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close this book Soils, Crops and Fertilizer Use
close this folder Appendixes
View the document Appendix A: Useful measurements and conversions
View the document Appendix B: How to determine soil moisture content
View the document Appendix C: Spacing guide for contour ditches and other erosion barriers*
View the document Appendix D: Composition of common chemical fertilizers
View the document Appendix E: Hunger signs in common crops
View the document Appendix F: Legumes for green manuring and cover-cropping in tropical and subtropical regions
View the document Appendix G: Some sources of technical support
View the document Appendix H: A bibliography of useful references

Appendix A: Useful measurements and conversions

AREA

1 SQ. METER = 10.76 sq. ft.

1 HECTARE (ha) = 10,000 sq. meters = 2.47 acres = 1.43 manzanas (parts of Latin America)

1 ARE (a) = 100 sq. meters = 0.01 hectares

1 ACRE = 4000 sq. meters = 4840 sq. yards = 43,560 sq. ft. = 0.4 hectares = 0.58 manzanas (parts of Latin America)

1 MANZANA (used in parts of Latin America) = 10,000 sq. varas = 7000 sq. meters = 0.7 hectares = 1.73 acres

LENGTH

1 METER (m) = 100 cm = 1000 mm = 39.37" = 3.28 ft.

1 CENTIMETER (cm) = 10 mm = 0.01 m = 0.4"

1 MILLIMETER (mm) = 0.001 meter = 0.04"

1 KILOMETER (km) = 1000 m = 0.625 miles

1 VARA (Latin America) = 83.7 cm = 32.8"

1 MILE = 1.6 km = 1600 meters = 5280 ft.

WEIGHT

1 KILOGRAM (kg) = 1000 grams (g) = 2.2 lbs. = 35.2 oz.

1 POUND (lb.) = 16 oz. = 454 g = 0.454 kg 1 OUNCE (oz.) = 28.4 g

1 METRIC TON = 1000 kg = 2202 lbs.

1 LONG TON = 2240 lbs. 1 SHORT TON = 2000 lbs.

1 QUINTAL = 100 kg (metric system), 100 lbs. (Latin America)

VOLUME

1 LITER (l) = 1000 cc = 1000 ml = 1.06 U.S. quarts

1 HECTOLITER (hl) = 100 liters

1 CUBIC METER = 1000 liters

1 CUBIC FOOT = 7.48 U.S. gallons = 28.3 liters

1 GALLON (U.S.) = 3.78 liters = 3780 cc (ml)

1 GALLON (Imperial) = 5 U.S. quarts = 4 Imperial quarts = 4.725 liters

1 ACRE-INCH (of water) = 26,928 U.S. gallons

1 BUSHEL (U.S., English) = 1.25 cubic ft. = 9.375 U.S. gallons = 35.4 liters = 66 lbs. shelled, dry maize or sorghum = 60 lbs. dry wheat kernels or beans

1 FLUID OUNCE (fl. oz.) = 30 cc (ml) = 2 level tablespoons (measuring type)

1 TABLESPOON (measuring type) = 15 cc (ml) for solids or 18 cc (ml) for liquids, due to surface tension.

1 TEASPOON (measuring type) = 5 cc (ml) for solids or 6 cc (ml) for liquids, due to surface tension.

MISCELLANEOUS CONVERSIONS

lbs./acre X 1.12 = kg/ha; lbs./acre X 1.73 = lbs./manzana

kg/ha X 0.89 = lbs./acre; kg/ha X 1.54 = lbe./manzana

lbs./manzana X 0.58 = lbs./acre; lbs./manzana X 0.65 = kg/ha

1 LITER PER SQ. METER = a 1 millimeter thickness (layer)

7 U.S. GALLONS PER SQ. METER = a 1 inch thickness (layer)

Temperature:

C° = (F° - 32°) X 0.55

F° = (C° X 1.8) + 32°