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close this book Water purification, distribution and sewage disposal for Peace Corps volunteers
close this folder Section 6: Operation and maintenance
View the document Overview:
View the document Water source maintenance and inspection
View the document Regulations for installing new service connections or extensions to existing system.
View the document Regulations for cleaning the distributions system
View the document Inventorying for operation in emergencies
View the document Types of financial statements for small waterworks
View the document Lesson plans

Inventorying for operation in emergencies

Building up a stock of spare parts, if started from the beginning will spread the expense of their purchase over the first ten years. Minimum requirement of spare parts stock;


1. For gasoline engines - sets of plugs, gaskets, gasket-sealing compound, spare magneto, gasoline-feed pipe, air and oil filter elements, carburetor float, spare washers for gasoline-feed pipe, and carburetor timing chain.

2. For diesel engines;- sets of injectors, gaskets, gasket-sealing compound, washers, filter elements, fuel pipe, timing chain.

3. For electric motors - sets of fuses, brushes, insulation tape.

4. For pumps - cup washers, valve rubbers or leathers, belt and belt fasteners, grease nipples.

5. For mains and distribution systems - minimum of halfdozen pipes for each diameter, Joints, tees and bends, odd valve, air verve and hydrant for each size.


In order to estimate the required quantity to store, there is a rough guide:

Small diesel engine consumes .06 gallons of diesel fuel per hour for each horsepower.

Small gasoline engine consumes .08 gallons of gasoline per hour for each horsepower.

Lubricating oil for engines + = 1/15 of fuel consumption.


1. Protection against dangers of fire end theft.

2. Underground tanks recommended for large systems. A handoperated pump can be installed.

3. For small systems the fuel drums should be kept in fireproof fuel store. The drums should be kept almost horizontal, on stillness, at a convenient height above floor to allow measuring gallons to stand below the tap on the end of the drum.

4. Allowance should be made for 2% loss of gasoline, 1% loss of diesel fuel in the tropics.

5. Accurate record of fuel consumption should be kept.

6. "No Smoking" signs should be posted and the rule enforced.

7. In case of electrically powered systems all personnel should know and observe the safety regulations. No unqualified person should try to wire or repair anything on the system.


1. Most commonly used chemicals are bleaching-powder and high test hypochlorite (HTH)

2. Bleaching Powder - must be stored in dry, cool place.

3. Minimum stock must be specified depending on the capacity of the system.

4. Persons who get into contact with these chemicals should wash them off immediately.


Where there is no skilled fitter or mechanic in charge, a minimum n number of tools should be kept in order to keep to a minimum repairs that might be attempted by the inexperienced repairman. However, the following should be available:

1. Plug spanner, a pair of spanners to fit the fuel-pipe lines, hammer, screw driver, and pliers for belt fixing.

2. Oil can, grease-gun, fuel and oil measures, watering-can and bucket, head pan, chemical measures.

3. Shovels

Tool Rack

1. Should be designed and built on the walls. Systematic labeling of such tools should show at a glance which tool is missing.

2. Should be within easy reach from the floor.


Full protection should be provided against fire. Fire-fighting equipment may consist of:

1. Buckets containing sand or water

2. Chemical extinguishers

3. Asbestos blankets.


1. Fire-drills should be organized to make sure the men can use the equipment effectively.

2. Fire buckets should be painted red and labelled "Fire". Strict rules must be enforced for proper use of such buckets.

3. Where water stands in a bucket it must be renewed once a week to prevent mosquitoes breeding in the pumphouse.


A first aid kit should be in every pump-house or treatment house. The men should be trained on the proper use of each item in the box. It must be pointed out that these are for the immediate personnel, not relatives. If not checked, this could prove expensive for the water management.


1. Whenever an item is used it must be replaced immediately.

2. Spares must be kept in locked cupboards or boxes with proper labels

3. A list of all available spares in the box must be included, a copy of which should be filed.