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Agricultural development workers training manual: Volume I Orientation for Trainers

U.S. Peace Corps

Prepared by A. L. Nellum and Associates, Inc. under contract No. PC-282-1004

Reprinted By:

PEACE CORPS

Information Collection and Exchange

September 1985

INFORMATION COLLECTION & EXCHANGE

Peace Corps' Information Collection & Exchange (ICE) was established so that the strategies and technologies developed by Peace Corps Volunteers, their co-workers, and their counterparts could be made available to the wide range of development organization and individual workers who might find them useful. Training guides, curricula, lesson plans, project reports, manuals and other Peace Corps-generated materials developed in the field are collected and reviewed. Some are reprinted "as is"; others provide a source of field based information for the production of manuals or for research in particular program areas. Materials that you submit to the Information Collection & Exchange thus become part of the Peace Corps' larger contribution to development.

Information about ICE publications and services is available through:

The Peace Corps Internet Web Site address:

http://www.peacecorps.gov

Please note the new Peace Corps Mailing Address from July 1998 on is:

ICE/ Peace Corps

1111 20th Street N.W.

Washington, DC 20526

USA

 

Add your to the ICE Resource Center. Send materials that you've prepared so that we can share them with others working in the development field. Your technical insights serve as the basis for the generation of ICE manuals, reprints and resource packets, and also ensure that ICE is providing the most updated, innovative problem-solving techniques and information available to you and your fellow development workers.

 

 

Contents

 

Preface and acknowledgments

Introduction

Purpose of Manual

Intended audience

How to use this manual

Physical construction

Adaptability

Cultural orientation and language

Access

Chapter I: Orientation for trainers

A. Philosophy and approach

B. Preparation for training

C. Staff training and team building

Chapter II: Training design

A. Ideas on training design

B. Sample integrated session, day, & week

C. Building the training schedule

D. Model training designs

E. Adaptation to various needs

Appendices

Appendix A Glossary

Appendix B Pre-training research information list

Appendix C Pre-training research tasks

Appendix D Setting up the administrative component

Appendix E Site selection and criteria

Appendix F Team building activities

Appendix G "Session plan format"

Appendix H Sample assessment criteria

Appendix I Sample training evaluation units

 

Preface and acknowledgments

The Agricultural Development Worker's Training Manual has been developed for Peace Corps by A. L. ] and Associates, Inc. (ALNA). A draft of the manual wee prepared under contract with CHP International, Inc. in December 1981. This final version reflects revision and pilot use of the manual by ALNA during three cycles of agricultural training for future Peace Corps Volunteers at PENN Center in Frogmore, South Carolina.

ALNA is anxious to receive feedback on the manual from users so that future changes can be most responsive to the needs of the Peace Corps training community. Comments should be sent to:

A. L. Nellum and Associates, Inc.

Peace Corps Training Project c/o PENN Center

P.O. Box 126

Frogmore, South Carolina 29902

Many people contributed to this manual. Primary responsibility for the development of the document has been shared by the core staff of the training program: David Leonard, Senior Crops Trainer; Neil Bacon, Senior Livestock Trainer; Peter Menard, Senior Core Curriculum Trainer; Louise Nelson, Senior Curriculum Development Specialist; and Michael Gibbons, Project Director.

Training staff members who participated in the agricultural training program and who helped with the first and second versions are: Isa Abdul-Ghani, Susan Altshuler, Margaret Brown, Janet Ekey, Klaus Klawitter, Karen Leban, Joe McDommick, David Peters, Rick Record, Alethea Rudd, Donna Ruscavage, Carmine Russo, Rick Schroeder, Freddie Smith, Ray Spriggs, Susan Steinburg, and Valerie Stetson.

Martin J. Blank and Paul Purnell served as co-Project Managers at ALNA headquarters.

Julia Simmons worked extraordinary hours at PENN Center typing the manuscript. She was assisted by Barbara White, Kim Thorne, and Ronnie Gold in the ALNA home office. Further support in the production of the manual was provided by Annette McLane, L. Louise Altes, and Jim Altes.

We wish to acknowledge the support of our Peace Corps Project Manager, Calvina Dupre, as well as other Peace Corps staff members, Franklin Moore and Dan Edwards.

Acknowledgment also is due the following publications from which we learned and borrowed: The Farallones Institute/CHP International publication, Training Manual in Appropriate Community Technology, 1980, and Peace Corps' Trainers' Guide for Basic Health Training for All Peace Corps Volunteers (OPTC), 1978, and Peace Corps' Core Curriculum Training Manual Series.

A special thank you goes to Emory Campbell, Executive Director of PENN Center, who provided an ideal environment for the testing and revision of the manual.

Finally, and most importantly, we wish to thank the more than 150 Peace Corps trainees who have participated in the Agricultural Development Worker' a training program over the past two years and whose energy and initiative have given life to the experience that has formed this manual.

A. L. Nellum and Associates, Inc. Washington, D.C.

December 1982

 

Introduction

 

Purpose of Manual

This the Peace Corps Training Manual centered on Agriculture. It treats three content areas: Extension Skills, Crops Technical Training, and Livestock Technical Training. The manual consists of four volumes:

Volume I

Orientation For Trainers and Training Design

Volume II

Extension Skills (Core Curriculum) Training Resources

Volume III

Crops Technical Training Resources

Volume IV

Livestock Technical Training Resources

These volumes are designed to serve as resources, not a blueprint, for trainers involved in Peace Corps agriculture training in various settings.

 

Intended audience

The authors have made assumptions about those who might use this manual based on Stateside and In Country training experiences. Most Peace Corps trainers are volunteers or their counterparts who have limited training experience and are not professional or full-time trainers. But each training program also includes at least one experienced lead trainer or coordinator. Teams of these people carry out Peace Corps Ag. Training. These four volumes are geared to particular people in these training teams.

Volume

Intended Audience

Volume I

APCDs

 

Training Directors

 

Lead Trainers

 

Staff Trainers

These potential users are expected to have a strong background and experience in ag. training design, adult learning, group facilitation, staff training, and related training management skills. Volume I speaks to them in their language.

Volume II

Cross Cultural Trainers

Ag. Trainers Extension

Core Curriculum Trainers

These trainers may be Host Country language instructors, local volunteers, former volunteers, or experienced process trainers who work with more experienced lead trainers or coordinators to set up and carry out the Cross Cultural, Ag. Extension, and/or Core Curriculum parts of a training program. They can facilitate group discussion and activities under a lead trainer's direction and adapt the suggested sessions to local conditions, interests, and experience.

Volume III

Technical Crops Trainers

 

Technical Ag. Education Trainers

 

Technical Ag. Community Development Trainers

 

Technical Ag. Extension Trainers

 

These trainers are most likely Ag. or Community Development Volunteers who have done crops work, Crops Specialists, or Host Country Ag. Instructors. They might work with an experienced lead Crops trainer in such a way that they could plan and carry out sessions on crop production, garden planning, simple soil science, plant nutrition and health, and the other aspects of the Technical Crops section of a training program. They would be expected to be able to set up gardens and stands of field crops and to help trainees learn to do the same. The Technical Guidelines in Volume III are intended to help these trainers cope with the technical content of crops training, in conjunction with Peace Corp's ICE manuals and appropriate local resources.

Volume IV

Technical Livestock Trainers

 

Technical Ag. Education Trainers

 

Technical Ag. Community Development Trainers

 

Technical Ag. Extension Trainers

 

This Livestock Trainer's volume, similar to Crops, is for experienced Ag. volunteers working as trainers, Livestock Specialists, or Host Country Ag. Specialists who design and deliver sessions on animal husbandry with the support of an experienced Livestock Trainer. Extensive Technical Guidelines are provided in this volume also to provide technical support (in the absence of relevant ICE manuals) to these potential users.

 

How to use this manual

These four volumes are a set. They are intended to be used together to plan and carry out an Integrated Ag. Training Program. Volume I is a guide for combining the other three volumes of training materials in different settings to meet a variety of needs. The volumes are separated for several reasons:

1. They serve different purposes and people.

2. They are easier to use, carry, and duplicate.

3. Trainers who tested them consistently separated them into distinct parts for convenience.

The volumes may be used in the following ways:

Volume I: Planning by APCD, Training Director or Training Coordinator, Scheduling, Training Design, Staff Training, and other activities related to planning, organizing, and managing the Ag. Training Programs.

Volume II: Planning and carrying out the Skills (Core Curriculum), Ag. Extension, or Cross Cultural part of a pre-service training program, in-service workshops, or similar training event.

Volume III: Planning and carrying out the Crops or Gardening portion of a pre-service training program, in-service workshop, Ag. Education class, or related training event.

Volume IV: Setting up and doing the Livestock part of a pre-service training program, in-service workshop, Ag. Education class, or related training event.

 

Physical construction

The volumes are hole-punched SO that they may fit into large ring binders to protect them. They are perforated and paper-bound so pages may be easily folded back or pulled out to be photo-copied (if photocopiers are available) and replaced in the binder. The volumes are laid out so each sub-chapter, section, or lesson plan may be lifted or for use in staff training, overall planning, carrying out sessions, or for trainers or trainees to use as handouts or readings. Nothing in this manual is a recipe, however!

 

Adaptability

This manual offers something of value to trainers in many different environments. An extensive discussion on how to adapt these resources to a variety of settings and needs appears in Volume I, Chapter II, under "Adaptation of Designs to Various Needs".

 

Cultural orientation and language

This manual was written by Americans in the United States who have served as Peace Corps volunteers and trainers. The Glossary in Appendix A is an attempt to explain any jargon or special words used in the text. It is assumed that new trainers will use the manual resources with the support of experienced trainers, and Host Country trainers will use the manual along with American coworkers. Thus, any cultural or language biases may be dealt with effectively.

 

Access

Each of the manuals contains a detailed Table of Contents to allow easy access to all materials. Volumes II, III, and IV, which include the content to be utilized, we include detailed lists of session plans at the beginning of Chapter 2 of each volume which presents the curriculum, and a separate table of contents for Chapter 3 of each volume, which contains relevant technical material and handouts.

A summary table of contents for all four volumes can be found on the inside front cover of each volume.

Those of us who developed the manual believe that it is an important tool for building the skills and capabilities of future Peace Corps Volunteers. We trust it will help you in designing and implementing your training program.

Good Luck!

 

 

Chapter I: Orientation for trainers

 

A. Philosophy and approach

Development is a process of defining and employing ways of helping people in need. These ways are often called "technologies". Agriculture is the most essential technology we know, because farming is the traditional way of life for moat of the families of the Third World. Traditional agriculture faces both developmental and population pressures to become more productive. The traditional family farm is not the economic or food producing factory which these pressures demand, however. So one of the principle goals of agricultural development is to help cause and guide change which takes account of the importance of the traditional way of life, the enormous complexities of agriculture itself, and the needs of a changing Third World.

The key theme of development for Peace Corps is fostering self sufficiency rather than dependence among Third World people. The fundamental premise of the Peace Corps is that people of different countries and cultures come to know, understand, and trust each other best when they live and work together to solve problems and meet basic human needs on local and national levels. The most basic developmental need is for people to be able to meet essential survival requirements by relying on their own skills and resources. The intended beneficiaries are people from the poor majority most in need of assistance, with special concern for women. According to Peace Corps, help should always be clearly linked to longer term efforts which build local capacity to solve problems and meet needs. There is an implicit bias toward labor intensive (capital saving rather than capital depleting) technology, widely replicable solutions to problems, and the preparation of manuals that share the results of local efforts with others.

Peace Corps et tempt a to promote appropriate agricultural change in an unique person-to-person way. Volunteers help village farmers make informal choices about how to participate in change. By working together they share the resources they have in such a way to empower farmers to carry out development themselves.

To this end, Peace Corps has undertaken the Core Curriculum Project, "the first effort in Peace Corps' twenty year history to develop a coherent training system with goals, concepts, materials, and methodologies that are in keeping with Peace Corps' mission". The Core Curriculum Project covers three major areas: (1) a set of consistent and logical training goals; (2) a set of training materials that can meet these goals and be readily used by Peace Corps Trainers, (3) a process of helping trainers learn how best to use the materials. The Core Curriculum is a response to the discovery that "Peace Corps Volunteers regardless of technical skill or position are in some kind of helping relationship with somebody. They are there to do a job which involves transferring something to somebody, providing a skill, or training someone. All volunteers have to communicate in the language and culture appropriate to that country". Dan Edwards, Peace Corps Training Specialist.

During 1981 and 1982, these four volumes of Agricultural Training materials were added to the Core Curriculum. The materials are based on a consistent philosophy and approach particularly suited to the needs of Peace Corps

Volunteers going to work with village farm families. me Agriculture Training approach is a direct analogy to the volunteer's development strategy in a village. Training helps the volunteer become competent and independent, just as development alma to help farmers participate fully in the process of change. The philosophy and approach are based largely on the concepts of adult learning, experiential learning, and integrated training design which are outlined below for purposes of staff training.

The approach recognizes that the ability to speak the local language is the first and most important skill any extension worker should acquire. Ag. training is done in conjunction with very intensive language training.

It is also based on the experience that in depth skills and knowledge in agriculture takes years to develop because it is so complex, it takes long growing seasons to see results, and it is so location-specific. In order to function as farmer helpers though, volunteers must achieve a reasonable understanding of agriculture on a practical basis. Ag. training emphasizes intensive technical agriculture work to compress learning into the short time available.

Adult Learning

Ag. Training adheres to an Adult Learning philosophy which suggests that there are four parts of any learning experience.

1. LEARNERS

3. ENVIRONMENT

FOUR ELEMENTS

2. METHODS

4. TRAINERS

OF ADULT LEARNING

These are the variables which can be adjusted to alter or improve a training experience.

1. Learners: Trainees. They moat do the work of learning. They are adults with relevant experience that helps them learn. They learn in order to solve life's problems. They evaluate and give feedback on methods, trainee, and environment.

2. Methods: How training sessions are carried out. The trainee decide this based on discussion and feedback with trainees.

3. Environment: Context for training. Some of the environment is under control and some is beyond control: e.g., weather, site, indoors, outdoors.

4. Trainers: They decide how training occurs, assess trainee performance, solicit feedback, and give trainees responsibility for learning.

In adult learning, there are three recognized areas of learning which overlap to some degree:


THREE AREAS OF LEARNING

Affective: Feelings, emotions, values. Topics like killing livestock, using pesticides, or accepting another culture's view of family planning involve emotions and values. Therefore, learning strategies must address them: Small group discussions, exercises and games, skits, etc.

Cognitive: Thinking, knowledge, analysis, and the application of knowledge. Topics like Host Country geography, fertilizer math, soil science, feed and nutrition concepts, or communication theory require mental effort. Training strategies must make this kind of learning possible too: lectures, reading, lab experiments, etc.

Psychomotor: Behavior, doing things, practicing skills, adapting skills to problems. Subjects such as gardening skills (seedbed preparation, transplanting, compost pile construction, etc.), Livestock housing construction, goat castration, language practice, giving a method demonstration, or facilitating a meeting are in the psychomotor area. Strategies suited to this area include: Individual gardens, Field practice of all kinds, Family Live - In, Care and Feeding of the animals, Field Day or Demonstration Exercises, Trainee-facilitated sessions, etc.

