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close this book Water purification, distribution and sewage disposal for Peace Corps volunteers
close this folder Section 7: Scope of disposal system projects in host communities
View the document Overview:
View the document Public health importance of excreta disposal
View the document How disease is carried from excreta
View the document The characteristics of an adequate system
View the document Possible sanitary measures in rural areas
View the document Soil and ground-water pollution
View the document Location of latrines and other excreta disposal facilities
View the document Sludge accumulation and the life of a pit privy
View the document Community participation
View the document Family participation
View the document Role of health department and other agencies
View the document Public versus private latrines
View the document Human factors
View the document Lesson plans

Overview:

The primary reason for construction of a disposal project is the improvement of public health standards. Therefore the trainee must learn 'he characteristics of an adequate system, how disease is carried from excrete and how the excrete may pollute the nearby water supply. To adequately ensure the improvement of the health standards, the community must be taught the importance of using the new facilities.

This section covers these general requirements of a disposal project. The trainee will learn the important characteristics of an adequate system. He will also learn to recognize the human factors that must be considered to ensure the use of the facilities and therefore the effectiveness of the project.

DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

SCOPE OF DISPOSAL SYSTEM

PROJECTS IN HOST COMMUNITIES

OBJECTIVE:

Identify the factors that must be considered in planning an economically feasible village or rural disposal system.

TASKS:

1. Define an adequate sewage disposal system that meets the basic needs of a rural or village environment.

2. Identify the types of appropriate sanitary measures that can usually improve existing rural or village disposal systems.

3. Identify the situations in which cesspools, seepage pits, and septic tanks are potential sources of contamination of the various water supply sources, irrigation systems, or the surface soil.

4. Recognize the significance of community attitudes and habits about sanitation and personal hygiene as they affect the planning and construction of disposal facilities.

5. Identify the situations in which cesspools, seepage pits, and septic tanks are inadequate or not feasible.

FUNCTIONAL SKILLS:

1. List the environmental conditions that are necessary for the transmission of disease from excrete.

2. Identify the agents and avenues of transmission of disease from excrete.

3. Identify the sanitary measures possible within the scope of a rural or village disposal system that will block the transmission of disease from excrete.

4. Identify the types of water supply sources.

5. List how far (vertically and horizontally) faecal borne diseases can be transmitted in a variety of soil and rock types.

6. Alter privy exteriors to be compatible with the attitudes and practices of hygiene in a village or rural community without changing Its fundamental characteristic. and efficiency.

7. Calculate the total amount of excrete per day per community.

8. Recognize the benefits to be derived from a well-planned and implemented village disposal system.

9. List the factors that affect the extent of digestion in a pit privy.

10. List the relative costs of septic tanks, cesspools, and seepage pits.

TERMINAL PERFORMANCE TESTS:

1. On a written examination, list the channels of transmission of disease from excrete and identify what sanitary measures can be employed to block these channels.

2. Correctly identify the various types of water supply sources.

3. Given a variety of soil and rock types, correctly list opposite each one how far faecal borne disease can be carried in it.

4. Given an essay describing the personal hygiene habits of several community members, design privy exteriors that are compatible with their practices of personal hygiene.

5. Given the population of a community, calculate the total amount of excrete per day for that community.

6. Correctly recall the probable extent of digestion in a pit privy, list the factors that affect this amount, and list the extent of influence each one of these factors has.

7. Correctly list the relative costs of septic tanks, cesspools, and sewage pits.