shows,
3. Soil examinations,
6. Planting trees and gardens.
II. Changes in the natural world
1. To understand the life of plants and animals,
2. To develop an awareness of one's impact, etc.
1. Products from plants and animals,
2. Everyday activities and how they affect the environment,
3. Soil building,
4. What plants need to survive and produce.
1. Diary of changes in environment,
2. Erosion control project - i.e., contour lines,
3. Water collection and conservation,
4. Fertilizer experiments,
III. Responsibility for environment conservation
1. To understand responsibilities for use and management of natural resources,
2. To learn conservation practices,
3. To learn what local government and national programs are doing.
1. Conservation practices and alternatives,
2. Sewage and solid waste disposal,
3. Chemicals in everyday life.
2. Presentation (store windows),
3. Contact and work with local agencies,
4. Map community,
5. Develop a park with teaching signs.
1. State Objectives,
2. Present information using visual aids - pictures, slides, etc.,
3. Activity - demonstrate, construct examples, organize presentation.
4. Summary - repeat main points,
5. Follow-up and evaluation.
Exercise 2 Slide Show Presentation
Total time 30 minutes
The trainee(s) who has(have) taken the elide presentation as special project present(s) a lecture on the steps involved. Possibly the(se) trainee(a) could present a short slide show.
1. The trainee(a) for whom slide show presentation is a special project give(s) a lecture including the following steps:
A. Before you take pictures,
B. Taking pictures,
C. Organizing the presentation,
E. Slide show topics,
F. Photo reproduction stand.
2. The trainee(s) give(s) a short slide presentation to demonstrate the lecture.
GUIDE FOR MAKING A SLIDE SHOW
For a presentation on almost any subject. a slide show with pictures of good quality is an excellent medium. The following was written as a guide for producing 8 slide show.
I. BEFORE YOU TAKE PICTURES
A. Planning is very important. State the objectives of the presentation. Keep it as specific as possible. Make a list of what you want to show. Research your subject and define specific scenes needed.
B. Complete the charts, posters and book materials to use in the program.
C. Buy quality film from a reputable dealer.
D. Know your camera and be sure to clean lenses, etc. before beginning.
II. TAKING PICTURES
A. Action shots showing specific activities involving local people are ideal. Be sure the subjects are willing and explain why you are taking the shots.
B. Watch the background. Keep the focus of the shot on your specific subject.
C. Lifting graphs and charts from books can be very useful. Also, original drawings can be changed to slides simply. Excellent title slides and conclusions with written summaries can be made by taking a photo of the written text. A simple stand can be made to hold your camera above the page or book (see figure #1). Close up tubes (automatic extension tubes) can be used to lift photographs for slide production. The slides can be made to look as if they were taken on location. For copying slides, attachments are available which mount onto a 35 mm camera. This process reduces the need to rely upon costly slide reproduction processes. In essence, you are taking a slide of a slide.
III. ORGANIZING THE PRESENTATION
A. Written script - Scripts should be direct and concise. The presenter should take the time to review the presentation several times prior to the show (practice makes perfect!) Either an entire script can be written or note cards utilized.
B. Tape recording accompaniment - There are both pros and cons to a slide show including a tape recorded script and/or music. On the positive side is the ease of presentation. A taped script with music background may be more interesting to the viewers and appear more professional. A recording made by a local speaker may also alleviate language difficulties.
A few problems could arise due to:
1. Difficulty in stopping to answer questions,
2. Possible difficulty in coordination of tape with slides.
4. More equipment and electrical outlets needed.
If you decide to use a tape system, make sure that the speaker has good diction and uses the language indigenous to the area (In Senegal, the urban French is distinct from the French spoken in regional townships.)
The list of equipment needed can vary with the needs and resources available for slide show production.
Equipment to consider include:
A. Reliable 35 mm camera - Although not necessary, many options are available to a user of a SLR 35mm camera such as:
1. Telephoto lenses,
2. Macro lenses,
3. Automatic extension tube sets,
4. Slide copiers,
5. Light filters - from skylight to polarized to infrared,
6. Wide angle and fish-eye lenses.
B. Slide projector - A carousel type with a remote slide advancer is best. It would be easier to have enough carousels to enable you to store the slide show directly in the carousel.
C. Tape recorder - If you prefer "canned" slide shows, a tape recorder which is easy to transport and use is needed.
D. Quality film and tapes - If the project is a large one, you may want to consider buying in bulk from a photo outlet. This would be cheaper in the long run and the majority of times results in the best quality (fresh) film available.
E. Extension cords - Many slide presentations have been inconvenienced or even ruined due to the lack or nonexistence of electrical outlets and extension cords.
V. SLIDE SHOW TOPICS
Following is a list of slide show topics which we feel would be useful to Peace Corps foresters.
A. Starting a nursery - The following factors could be used as individual slide shows or incorporated into a single presentation.
1. Site selection,
2. Seedbed preparation,
B. Agro-silvicultural systems - Specific systems could be handled as individual shows or could be used to present an overview of agro-forestry for any given area of the world.
C. Planting and transplanting a tree.
D. Types and uses of various tree species - Trees provide not only wood but also oils, resins, wildlife, food and cover. This show could cover specific species or present an overview.
E. Pest control - Forest pests throughout the world cost millions of dollars annually in terms of the associated costs of their supression and lost wood products. This presentation could deal with identifying a problem, the causitive agent and possible remedies.
F. Exotic tree species - In some areas of the world, exotic trees are a necessity in reforestation projects. A show could help promote the tree's usage and deal with any special management problems.
G. Compost - Its benefits and usage. A presentation could be extremely helpful for areas where the use of inorganic fertilizers cannot be afforded. The show could demonstrate how to start, maintain, and use a compost pile for fertilization.
H. Erosion and its control - This could deal with the alarming rate of land lost due to erosion by water and wind and ways to deal with the problem.
I. Land management - The aspect of total land management of agriculture crops animals, forest, and pasture could be presented to the people to demonstrate better use of the land.
J. Chainsaw use and safety - Modern harvesting methods are on the increase in developing nations. With the increase in the use of machinery comes the increased risk of accidents and injuries. This show would cower the safe use and operation of the basic "mechanized" tree havesting tool.
These are some of our suggestions. Many possibilities exist for quality shows which can aid our work in the developing countries. It is up to us as Volunteers to recognize the need and act accordingly.