A training experience should engage all of these areas in order to cause a complete type of learning that is really useful.

During a training cycle, trainees come together and pass through stages of group growth. They address their own personal needs, the group's needs, and group tasks in different ways as they go through this process.

I = Personal Needs - - getting oriented to the group, finding out whether one's personal needs will be met.

We = Group Needs - - developing useful membership roles, ground rules, procedures, and group structures as needs emerge.

It = Croup Task - - focusing on and addressing agreed - upon objective(s)

STAGES OF GROUP GROWTH


Phase I: Orientation, Testing, and Dependency


Phase II. Organizing to get work done, IntraGroup Conflict


Phase III: Information flow, Group Cohesion


Phase IV: Competence and Autonomy

For purpose of Ag. training, groups of trainees are guided as a group and as individuals toward a specific goal - - autonomy and problem solving ability. Trainees are urged and trained to be their own best support resources after a training cycle. Trainers consciously attempt to identify and develop the skills of trainees so that practical steps are taken toward the goal of competent autonomy. This provides a context in which "rebellions" and lesser struggles between trainers and future volunteers occur. Trainees are urged to view trainers who work this way as conscious models of how Volunteers strive, with counterparts, to "work themselves out of a job" during their tour of duty. This is depicted below in a graphic image of one of the principal themes of Peace Corps Ag. Training:

 

Phase IV

Promotion of Competence & Autonomy


Promotion of Competence & Autonomy

Experiential Learning

When training adults in general, and those who have been educated out of school in particular, an experiential style of learning makes the most sense. Peace Corps' model of experiential learning looks like this:


Experiential Learning

Experience:

Performance of a past or present concrete activity. e.g., planting tomato transplants.

Analyze:

Expressing thoughts, feelings, or impressions about an activity. e.g., frustration with transplanting delicate plants for the first time.

Generalize:

Forming ideas about an activity. e.g., steps in the transplanting process.

Apply:

Using ideas to solve a new problem. e.g., transplanting rice plants.

By using this style, learning always starts with what the participant knows or has done him or herself, which builds confidence and motivates. Each Ag. Training session goes through these four steps. In addition, groups of sessions are "experiential" too. For example, trainees might practice communication skills and then go out to live with a Host Community family for a while. The Live - In serves as an opportunity to apply communication skills learned before. Also, it constitutes an experience on which to base later sessions on Cross Cultural Adaptation and Learning about the Ag. Environment or Community Analysis. So training events can be arranged so they all feed into each other to cause "experiential learning".

Integration

By Integration, this manual means the process of bringing separate parts or topics together concretely and clearly. These parts, separated out for logistical and practical reasons, must be dynamically unified in training as they will be in work. Life in a village and work as a volunteer are challenging mixtures of technical, interpersonal, and development issues. Integration in training mirrors this mixture and helps prepare trainees to deal with it effectively. Because integrated training is difficult, an entire chapter (III) is devoted to it.

Beyond language there are three broad content areas of Ag. training: Extension, Crops, and Livestock. These three areas help a trainee to become an effective facilitator and technician. These areas fit together into one central theme - - Ag. Extension. The Adult Learning and Experiential methods of Ag. Training also are consistent and hold the content areas together. Language training presents the beat opportunity to combine these areas Integration occurs within each see sign: Learning to make a compost pile and understanding when and how to show a farmer how to do it. It also occurs throughout the days, weeks, and overall training: if Nutrition concepts are introduced in an Extension Session, Plant and Animal Nutrition sessions are planned in accordance with them; or a final garden planning exercise might cover both crops technical information and Extension nutrition or planning information. Trainees might accomplish a technical task, and then discuss how they did it, focusing on group dynamics, helping relationships, or communication skills. Chapter II of this Volume "Training Design", describes how to integrate sessions, days, weeks, and overall designs in detail.

Conclusion

Agriculture and Ag. Extension learning begin in pre - service training programs and continue throughout a volunteer's full term of service. Regular in-service workshops and constant on - the -Job training help volunteers improve the entry level skills they bring into the field. Pre - service Ag. training can help provide these entry - level skills and an understanding of how to continue learning. Aimed at Peace Corps' broader goals, the Ag. Training approach is an adaptation of Core Curriculum strategies to the needs of volunteers entering agricultural programs.

 

B. Preparation for training

There are four aspects of any training experience - trainees, trainers, environment, and methods. Preparing for training involves planning and readying each of these aspects. Though time is often in short supply, thorough planning and preparation are essential to successful training work. Good plane minimize later adjustments of the four elements of training. Thorough preparation makes the Philosophy and Approach to training come alive. Preparation steps are:

.

(Chapter I: Volume I)

• Pre - Training Research

.

• Defining Goals* and Skill Groups*

 

• Financial and Administrative Planning

 

• Site Selection and Preparation

.

• Staff Training (Team Building)



(* See Glossary, Appendix A.)

(Chapter II: Volume I)

• Training Design and Scheduling



(Chapter I: Volumes II, III, & IV)

• Specific Component Preparation



 

These sections are planning aide, meant to be inclusive, but they are not blueprints. See Chapter II, subchapter "Adaptation to Various Needs". Lists of tasks and details for each step are found in the Appendix.

Pre - Training Research

How do training staff or planners know what to prepare and how to carry out training? The first step is thorough research. This can take many forms but it precedes every other preparation activity. Pre-training research helps identify broad training goals and more specific topic areas. Research is done in the following categories:

• Assumptions and Pre - Determined Circumstances (Much information may already be known, decided upon or unchanged from previous training events. For example, languages and cultural customs, or a tested and successful package of ag. practices.)

• Role of the Volunteer

• Cultural and Area Studies

• Ministry, Development Agency, Extension Service Information

• Infrastructure

• Specific Agricultural Information

(See Appendices B and C for detailed lists of information to research in each category and a Pre-Training Research Task List).

How much do trainee need to find out about each these categories? As much as possible. In-country trainee have much of this information at hand, while Regional or Stateside trainee must research each topic formally. The better defined and organized a project is, the more readily this information may be found. Ag. training especially needs to be as location specific as possible.

Defining Goals and Skill Groups

By analyzing or studying the information gained from pre-training research, the broad Goals and more specific Skill Groups for a training cycle can be identified. For example, in Zaire, the Training Goals might be:

Language

-

French fluency

Cross-Cultural

-

Ability to function in Zairois culture

Extension

-

Ability to help farmers learn new practices

Crops

-

Ability to grow and troubleshoot forage crops

Livestock

-

Ability to raise small animals

The Skill Groups within each component help trainees reach each component's end result. They include the specific training methods for each component and skill group. To elaborate part of the Zaire example:

Language:

FSI 3+ French (Oral immersion)

 

Conversation/Dialogues

 

Grammar

 

Idiomatic Expressions

 

Ag. Terms

Livestock:

Livestock Development (field oriented)

 

Goats

 

Poultry

 

Rabbits

 

Swine

Both Goals and Skill Groups are often pre-determined in preparing a training design. It is very important to review them before every training cycle in order to clarify common goals and assumptions, however. They are essential to have in plain view as planning and preparation begin. (As an example, see the Table of Contents of Volumes II, III, and IV for lists of Skill Groups for each of the three components of Ag. Training).

Financial and Administrative Planning

This is usually done by a Project Director or APCD, and is very often defined long before a training cycle is begun. However, the budget, financial system, and overall work plane for a training cycle determine almost everything else. Ideally, these plans should be made in concert with the research information and the goals and topic areas mentioned above, so that the budget serves those goals. It is best to check these financial and administrative plane against training goals and topic areas before detailed preparation gets underway, in order to clarify any conflicts or contradictions early on. For example, if the coordinator of the Crops part of a training cycle has planned on individual gardens for each trainee, she or he needs to purchase enough tools and equipment for each trainee, not a small pool of shared tools. Financial arrangements are not detailed in this manual. Administrative act-up tasks are outlined in Appendix D.

Site Selection and Preparation

If a training cycle is held at PENN Center or a Regional Training Center, site selection is irrelevant. Many In-Country training programs choose a new site each cycle, however. For Agriculture Training, the site must be a rural agrarian setting with access to adequate land, local farm families, ag. - related resources, as well as meeting the essential physical requirements to support staff, trainees, and training events. The pre-service training site is a cultural transition point between the U.S. and villages where Volunteers will live and work. Specific site selection criteria are listed in Appendix E.

Site preparation is the process of creating and defining the third aspect of a training experience, the Environment of training work. Adequate housing, dining facilities, office and classroom space, farm land, animal housing, transportation, equipment, and supplies are required. More Specific site preparation tasks and items are in Appendix B. Beyond that, see other volumes for specific site preparation lists in each component, under Chapter I, subchapter Preparation and Appendices.

 

C. Staff training and team building

Of the four elements of a training experience, the training staff represent the most vital and influential variable. Selecting, training, and bringing together a training staff is one of the most important investments in training effectiveness.

Staff Selection

The following are staff requirements for Peace Corps Agriculture Training Projects as contemplated in this manual. (Numbers of trainers and participants will require variations of this list):

Project Director

Extension Coordinator

Livestock Coordinator and/or

Crops Coordinator

Site Administrator

Language Coordinator (if appropriate)

Trainers (Extension/Technical combined)

Language Trainers

Training Assistants (combined as above)

Farm Manager

Bookkeeper /Secretary

Farm Laborers

Medical Consultant

It is recommended that there be one Trainer/Trainer Assistant for every five trainees. (For example, for twenty crops trainees, three crops trainers and one training assistant).

Trainers should be selected to meet specific technical needs--e.g. hands-on crops or livestock field experience. Likewise, training assistants should have technical as well as country-specific experience. In many instances individuals with technical skills in crops or livestock will also have the experience and knowledge to serve as trainee in Extension skills, or a desire and ability to work in that area and vice-versa. The practice of having trainers work across the extension skills and technical training areas is strongly encouraged since it demonstrates to volunteers the importance of developing an integrated set of skills in order to effectively carry out their job assignments.

There should be a balance of male, female, and minority staff members regardless of the character of the training groups. me staff should embody experience from as wide a range as possible.

The Extension Coordinator should be an expert facilitator, extension worker, and/or organizer and very familiar with agriculture. The Technical Coordinators should be experts in their fields, with predominantly field, village -level, experience and sufficient training experience to train trainees and assistants. The Project Director should have solid training experience, facilitating and management skills, and an agriculture background or interest.

The Site Administrator, in his or her role of procurement officer, budget director, logistics coordinator, transportation coordinator, etc., should possess skills necessary for working in training settings with local merchants and authorities, accounting skills, facilitation skills, etc. This person might be a local resident liaison for the rest of the staff. Likewise, the bookkeeper/secretary should be a local person. The farm manager may also be a local contact who can manage the farm and provide links with area farm families.

One of the staff should have experience to act as a human nutrition trainer in order to inform that aspect of the extension curriculum and the technical components. All staff are considered models of cross-cultural, extension, and other skills. All should possess or develop skills in training methods, group facilitation, cultural sensitivity, development work, flexibility, and openness.

Staff Training

The purpose of staff training is to assist the training staff to work well together in their own roles and as members of a training team. Staff training provides a structure that allows trainers to develop new skills, share responsibilities, and clarify what they want to do during training.

In order to accomplish this, two mayor issues should be addressed by the Training Director. The first issue is the basic framework of training--its concepts, assumptions, theories, and strategies. See Chapter I "Philosophy and Approach". The second issue is how staff abilities, knowledge, and experiences fit the needs of the training cycle. The overall philosophy and approach are given real form when trainers assess their own resources and skills, and apply those resources and skills in the context of this philosophy and approach. The marriage of these two issues--philosophy and approach with trainer resources-is the subject of staff training. Of special value in this process are the trainers that have prior experience and training in the skills needed.

An agreement on broad goals and skill groups for the training cycle itself should be reached in order to give rise to a common focus and purpose. If during staff training a basic understanding of the training cycle philosophy and approach, trainer resources, and broad goals/topic areas can be made, trainers will be well equipped to begin working together.

There is often not enough time to prepare the site and curriculum as well as undertake staff training, even though it is very important. In this sense, the normal times set aside for staff training (two weeks before the training begins) merely initiate staff training. Staff training should continue throughout a training cycle.

A trainer or consultant from outside the project can be selected to conduct the training. However, it is Just as applicable for the Training Director or someone within the project to conduct the staff training him or herself. Training design, carrying out training, and follow up, can be done in such a way as to encourage continuing staff training. For example, trainees can take turns facilitating staff or assessment meetings. Trainers' skills should provide a model to Trainees of the leadership roles they can replicate. Staff training need not interrupt the setting up of the training site. In fact, staff training begins with the first set up tasks as outlined in the manual and continues through to the follow up tasks at the end.

The first staff training exercise should involve all trainee in agricultural work together as a model of integration (for example, initial staking out of the vegetable plots at the beginning of training). This allows commitment to the total training effort and develops working relationships among the staff. Livestock, Extension, and Crops trainers will then be able to share work in other sectors.

Areas important to address are:

• Introduction and climate setting

• Staff organization, role clarification, specific Job descriptions

• Assessment of staff needs and setting staff training schedule

• Idea exchange to determine differences and common assumptions

• Training goals, philosophy

• Orientation to the experiential model of learning, integration, extension issues, etc.

• Practicing training, facilitation, counseling, support, communication skills

• Physical site act-up tasks

• Problem-solving and decision-making processes

• Training policies (assessment procedure, reprinting, money, conduct, etc.)

• Establishment of norms for trainer behavior

• Communications systems, information flow, workplans

• Organizing each component: goals, overview, topics to cover, staff responsibilities, etc.

• Set up of training events (live-in, extension visits, etc.) a Component set up tasks (see Volumes II, III, and IV.)

• Meetings of components, whole staff, etc.

• Informal interaction and personal time

All of the staff training topics should be covered in a series of events which leave ample time for training preparation activities. The steps involved in designing a staff training session are:

1. Assemble staff and set up staff training environment, overall dates.

2. Decide structure of each day.

3. Decide overall goals of staff training.

4. Devise preliminary list of sessions which meet specific objectives.

5. Devise preliminary schedule providing time each day for act-up tasks.

6. Design opening sessions carefully:

a. Welcome and introduction to training

b. Ice-breaker and introduction

c. Solicit expectations of staff training

d. Share overall goals of staff training

e. Share preliminary sessions list and schedule/design

f. Negotiate final schedule/design

g. Contract roles and agreement on final schedule

The final Staff Training experience should be making the final training schedule, following the process described in the Scheduling section next in the manual. Making a schedule which is integrated and cooperative, like setting up a complete and appropriate site is a STAFF TRAINING EXERCISE which combines learning with getting things done.

The process of scheduling and site set-up can be time for team building, interaction skill practice, checking assumptions, work style analysis, etc. In development terms, this is an exciting marriage of education and self-interest, of teaching new ideas and skills through the experience, self-motivation, and the felt needs of a group of people with a common problem--an excellent model for training! The process of setting up the site and making the schedule can be role played, referred to, "filmed", and shared with trainees as a concrete immediate example of facilitating group work, communicating, and consensus.

Team Building

Team building is the process of improving relationships within a group when a number of persons are associated together in work. When staff training begins, team building can be introduced by a sequence of activities that also sets the climate and tone for future meetings. Team building stimulates discussion between staff members and establishes leadership styles, decision - making style, communication patterns, cooperation and team training strategies, morale, and a sense of who works with whom to perform what tasks. Efforts should be made to address the following issues:

• A better understanding of each team member's role in the work group.

• Increased communication among team members about issues that effect the efficiency of the group.

• Greater support among group members.

• More effective ways of working through problems inherent to the team at both task and interpersonal levels. e The ability to use conflict in a positive rather than a destructive way.

• Greater collaboration among team members and the reduction of competition that is costly to the group.

• A sense of interdependence among group members.

As a result of team building, each trainer should know what he or she is responsible for and how that work fits into the whole training event. A trainer should also know that she or he is respected, counted upon, and supported. Team feelings involve:

• A high degree of trust and mutual respect

• Open and authentic communication

• Mutual support and genuine concern for one another

• Decision making that is mutually shared

• Utilizing individual skills and competencies

• The division of labor is totally and mutually shared

• The responsibility for leadership is mutually agreed upon

• Agreement on trainer norms

All of the above characteristics of trainer behavior model the attitudes and leadership abilities which influence trainees during the regular training cycle. They are therefore essential. A specific type of teambuilding pertains to team or co-training, when trainers prepare to design and deliver sessions together. me relationship between co-trainers should demonstrate mutual responsibility and respect. When conflict arises based on differing points of view, the co-trainers show through their behavior that, although differences may exist, there la a genuine appreciation and acceptance of each other that underlines the interaction. The following points should be kept in mind specifically during pre-session planning and while training the course:

• Share expectations and personal limitations.

• Compare reactions to resource papers and lesson plans.

• Discuss how each trainer will handle delicate issues when they arise.

• Explore areas in which both trainers feel confident and those in which they feel vulnerable.

• Set a model for the group. Demonstrate support for one another. When it seems appropriate, articulate different points of view.

• Specific, descriptive, nonblaming responses should be used.

• Whenever one trainer is in charge of an activity, other trainers should take a supportive role, attending group dynamics and intervening when it seems appropriate.

• If confrontation seems necessary, a lead trainer should handle it him or herself; other trainers should not do it for them.

• Trainers should recognize that any opinion expressed in a session reflects the speaker's perception of the world, and is to be respected.

Team building activities are detailed in Appendix F.

 

 

Chapter II: Training design

 

A. Ideas on training design

In Chapter I the four elements of any training experience are explained. Site Preparation is aimed at preparing the Training Environment. Peace Corps Recruiting brings the Trainees to the experience. Staff Selection and Training prepares the Trainers.

Training Design is the process of giving form to the Training Method. A Training Method is made up of the content areas and methods determined by research. Design is the combination of content and methods.

Evolving Design

Trainers control the Training Design, while Trainees are responsible for the learning which occurs in a training experience. Trainers pre-design how learning will proceed according to the principles of Adult Learning. However, trainers solicit both formal and informal feedback from trainees. A tentative design is then adjusted at regular or as-needed intervals to better conform to Trainee needs. Therefore, Training Design is an on-going process in which allegiance to meeting training needs is more important than loyalty to the printed schedule. Adjustments, of course, can only be made within the scope of financial, staff, time, and other resources.

Design Elements

There are building blocks with which designs are constructed. The smallest is called an Activity. Each training session or "class" is composed of steps or Activities, each of which must be carefully designed. A Session (the smallest design) is a series of training Activities. In order to construct larger scale designs, use sessions, days, and weeks as building blocks. (See Exhibit on following page.)

SAMPLE DESIGN ELEMENTS

(from Week Two, Model Six Week Training Design, Design A.)

SESSION*

5 minutes

Introduction

 

20 minutes

Lecturette on. . .

 

10 minutes

Questions

activities

45 minute

Small Group Tasks

 

20 minutes

Reports to Large Group

 

10 minutes

Summary, Evaluation

 

(* See Session Plan Format, Appendix G.)

DAY

8-9

Community Meeting

 

9-9:55
10:05 to 12:00

Extension:
Introduction to Development LUNCH

 

1:30 to 3:25

Crops: Work & Review

sessions

3:35 to 5:30

Crops: Plant Sweet Potatoes

 

Evening

FREE

 

WEEK

 

MONDAY

TUESDAY

WEDNESDAY

THURSDAY

FRIDAY

SATURDAY SUNDAY

 

8:00 to 9:55

COMMUNITY MEETING

       

INDEPENDENT

 

10:05 to 12:00

LUNCH

LUNCH

LUNCH

LUNCH

STAFF MEETING LUNCH

 

Days

1:30 to 3:25

         

WORK

 

3:35 to 5:30

             

Evening

     

EVALUATION OF TRAINING

     

(This la also an example of a scheduling "grid". See Schedule)

No matter how long a pre-service Ag. Training Design is, it is made of these elements. Later in this chapter two model pre-service designs and sample integrated elements are presented. One design is sex weeks long. The other extends for twelve weeks. The elements of each are the same. By understanding what their elements are, how to combine them, and how several model overall designs fit together, the process of Designing Training becomes more clear.

Giving Form to Philosophy and Approach

How do you make the Training Philosophy and Approach, a set of ideas, work in a practical way? First and foremost, the trainers (as was mentioned in "Staff Training") must be thoroughly familiar with and committed to these ideas. Beyond that, each important idea must take physical form in a feature or aspect of the Training Design. Here is a list of possible design features that embody the main ideas behind Ag. Training:

Idea

Design Feature

Language Competency

• Daily language sessions

 

• Language immersion when appropriate

Practical Agriculture

• Daily care and feeding of animals

 

• Individual gardens for trainees

 

• Emphasis on field practicals

 

• Experiential approach to ag. topics (e.g., planting or construction pens first, concepts second)

Adult Learning

Contracting - trainee needs assessment, presentation of training design, trainer and trainee resource assessment, negotiation and contracting.

 

Feedback - formal and informal process of mutual evaluation of trainees, trainers, and training design, including openness/responsiveness to feedback.

 

Closure - formal evaluation of trainees, trainers, and training design, debriefing of feelings, transition activities.

 

Independent work - in and beyond formal sessions, by trainees (caring for animals, gardens, and other projects).

Experiential Learning

• Sequence of Activities in each session plan (Experience first)

 

• Sequence of Sessions (many sessions like " Living with a Host Community Family" are both opportunities to apply skills learned before and to experience something which later sessions can explore further).

 

• Beginning a training cycle emphatically with an Experience which immerses trainees in the topic areas they are about to learn, (e.g. planting, caring for animals, village map making, meeting the Host Community Family on the first day of training).

Integrated Learning

• Language sessions which accomplish Cross-Cultural, Extension, Crops, or Livestock goals like visiting Host Community farmers and farms or surveying the Ag. Environment.

 

• Specific activities added to sessions that accomplish goals from different components (e.g. a livestock session on building a chicken coop where an Extension Activity that explores group dynamics and helping relationships is added at the end).

 

• Exploring topics and activities covered in other sessions or components (e.g., discussing the pros and cons of pesticide use to explore active listening skills or group dynamics, expanding community analysis topics to specifically survey the Ag. Environment).

 

• The Ag. Extension Skill Group in the Extension component is totally integrated with regard to content and method.

 

• Women in Development and Health/Nutrition Sessions also involve all the components.

 

• All farm visits, demonstrations, the Field Day and like activities integrate all the parts of training.

 

• Technical components can be integrated by coordinating the Plant and Animal Nutrition sessions and Fertilizer/Feed Rations Math sessions. Also, because manure produced by livestock is used in composting and forage crops or post harvest leftovers can be used as feed, opportunities exist to integrate.

 

A list of representative topic areas which must be addressed in an integrated way is:

   

• Village Livestock Survey

   

• Method Demonstrations

   

• Livestock Diseases

   

• Farm Visits

   

• Ag. Environment

   

• Chemical and Non-Chemical Control of Pests and Fertilizer in Crops

   

• Garden Planning

   

• Community Analysis

   

• Health and Nutrition

   

• Communication Skills

   

• Ag. Extension

   

• Introductory Contracting

   

• Closing Activities

   

• Village or Family Live-In

   

• Volunteer Visit or Extension Agent Visit

 

Since Integration is really a relationship among parts, it is expected that all Activities, Sessions, Days, and Weeks are examples of it at work.

Group Dynamics (Autonomy)

 

• Contracting (needs assessment, etc.)

   

• Training evaluations by trainees (creating an open climate and encouraging feedback).

   

• Extension sessions which teach facilitating or group process skills.

   

• Specific Ag. Extension sessions involving practice training by trainees (method demos, for example).

   

• Technical skills are demonstrated to trainees by other trainees who have learned them first.

   

• Trainees are encouraged to facilitate sessions near the end of a training cycle.

Assessment and Evaluation

The process of assessment and evaluation la central to Training Design. In this manual assessment means Judging trainee fitness for Peace Corps service and giving them feedback based on Peace Corps Assessment Criteria. Evaluation means formal and informal feedback on trainee, training methods, and the environment. In the introductory paragraph above and under design features for Adult Learning the assessment/evaluation process is mentioned.

Assessment ant evaluation begin with the establishment of an open and trusting climate, and the other parse of the contracting process described above. It begins and ends, really, with respect.

Assessment la designed as follows--opening contracting on norms, expectations, competency criteria (FSI rating, technical competence indicators, cross-cultural and other criteria), periodic feedback interviews between a trainer and a trainee to give formal assessment feedback and to solicit responses to it; informal behavior-specific feedback in and out of sessions to trainees; periodic examination of technical, language, and/or extension competency (e.g., demonstrations of planting skills or vocabulary or teaching techniques).

For a sex week training program a schedule of the assessment Process would look like this:

Week I

Staff Meeting - Finalize assessment process and criteria, review entry-level skills of trainees

Feedback Interviews - Describe Assessment criteria and process first examination

Week II, III, IV, ant V

Staff Meeting - Assess trainees

Feedback Interviews - Feedback and assessment

Examinations of knowledge and skill (sample examinations are contained in the Appendices of Volumes III and IV).

Week VI

Staff Meeting - Assess trainees

Final examinations - (Final staff meeting to review results)

Final Interviews - Final feedback and assessment

Assessment reports and action

Final staff reports (component)

See Appendix H of this volume for sample Assessment Criteria.

Trainees evaluate training methods, trainee, environment by giving feedback informally to trainers who solicit it in all sessions. Each session is designed to end with a pause to receive this feedback. At the beginning of each session, day, or week trainee set a climate conducive to feedback and define the goal/methods of the training work to be tone. At the end of each session, day, and week trainers solicit feedback again. Furthermore, some trainers solicit written comments by asking participants to file evaluations after sessions which are compiled and analyzed. (See Appendix I, Sample Training Evaluation Instruments.)

It is suggested that training schedules be issued once a week, even if the entire design is six or twelve weeks long. Full length tentative schedules can be posted for information. Weekly schedules allow real weekly opportunities to re-design based on feedback. Late in each week (Thursday evening perhaps), trainers formally solicit feedback on training from trainees. Friday the trainers meet in a staff meeting to plan the next week, taking account of trainee feedback. Over the weekend, the next week's schedule is printed. Monday morning training begins with a Community Meeting during which the agreed-upon revised design is given out, explained, and trainee feedback is acknowledged. This looks like:

Week 2

Week 3

 

Thursday

Friday

Monday

 

Week's events

Evaluation

STAFF MEETING

COMMUNITY MEETING

Week's events

 

(1)

(2)

(3)

 

1. Evaluation

2. Response and planning

3. Presentation of New Design

This is the most concrete design feature which makes any long-term training cycle an Adult Learning experience. The following pages illustrate these features in sample integrated sessions, day, and week.

 

B. Sample integrated session, day, & week

SAMPLE INTEGRATED SESSION

SKILL GROUP IV

POULTRY

SESSION #2

CONSTRUCTION

Time: 2 hrs (In barn)

Goals:

1. To provide needed equipment for the animal barn (feeders, waterers, pens, laying nests, roosts etc).

2. To learn how to construct the above mentioned equipment using local materials and resources.

3. To learn how to work together in small groups on tasks and practice possible skill transfer.

Overview: Based on reading assigned before the session, trainees become familiar with different designs of equipment. Trainer also becomes familiar with the construction skills of those in the group. When trainees are broken into small groups to construct equipment, those trainees with little or no experience are placed with those who have more. Trainers should avoid teaching construction skills and allow the process of skill transfer to occur among the trainees.

Activities:

Time:

10 Min.: State goals and relevance of the session:

• First hands-on session of training event.

• Introduce major themes from both Livestock and Extension points of view.

• Session itself is an example of Ag. Extension work.

• Overview for trainees:

1. goals of session

2. activities or steps of session

15 Min. : List group tasks that are necessary and others that the trainees might want to do. Facilitate the formation of small groups with 8 mix of experienced and lees experienced trainers within each group.

80 Min. : Trainees within their groups work on tasks. Possible tasks may be pen construction, feeder and/or waterer construction, laying nests, hovers, etc.

• Trainers observe construction and group dynamics (helping relationships)

• Trainers act only as observers or clarifiers, but ask trainees to help each other directly.

15 Min. : Observe and critique equipment built and solicit feedback on skill transference. The importance of skill transfer when dealing with farmers is emphasized.

• Questions to ask:

a)

What was easy/difficult to construct?

Which constructions are most useful?

Why?

What are some construction ideas or concepts learned in this session?

b)

Who helped others? Who was helped?

Who learned a new skill? Who did not?

What are the characteristics of helpful help?

c)

How do construction skills and helping skills relate to Ag Extension work?

"You can give someone hungry a fish to eat, or you can teach her to make and use a fishing pole."

Materials:

- Saws

- Nails

- Hammers

- Wood

- Chicken wire

- Practical Poultry Raising Manual

Trainer Notes: : If the possibility arises where a group has little or no construction experience, the lesson plan will probably have to be altered. Very little purchasing of construction supplies should be done, so that trainees will make use of scraps that may be around the training site. This encourages the trainee to consider the situations she/he will face overseas, either lack of resources, or those that are expensive for the small farmers.

SAMPLE INTEGRATED SESSION

The preceding session plan illustrates INTEGRATION on the Session level. It exhibits the following characteristics:

General

• Taken from Design A. Six Week (Livestock) Schedule, Week I, Tuesday in this volume.

• It is Livestock, Skill Group IV (Poultry), Session #2 in Volume IV.

• Session occurs Tuesday of the first week as the first hands-on activity of the entire training experience, after a day of orientation and contracting.

• Session combines Livestock and Extension themes.

Adult Learning

• Learning activities are self-directed

• Method is active learning-by-doing

• Session covers the three areas of learning:

Affective (feelings)

-

teaching/learning roles, feedback on helping and construction

Cognitive (ideas)

-

construction concepts, skill transfer concepts

Psychomotor (skill practice)

-

building, helping



• Session begins immediately to facilitate group dynamics aimed at competent autonomy among trainees.

Experiential Learning

• After orientation and reading, first and longest activity is the experience of designing and building pens.

• Trainees then reflect and generalize on their experience, determining the characteristics of well-constructed pens and the characteristics of proper helping techniques.

• Trainees apply technical construction skills in later construction sessions for other animals.

• Trainees apply Skill transfer skills in many later sessions, especially Ag. Extension sessions.

All of these features INTEGRATE the session. Trainees learn both technical and helping skills and see how these skills fit together. The design of the session itself is a clear model of what Ag. Extension is ("effective two-way communication which helps solve ag problems") and how Ag. Extension works.

SAMPLE INTEGRATED DAY

FRIDAY

WEEK 8

DESIGN B. TWELVE WEEKS

FRIDAY

8.00 - 9.55 TECHNICAL Examination #4

• exam orientation includes mention of Village Visit and how technical and extension topics fit together.

• exam on determining fertilizer needs, watering, using chemical fertilizers, crops diseases and control, rabbit recordkeeping and diseases, plus Village Visit Question.

• exam includes question on Ag Surveys, local gardening practices (fertilizer use & disease control) and local rabbit-keeping practices (disease control & recordkeeping).

10:05 - 12:00 LANGUAGE Vocabulary for Village Visit

• orientation again emphasizes Village Visit and importance of language skills in that experience.

• session dwells on vocabulary useful during the visit, and trainers help trainees explore anxieties about the visit.

LUNCH

1:30 - 3:25 LANGUAGE Dialogues and situations for Village Visit

• work centers on situations and conversations trainees will encounter in Village Visit.

• emphasis is placed on building trainee confidence in the local language.

3:35 - 5:30 EXTENSION Village Visit Orientation

• overview states logistics and goals of Village Visit, emphasizing Technical, Language, and Extension goals and how they all relate in Ag Extension work.

• questions and logistics are worked out.

• go.

This day is INTEGRATED in that all the cessions point toward the Village Visit which follows as an experience which will bring together the topics addressed in each session. Language, technical, and extension issues are woven together by the trainers in their orientations to each session and summarized by the extension trainer in the Village Visit Orientation session. The entire day serves to give trainees language, technical, and extension skills in order to accomplish the village visit effectively. Furthermore, trainees are made aware that all these skills are joined together in successful Ag. Extension work, which the trainees are asked to practice during their visit to neighboring villages.

SAMPLE INTEGRATED WEEK

FROM DESIGN A.

WEEK 4

(CROPS)

Morning

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday/Sunday

 

Community meeting
Result demonstrations 1C*

Women in development

Crops
Intro to disease 11/2F

Adult learning &teaching 2C

Crops exam
#4(staff meeting planning week 5)

 
 

Crops
maintenance 2F

(Staff meeting assessment)
Crops
field exercise troubleshooting 2F

Crops
non-chemical and chemical disease controls 2 1/2C, F

Administrative (shots)

Organizing skills & helping 2C

Independent

Lunch

Crops
review exam 1/2C
---------------------
Fertilizer match 2C

Crops
Ag environment 2C

Human diseases and agents of disease 21/2C

Crops
nematodes 1F
-------------
Crops
maintenance 1F

Crops
weed control 1/2F
----------------
Crops
maintenance 1 1/2F

Work

Afternoon

Crops
field exercise (sidedressing) 11/2F

Crops maintenance 1F
-----------------
Method demonstrations 1C

Crops
maintenance 11/2F

Free time

Intro to field days 1C
-------------
Independent research of ice resources 1C

 

Evening

Independent Work

Training evaluation

   

 

WEEKLY THEMES: DISEASES & CONTROLS DEMONSTRATIONS, TEACHING, & HELPING

(*1 or 2 = hours of session

C or F = class, field)

Sample Integrated Week (cont'd)

Several overall features integrate this week. They are:

Evaluation Process

Community Meeting
(Mon, 8-9)

-

orientation to weekly themes, revised schedule, how sessions fit together, special events.

Training Evaluation
(Thurs, 7-8 p.m.)

-

trainees give trainers feedback on this week.

Staff Meeting/Planning
(Fri. 8-9)

-

trainers respond to feedback and finalize plan for the next week of training.

Assessment Process

Assessment Meeting
(Tues, 10-12)

-

trainers assess trainees & assign feedback interviews.

Interview
(Week)

-

trainers meet with trainees during free time.

Crops Exam
(Fri. 8-10)

-

trainees demonstrate knowledge and skills.

Independent Work

Evenings and weekends free for personal needs and independent projects.

Weekly Themes

Diseases and Control

Demonstrations, Teaching, and Helping

DISEASES AND CONTROLS

Intro to Diseases (Wed, 8-10)

- introduction to concept of diseases overall.

- crops diseases lecturette, reading, and discussion.

- reference to Disease Control, Human Disease Shots, Nematodes, and Exam Sessions on similar themes to follow in the week.

Other disease-related Sessions (throughout week)

- continue to build on each other.

- continue to relate each session to overall theme.

- orientation to Shots session, where trainees are given immunizations, emphasizes what trainees have learned about diseases ant disease control.

- Examination on Friday draws together the overall disease theme.

DEMONSTRATIONS, TEACHING, & HELPING

Result Demonstrations (Mon, 8:55 - 9:55)

- introduction to Ag. Extension theme of teaching, helping, demonstrating.

- reference to relates sessions during the week: all Crops sessions, Method Demonstrations, WID Adult Learning & Teaching, Organizing & Helping Skills, Intro to Field Days, etc.

- information on result demonstrations, emphasizing use of result & method demonstrations, adult learning strategies and helping skills in Crops sessions throughout training.

Other related Sessions (throughout week)

- continue to build on each other ant to overall theme.

- WID session covers how to set up demonstrations to teach women ag.

- Adult Learning & Helping sessions reflects on how Crops and Extension sessions are designed and carried out.

- Intro to Field Days session brings together the week's technical and extension topics, especially demonstrations and Adult Learning, in order to begin focusing on the Field Days as integrated Ag Extension activities.

During this. week, trainees learn more technical skills by repetition; practice, and a field-oriented approach. They begin troubleshooting which is the skill of identifying ag problems ant proposing solutions in the field. The trainees also reflect on and conceptualize about Adult Learning and Helping Skills. These activities not only tie the week’s sessions together thematically, but also promote the most important outcome of training - the competent autonomy of the trainees. For these reasons this week is considered INTEGRATED.

 

C. Building the training schedule

The final Training Schedule is really a chapter and a calendar of events by which all the participants in a training experience are guided. The schedule incorporates the sessions, days, and week presented into a unified training program. From where does the final schedule come? It is product of a step-by-step process which begins with pre-training research. The steps include:

1. GOALS

By study of TAC sheets, Pre-Training research findings, and training requirements, the entire training staff should reach consensus on the broad overall goals of the training program. This defines a set of clear commonly-help assumptions on which to base schedule decisions. (See Preparation for Training).

2. ADULT LEARNING STRATEGIES

Through staff training and other informal ways, trainers should agree upon the methods and approach they will use to reach the Goals formulated above.

3. COMPONENT GOALS AND SKILL GROUPS

Each component of the Ag. Training staff should define its own set of overall goals and more specific Skill Groups (topic areas to cover). (See Preparation for Training).

4. OVERALL PARAMETERS

Based on programming guidelines and training goals, the entire staff should set the following parameters:

- Total length of training (number of weeks)

- Major Subject Areas (list)

- Major Events (Live-In, Volunteer Visit, Orientation Phase, etc.)

- Pre-determined Factors (Meal Times, Medical Sessions, Staging)

- Technical Emphasis (crops and livestock, or crops or livestock)

- Time per component

- Weekly length of Training (hours/weeks, days off)

- Structure for each day (hours/day)

5. COMPONENT PARAMETERS

Next each component should develop the following lists:

- Specific Training Topics

- Special Events (Farrowing, Community Analysis Day, Field Day)

- Given Factors (Review sessions, Exams, Community Meeting)

- Specific Goals for each topic

- Specific Training Sessions (name, duration, special needs)

- Component strategy (sequence and method of topics).

6. INTEGRATION STEP I (WEEKLY THEMES)

The entire staff must agree on the sequence and nature of themes which integrate the components of training together on a weekly or daily basis. (See Model Training Designs which follow for examples).

7. INTEGRATION STEP II (DESIGN ELEMENTS)

Then the staff should decide upon specific design features that will embody the principal Training ideas. (See Preparation for Training). This includes:

- Dates of major events

- Structure of each day

- Weekly length of training

- Time per component (total and weekly)

8. DEFINE "GRID"

The parameters, weekly themes, and design elements can now be added together to form a "grid" into which the specific sessions may be placed later. The "Grid" is made up of two hour time blocks into which sessions may be placed. (See Sample Week "grid").

Finalize the "Grid" (make sure everything in the schedule is set in place and agreed upon, except the component sessions). Verify the Component Time Blocks (hours/week for component use).

9. "PLUG IN" COMPONENT SESSIONS

In all training programs, Administration, Language, and Extension components are the generic backbone of the schedule. They should be "plugged in" first, followed by a final check of Technical time blocks, plugging in Technical Sessions, and final balancing of component times/week, etc.

Plug In:

- Administration Sessions

- Extension and Language Sessions

- Check Technical Time Blocks

- Plug in Technical Sessions. Consider the distribution of Technical/Extension sessions for integration purposes.

- Adjustment of Extension vs. Technical/Week (to balance the load per week)

10. INTEGRATION STEP III (SEQUENCE AND FLOW)

Look back over each week. First, compare the overall week schedule to the weekly themes developed earlier. Adjust. Second, consider the sequence and relationship of sessions with regard to their subject matter, how they fit together logically, and how the sequence of sessions reflects design ideas (Adult Learning, Experiential Learning, Integration of parts). Adjust.

11. REVIEW

Make sure each component is satisfied. Let it sit for a day or two. Questions will arise. Answer them.

• Print Overall Schedules

• Print first week's schedule for trainees

• Do not print beyond the first week, in order to leave an opportunity for adjustments based on trainee input and training experience.

• Schedule an evaluation of training for the end of week one.

By formally or informally following these steps, an integrated Training Design will take form as the final Training Schedules. The more experienced and together a training staff becomes, the less formal this process needs to be.

 

D. Model training designs

What does a final Integrated Ag. Training Schedule look like? Two examples follow: They are not blueprints for any particular project, although they are products of the scheduling process described before. These designs are meant to illustrate the concepts in this manual.

The Philosophy and Approach section of Chapter I gives us the ideas or concepts of Integrated Ag. Training. In Ideas on Training Design there are specific ways to represent those ideas in a schedule, called design features. The previous section, Scheduling, described how to define and combine design features into a whole. The following schedules are the products of this way of looking at the Ag. Training design process.

These schedules represent the extremes of pre-service Ag. Training Design. One schedule is six weeks long. The other spans twelve weeks. Generally speaking, the six week schedule illustrates a stateside skill-training before in-country language training. The twelve week schedule depicts in-country combined language and skill training. The designs include a range of features and variations one may encounter in Peace Corps training experience. As generic extremes, neither schedule would be a useful design to implement, but both should prove useful for staff training and a reference to staffs constructing their own schedules.

The following is a comparative list of the "overall parameters" of the two schedules. ("Overall Parameters" is step four of the scheduling process.)

Overall Parameters

 

Design A

Design B

Length of Training

Six weeks

Twelve weeks

Location

Stateside Training

In-Country village

Language Training

No

Yes

Cross - Cultural Training

Generic, limited

Strong emphasis

Technical Training

Two separate tracks(Livestock $ Crops)

One track(Crops, with a Livestock Orientation)

Special Features

Extension Agent Visit

Volunteer Visit

 

Family Live -In (1 week)

Family Live-In(throughout) Village Live -In (3 days)

Scheduling Strategy

Field Day 2 or 3 hour sessions/topic

Field Day Large blocks for each topic

Total Hours

240

528

(hours per day)

8

8

(week)

(40)

(44)

Hours/Components

Administrative 12

20

 

Language 0

260

 

Crops 135

130

 

Livestock 135

28

 

Extension 93

90

There are characteristics shared by both designs, however, which are considered essential to any Ag. Training design, no matter in what circumstances it is constructed and carried out. These features and how they fit together in each design are the most important concepts to remember in designing Integrated Ag. Training Events.

Generic Ag. Training Design Features

• Session, day, and week building blocks

• Contracting and closure activities

• Evenings and most weekends free for "Independent Work".

• Feedback, evaluation, and re-design process: Thursday evening Training Evaluation Friday - staff meeting to plan next week Monday a.m. - Community Meeting to present new week's design.

• Logical sequence of sessions

- Experiential sequence (early sessions are field activities, which serve as "experiences" to analyze in later sessions; later sessions "apply" early lee sons).

- Integrated sequence (sessions on similar topics near each other; later sessions bring things together; e.g. garden planning).

- Learning sequences (sessions build on each other e.g. Week II: Adult Learning principles and how to transplant tomatoes; Week V: give demonstration on how to transplant tomatoes).

• Consistent number of hours/week for each component (to avoid overloads or burnout for trainee or trainees and to promote integration).

• Integrated Ag. Extension weekly themes

• Process of moving from trainee dependence toward competent autonomy.

(Read this while looking at the Model Design).

These generic features fit together in the overall strategy outlined in the Philosophy section of this volume in the following ways:

1. AG. EXTENSION THEME

Guiding the entire Training Design is the overall training theme, which is AG EXTENSION. We define Ag. Extension as "effective two way communication which helps solve agricultural problems".

This is what Peace Corps Ag. Volunteers are supposed to do. In order to do this, Volunteers must speak the local language, demonstrate entry-level ag. technical skills, and be able to practice affective ag. extension. Each of these training schedules is designed to prepare trainees to do these things.

2. WEEKLY THEMES

NOT THIS

Crops

Extension

Livestock

THIS

 

Week

1

     

Week

1

AG Extension

 

2

       

2

Themes

 

3

       

3

 
 

4

       

4

 
 

5

       

5

 
 

6

       

6

 

Instead of three separate components of training each following their own logic through the weeks of training, each week has a set of Ag. Extension Themes to which each component contributes. The themes for the model six-week design are listed below as examples. They can be found on the model design pages.

Week I

Week II

Week III

Week IV

Week V

Week VI

- Contracting
- Community Analysis
- Planting

- Community Entry
- Land Preparation & Insect Control

- Soils, fertilizer
- Ag Extension I

- Disease & Controls .
- Ag Extension II: (Demonstrations, Teaching, & Helping)

- Garden Planning, Field Crops
- Ag Extension III

- Skill Demonstration
- Closure

3. OVERALL FLOW OF THEMES

     

Trainee

depended

autonomy

     

upon

&

     

involvement

competence

 

Trainer

 

2 weeks

 

4 weeks

6 weeks

 

4 weeks

 

8 weeks

12 weeks

   

time

   

For both designs and regardless of overall duration, the meet important outcome is the competent autonomy of the participants. The overall flow of both designs toward that goal may be seen in the timing of three phases of each training cycle:

 

Week 1 to 2
1 to 4

Week 3 to 4
5 to 8

Week 5 to 6
9 to 12

Crops

Planting

Soil & nutrition science

Garden-plan

Livestock

Care of animals

Insects & diseases

Livestock production plan

Extension(Language)

Live - In

Ag. Extension Day

Field Day

AG. EXTENSION

EXPERIENCES

CONCEPTS & GENERALIZATIONS

APPLICATION & SYNTHESIS

The following are the two model Training Designs.

(The title is below the table)

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Weekend

8:00-9:55

Intro to training 2C

Poultry Housing and construction 1C & 3B

Community analysis method and strategies 2C

Goats intro and overview 1B & 1C

Livestock exam (staff meeting) 2C

 

10:05-12:00

Group resource assessment 2C

Skill needs and overview 2 1/2C

Gathering info in the community 4F

Admin. (shots)

Swine overview 1B & 1C

 

1:30-3:25

Orientation to livestock training 2B

Prep for livestock day old chicks 1 1/2

     

Independent Work

3:35-5:30

Poultry overview 1C & 1B

 

Analysis, organization and sharing of info 2C

Rabbits overview and construction 1C & 3B

Swine construction 1C & 3B

 

evening

     

Training evaluation

   

Weeks I (LIVESTOCK) Same themes as Crops (Caring for animals)

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Weekend

8:00-9:55

Community meeting

Intro to nutrition 2C

 

Extension worker visit 21 2C

Livestock exam #2 (staff meeting)2C

 

10:05-12:00

Intro to development 3C

Rabbits reproduction 2B

Orientation and extension worker visit 2C & 6F

Ruminant nutrition 11/2C

Swine fieldwork

 

1:30-3:25

Goats construction 1C & 1B

Intro to feeds 1C & 1B

 

Poultry handling and culling 2B

Rabbit recordkeeping 1B & 1C

Live - in begins

3:35-5:30

 

Swine feed rations 2C

 

Goats rations and forages 2C

Community family live - in and orientation 2C

 

evening

     

Training evaluation

   

Week II (LIVESTOCK) (Feeds and Nutrition)

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Weekend

8:00-9:55

Community meeting
------------
Commnication skills 1C

Development work 21/2C

Rabbit feed rations 4C

Intro to disease 2C

Livestock exam #3(staff meeting)2C

 

10:05-12:00

Goats anatomy and castration 2B

Poultry feed and nutrition 11/2C

 

Decision making in groups 2C

Farm visit 2

 

1:30-3:25

Reaching small farmers 2C

Farm visit 4F

Poultry newcastle vaccination 1B

Swine disease and parasites 1C & 1B

Analysis & sharing of live - in 2C

 

3:35-5:30

Poultry feeds and nutrition 2C

 

Scale model demo 3F

Goats parasites and vitamin shots 2B

Poultry diseases 1B & 1C

 

evening

     

Training evaluation

   

Week III (LIVESTOCK) (Diseases)

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Weekend

8:00-9:55

Intro to training 2C

Crops plant direct seeded vegies 4F

Community analysis methods and strategies 2C

Crops plant cereals 2F

Crops exam #1 (staff Meeting) 2C

 

10:05-12:00

Group resource assessment 2C

 

Gathering info in the community 4F

Administrative (shots)

Crops Maintenance 11/ 2F ________
Watering young plats 1/2F

 

1:30-3:25

Crops plant cucurbits 2F

Extension skill needs & resources 21/2C

 

Crops: intro to crop prod. MGT. 1/2C ________Germ test if
________Crops maint 1/2F

Crops veg. Characteristics 2C

Independent work

3:35-5:30

Crops orientation 1/2C
_________
Crops units of measure 11/2C

Crops direct Planning principles, practices 11/2C

Analysis, organization & sharing of info 2C

Crops plant pulses 2F

Crops maint of advance plantings if
_________
Made beds for transplanting if

 

evening

     

Training evaluation

   

Week I (Crops) Themes Contracting Community Analysis Planting

1 = 1 hour

C = classroom

F = field

B = barn

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Weekend

8:00-9:55

Community meeting

   

Reflecting and generalizing from extension worker visit 21/2C

Crops exam #2 (staff meeting 2C)

 

10:05-12:00

Intro to development 3C

Crops transplanting 4F

Orientation and extension worker visit 2C & 6F

Crops maint 11/2F

Crops applying pesticides if

Live in begins

1:30-3:25

Crops review exam 1/2C
_________
Watering estab. Plants 1/2F
_________
Maint if

Crops identifying insects and their damage 2F

 

Crops non - chemical and chemical insect control 21/2C

Community family live - in orientation 2

 

3:35-5:30

Crops plant sweet potatoes 2F

Crops land prep principles 1F
_________
Crops maint 1F

 

Sprayer troubleshooting maint 11/2F

Crops plot inspection 2F

 

evening

     

Training evaluation

   

Week II (Crops) Community Entry Land Preparation & Insect Control

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Weekend

8:00-9:55

Community meeting
_________
Comunication skills 1C

Development work 21/2C

Crops farm visit 4F

Crops field exercise troubleshooting 2F

Crops #3(staff meeting) 2C

 

10:05-12:00

Crops review exam 1/2C
________
Crops maint 11/2F

Plant nutrition basics 11/2F

 

Decision making in groups 2C

Crops maint 2F

 

1:30-3:25

Reaching small farmers 2C

Using organic fertilizers 1C
_____________
Composting 2C
_____________
Maint 1F

Crops maint 1F
____________
Scale model demo 3F

Crops using chemical Fertilizers 21/2F

Sharing of live - in 2C


 

3:35-5:30

Crops soils, characteristics 2F

   

Crops maint 11/2F

Crops plant nursery seedbeds 1F
_______
Raising transplants 1C

 

Live - in

Training evaluation

   

Week III (Crops) Soils & Fertilizer Ag Extension (Reaching Small Farmers Scale Models Development Work Decision making in groups Farm Visit Troubleshooting)

 

Weeks IV - VI (LIVESTOCK and CROPS)

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Weekend

8:00-9:55

Community meeting 1C
_________
Results demo 1C

Women in development 2C

Rabbits diseases & parasites 2B & 1C

Adult learning and teaching 2C

Livestock exam #4 (staff meeting) 2C

 

10:05-12:00

Goats reproduction 2C

Swine selection 1B & 1C

Farm visit 1

Admin. (shots)

Organizing skills and helping 2C

 

1:30-3:25

Fowl pox vaccination 1B & 1C

Swine reproduction 1B & 1C

Diseases & Agents of disease 21/2C

Swine field work 2B

Farm visit 2

 

3:35-5:30

Goats diseases 1B & 1C

Swine recordkeeping 1C
_________
Method demo 1F

Farm visit 11/2

Farm visit 2

Intro to field days 1C
_________
Independent research of ice 1C

 

evening

     

Training evaluation

   

Week IV (LIVESTOCK) (Diseases)

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Weekend

8:00-9:55

Community meeting 1C

Poultry slaughter & post mortem

Swine production planning 4C

Nutrition concepts 2C

Livestock exam #5 (staff meeting) 2C

 


10:05-12:00

Practical skills for health and maintenance 3F

Problem solving 2C

 

Admin. (shots)

Farm visit 2

 

1:30-3:25

Goats production planning 4C

Farm visit 2

Swine post mortem 2B

Poultry production planning 2C

Extension system and institution building 2C

 



3:35-5:30

 

Comparative fowl raising 2C

Field day planning meeting 2C

Organizing farmer organizations 2C

Farm visit 2

 

evening

     

Training evaluation

   

Week V (LIVESTOCK) (Production Planning)

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Weekend

8:00-9:55

Community meeting

Livestock final exam 2B

Admin. 2

Field day 8F

Clean up (staff meeting) 4B

 


10:05 -12:00

Farm visit 3

Farm visit 6

Field day prep 6F

 

Last rites (closure)2C

 

1:30-3:25

Rabbit production planning 4C

     

Free time

 

3:35-5:30

           

evening

     

Training evaluation

   

Week VI (LIVESTOCK)

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Weekend

8:00-9:55

Community Meeting
_________
Result demo 1C

Women in development 2C

Crops intro to diseases 11/2F

Adult learning and teaching 2C

Crops exam #4 (staff meeting)2C

 

10:05-12:00

Crops maint 2F

Cross field exercise trouble - shooting 2F

Crops non- chemical and chemical disease controls 21/2C, F

Admin. (shots)

Organizing skills and Helping 2C

 

1:30-3:25

Crops review exam 1/2C
_________
Fertilizer math 2C

Crops Ag environment 2C

Diseases and agents of disease 21/2C

Crops nematodes if
_________
Crops maint if

Crops weed control 1/2F
_________
Crops maint 11/2F

 

3:35-5:30

Crops field exercise sidedressing 11/2F

Crops maint 1/2F
_________
Crops maint 11/2F



__________
Crops maint 11/2F

Free time

Intro to field days 1C
_________
Independent research of ice resources 1C

 

evening

     

Training evaluation

   

Week IV (Crops) Disease & Control Ag Extension II: (Result demonstrations Troubleshooting Women in Development Adult Learning Organizing and Helping Field Day Intro Independent Research)

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Weekend

8:00-9:55

Community meeting

Crops units of measurement, plot layout 2F

Trad. Field crops intro 1C
_________

TFC’s stages of growing 1F

Nutrition concepts 2C

Crops exam #5 (staff meeting) 2C

 






10:05-12:00


Practical skills for health maintenance 3F

Problem solving in groups 2C

Field crop prod. Practices 2C

Admin. (shots)

Crops maint 2F

 

1:30-3:25

Crops review exam 1/2C
______________
Maint 11/2F

Crops seed storage, quality 1C
____________
Crops seed production 1F

Garden planning 2C

Grain drying and storage 2C, F

Extension system and institution building 2C

 

3:35-5:30

Garden planning 2C

Crops maint 2F

Field day planning meeting 2C

Organizing farmers organization 2C

Garden plan presentation 2C

 

evening

     

Training evaluation

   

Week V (Crops) Garden Planning Field Crops Ag Extension III: (Garden Planning Problem Solving Field Day Planning Organizing Extension Systems)

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Weekend

8:00-9:55

Community meeting

Crops Final exam 3C, F

Admin. (shots)

 

(staff meeting)

 





10:05-12:00


_________
Soil Conservation 3F


_________
Free

 

Field day 8F

Crops cleanup 2F

 

1:30-3:25

Maint 11/2F
_________
Review Last exam 1/2C

Final maint and plot inspection 2F

Field day 8F

 

Last rites (closure) 2C

 

3:35-5:30

Review for final 2C

Crops free time

       

evening

     

Final training evaluation

   

Week VI (CROPS) Skill Demonstration Closure

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Weekend

8:00-9:55

Introduction to training 2C Icebreaker

Crops plant direct seeded vegies 4F

Introduction to development 3C

Language and cross culture 2C

Crops maintenance if
_________
Crops plant cucurbits if

Language 2C

10:05-12:00

Group resource assessment 2C

 

Crops direct seeding & principles, practices 1C

Language 2C

Language 2C

Language 2C

1:30-3:25

Language 2C

Extension skill needs and resources 21/2C

Language 2C

Crops vegetable characteristics 2C

Language 2C

Independent work

3:35-5:30

Orientation to livestock training 1B & 1C

Language 11/2C

Language 2C

Crops plant cereals 2F

(Coordinators) meeting language 2C

 

evening

     

Training evaluation

   

Week I (See bi-weekly thems)

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Weekend

8:00-9:55

Community meeting 1C

Crops maintenance 1F

Language 2C

Technical exam #1 2C

Community analysis methods & strategies 2C

Language 2C

10:05-12:00

Development work 21/2C


_________
Language 1/2C

Crops plant pulses 1F_______

Crops intro to crop prod MGT 11/2C
_________
Crops watering young plants 1/2F

Language 2C

Rabbits overview 1B & 1C

(Language community analysis gathering info 4F

(Coordinators meeting language)2C

1:30-3:25

Language 2C

Language 2C

Crops units of measure conversions 11/2C
__________
Plot maintenance 1/2F

Language 2C

   

3:35-5:30

Language 2C

Language 2C

Crops plant sweet potatoes 2F

Language 2C

Analysis organization, and sharing of Information 2C

 

evening

     

Training evaluation

   

Week II bi weekly themes Contracting Planting Community Entry & Analysis

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Weekend




8:00-9:55

Community meeting 1C
_________
Admin. 1A

Diseases and agents of disease 21/2C

Rabbits construction 4B

Language 2C

Language 2C

Pc extension worker visit 4F



10:05-12:00

Language 2C

Language 11/2C

 

Crops maintenance 2F

Crops transplanting 2F

 

1:30-3:25

Language 2C

Language 2C

Language 2C

Crops transplanting exercise 4F

Orientation & PCV extension worker visit 2C

 

3:35-5:30

Crops maintenance 11/2F
_________
Crops review exam 1/2C

Crops germination test 1C
_________
Crops make beds for transplanting 1F

Language 2C

 

Travel (language) 2F (coordinators meeting)

 

evening

     

Training evaluation

   

Week III

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Weekend

8:00-9:55

PCV extension worker visit 2F

Community meeting 1C
_________
Admin. 1A

Language 2C

Crops non-chemical and chemical insect control 21/2C

Language 2C

Technical exam #2 2C

10:05-12:00

Travel (language) 3F

Livestock intro to nutrition 2C

Language 2C

Crops sprayer maint. repair 11/2C

(Coordinators) meeting language 2C

Language 2C

1:30-3:25

 

Language 2C

Crops maintenance 2C

Language 2C

Reaching small farmers 2C

 








3:35-5:30

Reflecting and generalizing from PCV extension worker visit 21/2C

Language 2 C

Crops identifying insects and their damage 2F

Language 2C

Crops maintenance 2F

 

evening

     

Training evaluation

   

Week IV

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Weekend

8:00-9:55

Community meeting 1C
_________
Crops review exam 1F

Language 2 C

Decision making in groups 2C

Language 2 C

Personal suport with stabilizers 2C

Language 2 C

10:05 -12:00

Crops applying insecticides with a sprayer 11/2F

Language 2 C

Crops soil characteristics 2F

Language 2 C

Crops plant nursery seedbed 1F

_________
Land prep & seedbed styles 1F

Language 2 C

1:30-3:25

Language 2 C

Scale model demonstration 4C + F

Language 2 C

Intro to feeds 1C & 1B

Language 2 C

 

3:35-5:30

Language 2 C

 

Language 2 C

Crops pruning staking 1/2F
________
Crops maintenance 11/2F

(Coordinators meeting) language 2C

 

evening

     

Training evaluation

   

Week V

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Weekend

8:00-9:55

Community meeting
_________
Admin. 1A

Crops plant nutrition basics 11/2C
_________
Crops composting 11/2F

Language 2 C

Crops using organic fertilizers 2C

Technical exam #3 2C

Discovering how to say no 2C

10:05-12:00

Language 2 C

Method demo 1F

Language 2 C

Organizing skills 2C

Crops maintenance 11/2F
________
Crops raising transplants 1/2C

 

1:30-3:25

Language 2 C

Language 2 C

Rabbit feed rations 2C

Language 2 C

Language 2 C

 

3:35-5:30

Result demo 1C
________
Crops maintenance 1F

Language 2 C

Women in development 2C

Language 2 C

(Coordinators meeting language )2C

 

evening

     

Training evaluation

   

Week VI Cultural Adaptation Ag Extension II Soils and Fertilizers

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Weekend

8:00-9:55

Community meeting 1C

_________
Admin. 1C

Practical skills for health maintenance 2C & F

Language 2 C

Crops using chemical fertilizers 2C

Crops maintenance & plot inspection 2F

Language 2 C

10:05-12:00

Language 2 C

Corps maintenance 1F

Language 2 C

Adult learning & teaching 2C

Crops fertilizer match 2C

(Coordinators meeting) language 2C

1:30-3:25

Language 2 C

Language 2 C

Rabbit record keeping 1B & 1C

Language 2 C

Crops field exercise sidedressing 1F

 

3:35-5:30

Rabbit reproduction 2B

Language 2 C

Crops determining fertilizer needs 1F
__________
Hand watering estab. Plants 1/2F

__________
dry season watering 1/2F

Language 2 C

Working with others: helping 3C

 

evening

     

Training evaluation

   

Week VII

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Weekend

8:00-9:55

Community meeting 1C
_________
Crops maintenance 11/ 2F

Language 2 C

Problem solving INC groups 2C

Language 2 C

Technical exam #4 2C

Travel (language) 4F

10:05-12:00

Intro to crop diseases 11/2F

Language 2 C

Rabbits into to disease 1B & 1C

Language 2 C

Language 2 C

 

1:30-3:25

Language 2 C

Dealing with ambiguity 3C

Language 2 C

Crops non-chemical and chemical disease control 2CF

(Coordinators meeting) language 2C

Village visit

3:35-5:30

Language 2 C

Crops maintenance 1F

Language 2 C

Crops fields exercise troubleshooting 1F
_________
Crops maintenance 1F

Village visit orientation 2C

 

evening

     

Training evaluation

   

Week VIII Fertilizers; Diseases & Control Ag Extension III Cultural Adaptation II

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Weekend

8:00-9:55

Village visit travel 2F

Basic nutrition concepts 2C

Language 2 C

Crops Ag environment 3C

Language 2 C

Language 2 C

10:05-12:00

Analysis & sharing of info from village visit 2C

Crops review exam 1/2F
_________
Crops maintenance 11/2F

Language 2 C

Crops maintenance 1F

(Coordinators meeting) language 2C

Language 2 C

1:30-3:25

Community meeting 1C
_________
Admin. 1A

Language 2 C

Non-verbal communication, part I 1C
__________
Crops veg. Drying, part I 1C

Language 2 C

Intro to field day 1C
________
Crops feed storage quality 1C

 

3:35-5:30

Rabbit diseases and parasites 2B

Language 2 C

Crops farm visit 2F

Language 2 C

Crops seeds production 1F
________
Crops maintenance 1F

 

evening

     

Training evaluation

   

Week IX

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Weekend

8:00-9:55






Community meeting 1C
_________
Language 2 C

Crops veg. Drying method demo 1F
_________
Crops nemotodes 1F

Language 2 C

Language 2 C

Technical exam 2C

Language 2 C

10:05-12:00

Language 2 C

Crops maintenance 2F

Language 2 C

Language 2 C

Crops maintenance 2F

(Coordinators meeting) language 2C

1:30-3:25

Language 2 C

Language 2 C

Admin. 1A
__________
Non-verbal communication part II 1C

Organizing a farmers organization 2C

Rabbits comparative livestock raising 1B & 1C

 

3:35-5:30

Field day planning meeting 2C

Language 2 C

Crops intro to Traditional field crops 1C
__________
Crops traditional field crops stages of growth 1F

Crops field crop production practices 2C

The extension System & institution building 2C

 

evening

     

Training evaluation

   

Week X Ag Extension IV Cultural Adaptation III Post Harvest

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Weekend

8:00-9:55

Community meeting 1C
_________

Rabbits port mortem 2B

Language 2 C

Crops soil conservation 4F

Language 2 C

Crops garden plan presentations 2C

Language 2 C

10:05-12:00

Language 1C

Language 2 C

 

Language 2 C

Crops maintenance

Language 2 C

1:30-3:25

Language 2 C

Crops grain drying storage 2C

Language 2 C

Crops garden plan exercise 4C

Language 2 C

 

3:35-5:30

Language 2 C

Crops maintenance 2F

Language 2 C

 

(Coordinators meeting) language 2C

 

evening

     

Training evaluation

   

Week XI

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Weekend

8:00-9:55

Community meeting 1C
_________
Crops maintenance 1F

Final technical exam 3C & 3F

Rabbits production Planning 2C

Field day 8F

Language 2 C

Language 2 C

10:05-12:00

Language 2 C

Crops maintenance 1F

Field day 6F

 

Crops clean up
_________
Admin. 1A

Last rites (closure) 2C

1:30-3:25

Language 2 C

Language 2 C

   

Language 2 C

 

3:35-5:30

Crops review for final 2C

Language 2 C

   

(Coordinators meeting) 2C

 

evening

           

Week XII Planning Skill Demonstration Closure

 

E. Adaptation to various needs

These training materials are not a cookbook recipe for Peace Corps training work. They are tools for trainers to use in designing and carrying out their own training events. Adaptation of these materials is both encouraged and assumed. The process of design and carrying-out training work la inventive, creative, and personal. These volumes are meant to help, not hinder, that process. If the plane and ideas in this manual can free the trainer from certain basic skill and resource limitations, then they can help the trainer be more, not lees, creative. The admonition is, Adapt! The question is, How?

Principles

Certain principles should not change, and can be expressed in many different ways. These are the ideas expressed in Chapter I, Philosophy and Approach:

• Language proficiency

• Agriculture emphasis

• Adult Learning

• Experiential Learning

• Integration of parts

• Competent Autonomy of Trainees

• Ag. Extension Focus

Levels of Adaptation

Adaptation may occur on the level of any of the building blocks of training design: activity, session, day, week. Overall designs are adaptable too.

Adapting Overall Designs:

The model training designs are extreme examples of the adaptability of these Ag Training Materials. Designs A & B are very different and yet, they both embody the principles listed above. By examining these designs in comparison, it will be clear how the adaptation occurred. Refer to the list of comparative parameters for each in the introduction to the model designs.

Generally speaking, Design A is half as long as Design B. Design A has 240 hours, Design B has 520 or so. The technical and extension components retain approximately the same total hours, while 260 hours of language is the mayor difference. With regard to agriculture, this implies that Design A must compress ag learning and a full growing season into six weeks. Design B allows ag learning to progress at a more leisurely pace.

When adapting a week or a day from the model designs (or creating new ones), the same principles which inform overall designs still apply. Consider how to open and close the week or the day as a whole event. Define a weekly or day-long Ag Extension theme that holds various topics together. Formulate a process to solicit feedback, plan the next day or week, and present these plane to participants. This will make the design responsive to participant needs and interests. Put together an assessment process. Consider the logical, experiential, and integrated sequence of sessions. Make sure each of the goals for the week or day is met. By doing these things, adaptation or design should be successful.

Adapting Sessions and Activities: (From this or other manuals)

Consider the sample Integrated session plan. Ideally, sessions embody the very same principles as days, weeks, or overall training designs. Integration of technical and extension topics and as well as experiential and adult learning methods should play some part in any session design. Sessions must be adapted when supplies and equipment available, trainer numbers or skill level, specific content required, trainee numbers or skill levels vary. The method, time, arrangement, and number of activities should change to accommodate these variations. For example, as is stated in the session plan, if trainees have little or no construction experience, the orientation activity might be expanded to include a construction demonstration and a model feeder. If there were 40 trainees and two instructors, the trainers might ask 5 slightly experienced trainees before the session to learn the skills in order to facilitate groups of 8 each during the construction activity. If tools and facilitators were not available, a trainer could ask volunteer trainees to construct in a "fishbowl" as others observed. Trainees could switch roles during the activity. If the session had to be conducted in one hour instead of two, trainees could begin their projects during the session, complete the projects during freetime, and conclude the work at the beginning of the next session, or the number of projects could be reduced (the activity would then need to be very carefully planned). As a final example of adaptation: if the appropriate poultry-raising technique did not include feeders, pens, and waterers, then this session could be replaced by a session on free range management or related topic.

Specific Adaptation Issues:

Simultaneous Training Tracks

Sometimes a component covers one topic for all trainees - rice production, fish farming, crop production, for example. Other times, one group of trainees may be studying one topic while simultaneously another group may be concentrating on another topic. [This is illustrated in Design A (Crops) (Livestock) and Design B (Crops only)]. There are also "omnibus" training events, where a variety of topics is explored. As is illustrated by the model designs, the easiest way to accommodate "separate tracks" (language, cultures, or technical topics) is to structure the training schedule in generic modules or blocks. This requires that the separate tracks hold to the same overall weekly and daily time allotment.

 

Monday

Tuesday

a.m.

Tech

Language

 

Language

Tech

Tech = Livestock and Crops simultaneously

Language = Hausa & Twi simultaneously

"Tech" or "Language" proceeds in a regular way, exploring separate topics in separate ways but in the same time blocks. Block Scheduling like this allows the overall principles of Ag Training to be designed generically too. For example, each track can fill the generic blocks according to the logical and experiential sequence they need. Furthermore; both tracks have an opportunity to align themselves with extension and other sessions to integrate with them consistently. Each can plan to fill their blocks in accordance with adult learning and trainee-autonomy goals in mind. The more tracks there are, the more complex tints process becomes. Intricate designs reach a point after which perhaps separate training events should be considered, given resources available.

Staging and Training

Every training event is preceded by some form of staging (CAST, CREST, PRIST, STAGING, EXTENDED STAGING). Staging events are based on the Core Curriculum Training Manuals. Each event has a standard design. Therefore, training events should be designed to begin where these events end. For example, CASTs and CRESTs begin the process of group dynamics. They also explore extension, cross-cultural, assessment, and adult learning issues. These should all be taken into account. It is best to plan with Staging Coordinators to provide continuity in the overall training experience for trainees.

In terms of the Ag Training materials in this manual, only the extension component is affected directly by Staging events.

Village-based or Training Center Location

The greatest differences between training cycles located in villages or training-centers are: the nature of language/cross-cultural experiences, and the amount of pre-planning and site preparation required. In a village setting, language/cross-cultural experiences are more rich and challenging than elsewhere. The extension component particularly must respond to this by expanding sessions and time accorded this topic. The other components of training must also reflect much greater concern with cross-cultural issues. An ag vocabulary, use of local tools and techniques, more location-specific information, etc., must be included in technical sessions. These adaptations are illustrated in Design B. a twelve week village-based training design. There are other adaptations, which can be seen on inspecting Design A and B.

Language Training

Language training is essential to successful Ag. Extension training. It is therefore accorded 50% of the total time in Design B. Design A, which has no language included, precedes a language-centered training. Language is rich ground for integrating learning and putting things into practice in a concrete way. Language is served well by integration. This promotes the connection of all parts of a training event, and provides variety in the extensive language component. In Design B language classes provide links between sessions and as opportunities to accomplish other things while using the local language.

Budget and Resource Variations

The supply and set-up lists are inclusive and ideal. They are meant as a guide. When planning and designing a frugal and limited training cycle, these lists are reminders from which to depart creatively. An ideal commodity (Xerox machine) represents a tool for a general purpose (a means of copying training work). Remember that training design is intimately linked to financial and other resource availability. Don't plan it if you don't have it.

Host Country Trainers and Trainees

This manual has a built-in American cultural and language bias. It is meant to be used by Host Country trainers in conjunction with Americans so as to minimize misunderstandings and insensitivity. If the manual helps Host Country and American trainers work together more closely, it will serve a useful purpose. It is expected that the materials in this manual will be creatively adapted to each Host Country and culture in which it is used.

Working with both American and Host Country trainees presents the same challenge as a village setting presents. The cross-cultural and language components become more vital, more central, and more immediately applicable. All the aspects of a training design must take these effects into account. It is not appropriate to generalize beyond this on the affects a cross-cultural training population has on design. Each group will express unique needs and strengths which must be addressed.

Trainee Numbers

The greater the number of trainees, the more difficult it is to adhere strictly to the principles described in the Philosophy section of this manual. Lecturing and minimizing integration are often responses to dramatic increases in trainee numbers. Soliciting careful feedback and capacitating each trainee are hard to do with large numbers as well. Generally speaking, each session as planned in this manual can easily be accomplished well if there are less than thirty trainees. Beyond that logistics and self-directed learning become more difficult to facilitate.

In conclusion, adaptation of these training materials is essential to the success of specific training events. The designs illustrated in Model Training Designs preceding this subchapter are the best examples of adaptation the manual can offer. They represent extremes. Most Ag Training events fall somewhere in between them. Those who cannot adapt these materials to their particular needs may seek out the help of an experienced Ag Trainer. Again, good luck!

 

 

Appendices

 

Appendix A Glossary

activity

- see session plan format in Appendix B.

adult learning

- learning style for self-motivated, capable adults; see Philosophy and Approach, Chapter I

Ag Extension

- affective two-way communication which helps solve ag problems; the overall theme of Peace Corps Ag Training

assessment

- process to measure trainee performance against specific criteria; see Assessment Criteria in Appendix H; see Ideas on Training Design, Chapter II.

brainstorm

- collecting ideas in a group without discussion or argument.

Closure

- activity which ends a training experience, including whether goals were reached, what was learned, and how it went

Community Analysis

- title of Extension component skill group covering information-gathering, information-filtering, making maps, record keeping, etc. Related to Crops component skill group called Ag Environment.

Community Entry

settling in to a new host or work community.

component

- department or overall part of an entire Ag Extension Training; in this manual there are three components: Extension, Crops, Livestock; see inside cover.

contracting

- training activities in which trainees and trainers explore expectations, group resources & norms, and conclude a contract to participate in training.

cookbook recipe for training

- a standardized approach to training not subject to adaptation.

Core Curriculum

- Peace Corps Training project to improve and bring together training ideas and methods; generic training topics for every Peace Corps training cycle to cover.

crops

- technical component covering crop production; see Volume III.

curriculum

- collection of training topics, methods, and Information to carry out in a training cycle.

Debriefing

- telling feelings and opinions about an experience to others; part of closure.

Development

- the process of directed change aimed at alleviating poverty and helping people meet their own needs; see Philosophy & Approach.

Dialogue

- two-way discussion leading to an action or ending in an agreement to do work.

Discussion

- open-ended talk among equals, perhaps facilitated by a trainer.

Evaluation

- process of gathering feedback from trainees on training method, design, trainer effectiveness, etc.; see Philosophy and Approach section.

Examinations

- tests of trainee competence, usually a mix of practical and written work. See Volumes III and IV, Appendix, for examples.

Experiential learning

- four step learning process centered on direct experience: experience, reflection, generalization, application. See Philosophy & Approach.

Extension

- Ag Extension; described in Volume II; component of Ag Training often called Core Curriculum.

facilitate (-or)

- to guide and catalyse a learning activity or a group experience; the ability to help without hindering; (person who does this).

Feedback

- describing behavior or events and the effect of these events on a person or a group in order to help the actor or event improve; this is the moat important aspect of adult learning.

goal

-in this manual, the specified outcome of a training session; see session plan format in Appendix B.

Guidelines

- Chapter 3 of Volumes III and IV; technical information on Crops and Livestock to accompany session plane.

I.C.E.

- Information Collection and Exchange: the research and library arm of Peace Corps Washington, source of ICE manuals, etc.

Independent Work

- unstructured time in training design when trainees pursue independent projects, work assignments, personal interests.

integration

- the relationship of the parts of a training program; the process of bringing separate parts or topics together concretely and clearly; see Philosophy and Approach and Chapter II.

lecture (-ette)

- training method in which trainer gives oral presentation, trainees listen; (short version of this); used for orientation activity or when time is limited.

Live-In

- training method in which trainees live with host community families and return to the training site for daily sessions.

Livestock

- the technical component covering animal husbandry; see Volume IV.

Manual

- Ag Training Manual is the total four volume set.

Norms

- agreed-upon patterns of behavior trainees and trainers determine in contracting.

Objective

- in this manual, specific technical topics to be covered in curriculum.

O.P.D.

- Office of Program Development, Peace Corps Washington.

Overview

- general description of the topic and method of a session; see session plan format in Appendix B.

parameters

- general considerations or variables to determine, in Scheduling, Chapter II.

Pre-Training Research

- See "Pre Training Research" in Preparation for Training, Chapter II and Appendices C & D.

problem- solving

- Extension component skill involving the ability to identify a problem, explore alternatives, teat them, and evaluate results; see Volume II.

Process

(noun) a regularly repeated series of events (assessment meetings); (verb) to solicit and give feedback on a training experience.

Session(plan)

- one of the building blocks of a training design, usually a two hour series of activities; (the written plan for carrying out a session); see Appendix B. Volume I, and Chapter II of Volumes II, III, IV.

skill group

- category into which related session plans are grouped in each component; see Chapter II, Volumes II, III, IV.

TAC Sheet

- official Peace Corps job description forms for all programs; source of pre-training research information.

task list

- list of work tasks to be done in setting up or carrying out a training event; see Appendix D.

technical

- the Crops or Livestock components of Ag Training are generically called technical.

Tracks

- simultaneous components of Ag Training which occur in the same time blocks, covering different subjects with different trainees; see Adaptation to Various Needs, Chapter II.

trainees(ers)

- training participants, learners; (training designers, facilitators); the most important part of each word is TRAIN; -EE and -ER refer to the different roles each play in the same process; there may be leas value laden words for each role: (e.g. - new Volunteers, etc.); the barrier is not in the words, but in behavior, attitudes, and relationship.

Troubleshooting

- technical field-level problem - solving (e.g. identifying an insect and recommending a control); see Volume III.

training cycle (program)

- the entire six or twelve week event; (same).

village-based training

- a training cycle conducted in a host country village; see Design B in Chapter II for an example.

Volume

- one of the four books of the Ag Training Manual; see How To Use This Manual

 

Appendix B Pre-training research information list

Specific host country information is essential in determining relevant training objectives for any Ag training program, whether conducted stateside or in-country. PTR information is used to keep the technical resource library up to date and for coordination of stateside and in-country portions of training. Specific information important to stateside training follows:

ORGANIZATION

This category is comprised of the administrative setup of those Host Country Ministries and organizations that the trainees will be involved with, and others that they may find of assistance. Specifically, these are usually ministries or departments involved with agriculture irrigation, animal husbandry, forestry, and soils, and agricultural colleges.

Since most of the Volunteers in Agricultural programs are concerned with extension, the host countries' research-extension chain should be diagrammed.

INFRASTRUCTURE

Various aspects of infrastructure have bearing on Ag production and should also be explored during pre-training research. Specific areas include the road system, transport available, markets and market schedules in typical sites, small farmer credit both from banks and private sources, seasonal price variations of major crops, local units of measure, etc.

SPECIFIC AG INFORMATION

Climate data: Monthly rainfall and temperature data and/or maps, frequency or extreme weather like droughts, floods, high winds, and hail.

Cropping cycle: Planting and harvest dates for staple and program specific crops.

Units of measures: Official and traditional units of measure for area, length, weight, volume, and temperature.

Small farmer profile(s): Farm size, income, crops and livestock, living conditions, nutrition and health problems, life style, beliefs, attitudes, values.

Program data:

- Specific crops/animals to be covered

- Yields under traditional vs. improved practices

- Prevalent varieties and breeds

- Traditional growing practices for each crop

- Recommended improved practices for seedbed preparation, improved varieties, plant spacing, fertilizer use; insect, disease, and weed control; harvest and storage methods; irrigation methods.

- Sizes and types of gardens, animal projects

- Coat-return data

- Animal Diseases and Treatment Practices

- Specific insects, diseases, and weeds

- Recommended varieties and their characteristics

- Marketing and storage methods

Ag Supplies and Equipment:

• A detailed list of available fertilizers, insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, sticker-spreaders, and their current prices.

• Availability and prices of feedstuffs, vaccines, antibiotics, and improved breeds.

• Specific ag chemicals, fertilizers, vaccines, feedstuffs PCV's will be working with.

• Use of organic fertilizers and organic pest controls.

• Farm equipment PCV's will be working with (i.e., backpack sprayers, dusters, animal or tractor-drawn plows, planters, cultivators, etc.); building materials for animal shelter, feed, etc.

Soils

• Availability and coat of soil testing; who does it?

• A sample soil teat information form used by farmers.

• Relevant soil fertility data (lab teat results)

• Soils maps of the country

• Will PCV's need training in erosion control? If so, what kind?

Ag extension brochures: A good collection of up-to-date host country ag pamphlets and research bulletins covering the program crops and other relevant areas.

Host Country Ag development policy and projects

Small farmer credit information: Sources, availability, eligibility, interest rates, loan period, default policy, default rate, loan supervision provided.

MISCELLANEOUS:

• Ag slides and general ones

• Maps

• Books, brochures, articles on the country, local magazines and newspapers

• Copies of the PC newsletter .Samples of the handicrafts .TAC sheet and RFP

• Site Surveys

CULTURAL INFORMATION

Cultural aspects are also important, (e.g., language spoken, ethnic distribution, religious beliefs, holidays, local customs, family structure, local foods, beverages, attitudes and beliefs, and foreign influences). Some interesting brochures and books covering a nation's cultural aspects can usually be found at national museums, tourism boards, and bookstores in the national and regional capitals.

ROLE OF THE VOLUNTEER

Last but most important - the role of the volunteers - Job description, duties and obligations, realities", volunteers' place in ministry, site descriptions, letters from Volunteers in the same program describing work, frustrations, pleasures, cultural adaptation, In-country staff profiles, and organization are also helpful.

 

Appendix C Pre-training research tasks

TASKS TO BE ACCOMPLISHED BY TRAINING STAFF BEFORE THE VISIT

• Contact the Peace Corps Project Manager to set up meetings with:

- National Ministry staff (administrative and field)

- Peace Corps Volunteers in same or similar jobs, preferably at their sites

- Peace Corps Staff, particularly the Program and Training Representatives (PTRs)

• Arrange visits to trainees' future sites and/or typical sites

• Study TACs and D.O.W.; develop a rough analysis of the content:

- What tasks will the Volunteer have to be able to perform?

- What knowledge will the Volunteer have to acquire during training in order to competently perform those tasks?

- With regard to unclear items (a) and (b), what questions will need to be answered during the Pre-Training Research visit?

- Analysis the content of the D.O.W. and TACs, extracting key behavioral phrases, e.g., "Promote gardens, "Supervise planting", "Develop competence in gardening among Host Country Nationals", "Organize new agriculture cooperative"; answer the following questions:

What do they mean?

What are the tasks and competencies which they imply?

What are the implications for you as a trainer?

How can these competencies be trained?

How can they be evaluated?

In what settings should the training and evaluation take place?

Develop tentative answers to as many questions as possible--these tentative answers may have to be modified after the Pre-Training Research Visit.

• Review your tentative flat of tasks -- make certain that the individual tasks are not too general.

• Draft tentative Training Objectives, making certain that they are measurable and as behavioral as possible.

• Review Technical Training Objectives with the Technical Coordinator and the Project Director; try to answer the following questions:

- If a trainee performs the objective, will that be a true measure of 0a or her ability to perform the task?

- Are all the teaks covered by objectives?

- Do the Performance Criteria conform to a minimally acceptable standard of trainee performance?

• Try to answer the following questions:

- What economic, political, cultural, or technological trends are liable to influence the Trainee's ability to do his or her job?

- What questions will you need answered by PC staff, host agency personnel?

• Take with you to the PC office:

- D.O.W. and TACs

- Task Analysis Materials, including the tentative Task Analysis based on the D.O.W. and TACs

- Draft Technical Training Objectives and Core Curriculum Objectives

- Copy of your questions to be answered on the trip

- Copy of the Pre-Training Research Tasks (this task list)

- Draft of Memo of Understanding if appropriate

- Camera and film

RESEARCH TASKS

• Meet with the Country Director and the PTR

- Explain what you hope to accomplish during your visits.

- Firm up a schedule

- Brief them on the work you have done to date

- Confirm the accuracy of the D.O.W. and TACs; make changes as required

- Leave behind a copy of the Memo of Understanding draft and the tentative Training Objectives for their study.

• Discuss Specific Ag. Information (listed above) and obtain as much as you can.

• Visit Peace Corps Volunteers doing same or similar job; informally observe each Volunteer for 1/2 or 1 day at work.

- What technical tasks are performed?

- What interpersonal exchanges take place?

- What is the Volunteer's general living situation?

• Discuss with each Volunteer:

- His/her typical week (after hours, week-ends, holidays--recreation and social activities).

- Your task analysis materials for points which are incorrect or points which must be emphasized.

The job:

- What has been the easiest?

- What has been the hardest?

- What has been the most successful?

- How does the Volunteer account for his/her successes and/or failure? Explore this.

• Obtain descriptions of village farmers and counterpart of the volunteer at the technical level.

• What are the things the Volunteer does which seem to please or displease the people with whom he/she interacts? Viceversa?

- What is a typical week like for counterpart and village farmers?

- What new behaviors has the Volunteer adopted which have made adaptation easier?

- What are the common topics of social conversation?

• Discuss Specific Ag Information (listed above) and obtain as much as you can.

• Visit Host Country Agency personnel, both officials and field.

- Identify yourself, whom you work for, why you are there, what you hope to learn, how the official can help training staff provide better Volunteers.

- Develop or obtain an organization chart of the ministry; obtain brief biographies of those persons with whom the Volunteer will relate.

- Obtain a brief history of the development of the program - - who thought of it, why is it needed, how is it going, etc.?

- Obtain copies of relevant technical materials from the Agency.

- Enlist agency support for training; to provide materials consultants, etc.

- Obtain the agency's opinion of the reasons for the successes and failure of Volunteers. What are the characteristics or behaviors of successful vs. unsuccessful Volunteers?

- Discuss specific agriculture information (listed above) and obtain as much as you can.

• If appropriate, participate in the identification and selection of Volunteers who will participate in the training program; negotiate tasks and responsibilities with them.

• Obtain site surveys from the Peace Corps.

• In consultation with the Peace Corps staff, arrive at the final list of Training Objectives.

• Sign off a Memo of Understanding with the Peace Corps Country Director.

• Review the draft Training Plan Materials with the responsible host agency officials for their approval or suggestions for modifications.

TRAINING INPUT TASKS

• Write report, assemble materials collected in-country.

• Meet with Training Staff to report findings and share findings.

• Determine where and how findings are included in Training Plan and Curriculum.

• Send copies of all materials, reports, etc., to relevant Desk Officers, etc.

 

Appendix D Setting up the administrative component

SET UP TASKS (in rough chronological order)

• Assemble, introduce, and orient the staff to site, contract, or training design, to tints module, and to Peace Corps if necessary.

• Decide with the entire staff basic office needs and use, and set up office tentatively.

• With the entire staff, read the appropriate sections of this module, statement of work and proposal, training design, and previous year's reports if appropriate.

• Contact and develop work relationships with staff members, with appropriate Peace Corps, local community, and Ministry officials.

• Define the entire Set-Up process as a Staff Training Exercise.

• Define roles, responsibilities, and organization of staff together with them.

• Brainstorm and reach consensus on Training Goals, Schedule Parameters, and other common assumptions.

• Make a Staff Training/Set Up Schedule with the entire staff:

- Brainstorm a list of tasks, things to do, component and personal needs, etc.

- Set up a work schedule (hours/day, days/week, etc.)

- Plug the tasks into the schedule time blocks.

- Print schedule and distribute to the staff.

NOTE: Schedule ample time for component-specific tasks, individual trainer tasks, and for the following Staff Training Sessions:

- Experiential Learning (Andragogy)

- Integration Concepts/Strategies

- Training as a Model of Development

- Feedback and Counseling

- Processing Sessions to Learn from Set Up Activities, etc.

• Set Training Policies with the entire staff.

• Carry out and monitor the Staff Training/Set Up Schedule with the entire staff.

• Specific Administrative Component Set Up Tasks to address during the component-specific time in the schedule:

- Undergo orientation with APCD in-country or Project Manager Stateside regarding Training Design or contract.

- Hire, orient, and begin training a secretary/ bookkeeper.

- Establish credit/accounts in the training community for services necessary to training bank, gasoline, office supplies, agriculture supplies, etc.

- Set up an office.

- Adequate office facilities.

- Adequate classroom, storage facilities.

- A big work room

- A library or quiet room.

- A resource center.

- Lots of supply space.

- Adequate transportation - one van vehicle/15 trainees

- Bicycles for local errands

- Big buses/lorries for arrival and departure (recommend an agreement with the host site institution to lease vehicles they need with the option to buy in order to 'invest' the rental money in some long term goal).

- Adequate printing and duplicating resource

- Xerox, Mimeograph

- Means of Communication-telephone (2 or more lines)

- Radio

- Messenger service to Peace Corps, consultant firm headquarters, etc

- Typewriters

- File cabinets for each component and for office manager

- Volleyball court and ball near classroom/office

- Radio, music

- Mailboxes for all training community members

- Message/Bulletin Boards

- Desks for all staff

- Resources Center shelves and seats

- Bookshelves

- Work tables

- Safe or money boxes

- Typing paper

- White out, etc.

- Xerox, duplicating paper, stencils, ink, etc.

- Staplers, punchers, paper clips, pens, pencils, rulers, clipboards.

- Letterhead stationery

- Recycled or blank writing paper

- Paper recycling bins (especially if there is a copy machine)

- Bicycles for on-site trips

- Newsprints, mailers, tape

- Other as needed

- Set up communication and information systems - bulletin/ message boards: office, dining place, residences, mailboxes for all. Open routing file for inter-staff written information, blackboards for planning, regular staff meeting schedule, filing system:

• Administrative

• Confidential (medical, assessment)

• Each Component

- Resource center (organized by trainees)

- Work with Coordinators to help them develop overall component goals, objectives, session lists, supply lists, budgets and printed material lists, etc.

- Work with Site Administrator to establish budget, procurement guidelines and accounting procedures, etc.

- Monitor the orientation and training of Technical Assistants.

- Set up the medical component of training:

• Contact, orient medical consultant

• Verify local medical facilities

• Procure biologicals for immunizations; determine tentative immunization schedule

• Establish contact with Peace Corps Medical

• Set up trainee living, dining, recreation, and field work accommodations (See Site Selection sub-section for details).

• Develop lists of administrative training objectives and sessions, including weekly staff meetings, weekly trainee assessment meetings, weekly training evaluation sessions, Training Orientation session, departure planning meeting, departure plan, site close-down plan, etc. Plan these in a group of problem-solving way.

• Continue to orchestrate Staff Training/Set Up as a process of practicing, reflecting upon, and applying various training and Core Curriculum skills, especially group problem-solving and carrying out effective meetings.

• Organize, oversee, complete the printing of all training materials through the Site Administrator before training begins.

• Oversee the Scheduling process described in Chapter II.

• Wrap up Staff Training/Set Up by facilitating final scheduling meetings and organizing staff for initial training tasks in first training staff meeting, including rehearsal of emergency procedures, etc.

 

Appendix E Site selection and criteria

A Training Site can be a cultural transition point on the way from middle class U.S. communities to Third World village placements. While no training site can exactly embody a volunteer's placement (even if the site is in fact a placement village itself), in every case, the training site is a pause on the way to the reality of the placement environment.

Stateside or In-Country

The training site should be as similar as possible to volunteer placements, and should avoid contradictions and inconsistencies. For example, training for agricultural work in Sub-Sahelian Africa makes more sense in the rural Southwest U.S. than in the rainier, swampier Southeast. For purposes of cross-cultural adaptation, the more cultural congruence between the training site and placement, the better the quality and development process of the training program.

On the other hand, stateside training sites are sometimes easier to support, manage, and communicate with, and technically superior. The other side of the coin is that model development is harder to do in U.S. communities, where cultural sensitivity and the role of the volunteer in development are often limited issues. There are advantages and disadvantages to both. Under no conditions should an Ag PST be conducted in a urban or suburban setting; there are no advantages to such a setting which could offset its many disadvantages.

In all cases, access to community connections, interactions and experiences is the single most important consideration in site selection after the health and safety of the training community.

University vs. Community/Village

A university campus, like the stateside setting in general, has much to offer in terms of logistical support, materials, agriculture equipment, research, and expertise. Dormitory and dining hall living are convenient and inexpensive (though culturally less rich than family or in-community living). Universities sometimes are connected through extension services to the community, though there tends to be a research and high-tech emphasis. Services, printing equipment, and transportation are usually more available near a university than in a "bush" setting. Local community and direct farmer contacts are not easily available through a university.

Community/village sites generally provide appropriate Ag resources, although these are often inadequate. It is easy in a village type setting to foster the analogy to placement-specific life of development. Living conditions may be less convenient and more expensive in a village but are much more personal and flexible (capable of accommodating the processing of trainee-grown food, for example). Community connections, opportunities for interaction, and for real extension experience and contact with local farmers are much more possible in the village setting.

In most ways, the advantages of village/community situated training far outweigh its drawbacks or the advantages of a university situation.

Site Selection Criteria

The specific supply and set-up needs are documented in the next section, "Training Set-Up Tasks".

Technical Criteria

• well-drained, cleared, arable land

• enough water and rain

• long enough growing season

• tolerable temperatures

• suitability for tropical crops, animals

• proximity of fields, barn, classrooms, housing, office

• local crops/livestock patterns appropriate and similar to host country

• barn available for animals

• tool shed, supply rooms, feed storage facilities

• hatchery and ag supply stores tag information, resources, local extension service, library, research farms available

• local small-scale farmer/contacts

• adequate classroom, office, equipment available

Core Curriculum Criteria

• community connections with contact farmers, live-in families, community leaders, an extension service

• a "developing" context where extension and development work are ongoing

• convenient and adequate classroom, office and living facilities

• local community organizations and community work resources

• cross-cultural context for middle-class trainees

• adequate medical and health facilities

• adequate appropriate social and personal needs resources

• adequate classroom, etc., available

Community Access

Trainees should have independent, convenient access to the local community social and recreational resources. Too isolated a site makes trainees dependent on trainers for transportation and this goes beyond the healthy cooperation between staff and trainees.

In summary, if the Site is another embodiment of the philosophy and design of training, it is clear that the best site is where the most experiential technical/core training can occur, where modeling development is most possible, where core curriculum issues make most sense, and where technical skills are moat appropriate and practical. The in-country village setting or the stateside small rural community setting are most desirable, with the balance between technical competence and core curriculum abilities making it hard to easily make a choice between the in-country village and the stateside small community.

 

Appendix F Team building activities

Introductory Session

Time: 45 min.

Goals:

1. To allow trainers to provide information about their background, personal relationships, and professional credibility.

2. To promote acquaintances and a feeling of interaction in a new group.

Overview: Trainers share information with one another about relation ships they have had in other group settings. An awareness of individual differences, styles, and values develops.

Activities

Time:

5 Min. : State goals and relevance of activity.

15 Min. : Ask trainers to divide into dyads - perferably with someone they do not know. Write directions on blackboard or news print.

Directions: Introduce yourself by name and offer learnings that have been gained about your relationships as trainers with the following groups. Share professional credibility, teacher, degrees, speciality, etc.

- Students

- Colleagues

- People from another culture

20 Min. : Assemble into one group after introductions. Each trainer is introduced by the other member of the dyed and shares the information with the total group.

5 Min. : Summarize the activity.

Sharing Hopes and Concerns

Time: 25 min.

Goals:

1. To provide an opportunity for members to voice concerns about training in a non-threatening way.

2. To identify individual hopes for the future of the training project.

Overview:

This session allows trainers to share anxieties about a new project in a way that identifies attitudes, wishes, and personal motivations.

Activities:

5 Min. : Introduce goals of activity allowing each member three minutes to voice their hopes and concerns about the training cycle. "What I am concerned about" and "What I hope will happen" (non-censored).

15 Min. : Director of Training/Consultant monitors the activity using newsprint or the blackboard to capture ideas.

5 Min. : Summarize activity applying ideas and thoughts to training norms, standards, etc.

Cross - Cultural Perceptions

Time: 1 1/2 furs.

Goals:

1. To recognize individual perceptions and gain insight into how pre-conceptions, like differences in perception, operate in one's experience.

2. To encourage familiarity with the nature of national stereotypes and how they could become barriers in a work group.

Overview:

This session stimulates recognition and introduces a number of preconceptions about people in other cultures. Feelings are ventilated and tensions relieved.

Activities:

30 Min. : Divide into two groups, Americans and Host Nationals. Each group selects 3 of 16 examples that they think are appropriate and might be used to describe Host National/Americans they will be working with during training.

30 Min. : Post characteristics listed by each group. Discuss reasons for choices made from list.

Trainer Notes:

Use different expressions to stimulate discussion. Ask members of each group to give examples of perceptions. Apply to the here and now situations in the group. Allow feelings to surface; productive discussion should result in relief of tension and anxiety. Relate discussion to barriers to communication and how preconceptions become barriers to team effectiveness.

End activity with a Joining of hands. Circle of hands illustrates team togetherness.

 

Appendix G "Session plan format"

Skill Group (Number)

Skill Group Title

Session Number, Page Number

Title of Session

Time:

Total time to present the session.

Goals:

Expected outcomes and skills transferred to this session, written to trainees.

Overview:

A brief summary of what is to happen in the session, mentioning related sessions, training events, and themes.

Activities:

The steps of which each session is composed are described in detail here in sequence.

"Summary"

The left column may include an optional phrase summarizing each step.

Materials:

Handouts and supplies used in the session are listed here.

Trainer Notes:

Advice and explanation of activities and steps; different opinions and approaches to the topic in the session are all included here.

Resources:

Books, manuals, and people providing information beyond the scope of this session are listed here.

 

Appendix H Sample assessment criteria

In order to establish a clear set of assessment criteria, we have adapted the CREST Performance Checklist to the evaluation process. All components of the training program will base their evaluations on these criteria. In addition, there will be a minimum technical competence requirement for the crops component of this program.

I. Motivation. Volunteers vary in their motivation or reason for serving in the Peace Corps. The volunteers should provide a balance between an enlightened self-interest, which acknowledges the gains the volunteer expects, and an altruistic-humanitarian value system, which allows the person to fulfill a personal obligation to help others. There is room for a variety of range of motivation, but the degree of responsibility must be strong in all volunteers.

1. Punctuality.

2. Asks questions centered on job.

3. Asks questions centered on self.

4. Asks for feedback.

5. Actively participates according to his/her personal style.

6. Demonstrates a willingness to persevere in difficult or confusing situations.

II. Productive Competence. Volunteers offer information and skills to others. The volunteer must possess the ability to transfer skills to a counterpart or counterparts. Implied in this is a necessity for the volunteer to set goals, identify, analyze and solve problems, employ effective methods of communication, and bring skills and resources to bear on problems.

1. What she/he says is clearly understood.

2. Asks questions appropriate for the situation.

3. Initiates problem-solving.

4. Develops alternative strategies.

5. Copes with ambiguity effectively.

6. Is comfortable saying "I don't know".

7. Helps group move from problem to solution.

8. Accomplishes tasks with minimal supervision.

III. Emotional Maturity. Volunteers are exposed to unfamiliar and often stress-producing environments without the cultural and other familiar support systems which have provided them emotional security in the past. Volunteers must, then, possess a strong attitude about themselves in order to deal effectively with new and unfamiliar situations.

1. Takes responsibility for his/her behavior.

2. Responds to feedback.

3. Avoids being defensive when receiving feedback.

4. Laughs at self.

5. Admits mistakes.

6. Recognizes and openly discusses feelings and needs.

7. Sensitivity to others' needs.

8. Recognizes own limitations.

9. Seeks opportunities to learn more about self.

10. Awareness of personal tolerance for stress.

Respect and Empathy. This area deals with the degree of respect volunteers have for themselves and others. Volunteers must demonstrate an understanding of the problems and experiences of those with whom they associate. The ability to communicate genuine respect and caring for others, both verbally and non-verbally, is a skill volunteers need to possess.

1. Listens attentively to others.

2. Willingness to consider other's opinion.

3. Disagrees without putting others down.

4. Does not interrupt.

5. Avoids stereotyping.

6. Recognizes and uses others' skills and knowledge.

Cultural Awareness. Volunteers need to understand the concept of culture and be aware of the make-up of their own culture. They must demonstrate a facility for coping successfully in another culture.

1. Demonstrates an eagerness to learn about culture.

2. Acknowledges existence and appropriateness of different world views.

3. Is non-judgemental.

4. Avoids stereotyping.

5. Is aware of areas of possible cultural bias.

6. Acknowledges areas of cultural bias.

Social Sensitivity. Volunteers manage a wide variety of personal interaction overseas. They need to be skilled in initiating, taking turns in discussions, and terminating interactions based upon the needs of others.

1. Takes turns in discussion.

2. Responds to others' needs for involvement.

3. Considers others' wishes when initiating/terminating discussions.

4. Recognizes signals of others who want to terminate a discussion.

5. Provides equal opportunity for all to share in discussions.

I. Ability to Adjust. Volunteers need to adjust to new people, environments, foods, jobs, etc. Flexibility and a willingness to adjust to new situations is significant quality in that it enables them to live and work effectively in a variety of surroundings.

1. Tries new behaviors.

2. Rapidly adapts to new/changing environment.

3. Helps others to adjust to new surroundings.

4. Willingness to conform.

5. Relaxed in unfamiliar surroundings.

VIII. Crops Technical Competence. We have established a minimal technical competence requirement in agriculture based on the following subjective and objective criteria:

1. Overall performance, including background in agriculture, and improvement over time.

2. Class attendance and participation.

3. Maintenance of plots.

4. Maintenance of field notebook.

5. Completion of assignments, such as the garden planning exercise.

6. Exams - - All exams will be graded on a % basis. If a trainee scores below 70% on an exam, he/she will be interviewed concerning that exam during weekly feedback sessions.

7. The final written examination will be evaluated as follows:

- - below 70% ___technical competence is called into question; at least one trainer will interview the trainee to determine the reasons for a poor performance. This will be used by all staff members in determining whether or not that trainee will go overseas.

- - below 60% ___trainee will complete an oral examination and interview with at least one trainer. If the trainee still scores below 60% (on the same technical material) the second time, this will not automatically de-select him/her. Staff members will then re-assess the trainee's qualifications and make final recommendations to Peace Corps Washington.

 

Appendix I Sample training evaluation units

A. L. NELLUM AND ASSOCIATES

AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT WORKERS TRAINING

CENTER

FROGMORE, S.C. 29920

FOR PEACE CORPS

TRAINER EVALUATION

A). TRAINING EVENT__________________________

B). DATE____________________________________

C). NAME OF TRAINER BEING EVALUATED________________________________

The purpose of this form is to assist us in improving future training events. Please check the appropriate box at the right of each statement below:

D). TRAINERS PERFORMANCE

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

1. Gave clear instructions

   

.

   

2. Stated objectives for each session

         

3. Used relevant examples to illustrate training

         

4. Answered questions clearly and asked for questions and comments to judge an understanding of material

         

5. Summarized exercises and examples at the end of Session

         

6. Adhered appropriately to time boundaries

         

7. Had an effective style of presentation

         

8. Displayed good abilities was self-confident and knowledgeable of additional resources

         

9. Was flexible and showed respect for trainees

 

.

     

10. Checked out and responded appropriately to trainees' feelings

         

11. Expressed personal values and feelings

         

12. Displayed a sense of humor

         

TRAINING EVALUATION

A). TRAINING EVENT_____________________________

The purpose of this form is to help us improve future training. Read the statements below and answer as completely and honestly as possible by checking the appropriate box at the right of each statement.

B). CONTENT, QUALITY AND RELEVANCE

Excellence

Good

Average

Below Average

Poor

1. Overall, the content of the event was interesting

         

2. The content level of difficulty was appropriate for me as an individual

         

3. The content was appropriate for my needs

         

4. I will be able to apply the information and skills to my job

         

5. I will be able to actually demonstrate my own achievement of the learning objectives

         

6. The session met its stated objectives

         

7. The length of the training event was appropriate for the type of training:

         

Small groups

         

Large groups

         

9. The training environment, (classroom, field) were practical and appropriate (If more than one Trainer presented session, please respond to the following statements:)

         

10. The trainers functioned as a balanced and coordinated team

         

11. The trainers were supportive of one another

         
           
           

Comments__________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Since 1961 when the Peace Corps was created, more than 80,000 U.S. citizens have served as Volunteers in developing countries, living and working among the people of the Third World as colleagues and co-workers, Today 6 000 PCVs are involved in programs designed to help strengthen local capacity to address such fundamental concerns as food production, water supply, energy development, nutrition and health education and reforestation.

Peace Corps overseas offices:

BELIZE

P. O. Box 487

Belize City

BENIN

B. P. 971

Cotonou

BOTSWANA

P. O. Box 93

Gaborone

BURKINA FASO

B P 537 - Samandin

Ouagadougou

BURUNDI

c/o American

Embassy

Bujumbura

CAMEROON

B P 817

Yaounde

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

B P 1080

Bangui

COSTA RICA

Apartado Postal

1266

San Jose

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

Apartado Postal

1412

San Domingo

EASTERN CARIBBEAN

Including: Antigua, Barbados, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Dominica "Erin Court" Bishops Court Hill

P. O. Box 696-C

Bridgetown, Barbados

ECUADOR

Casilla 635-A

Quito

FIJI

P. O. BOX 1094

Suva

GABON

BP 2098

Libreville

GAMBIA, The

P. O. Box 582

Banjul

GHANA

P.O. Box 5796

Accra(North)

GUATEMALA

6a Avenida 1-46

Zona 2

Guatemala

HAITI

c/o American

Embassy

Port-au-Prince

HONDURAS

Apartado Postal

C-51

Tegucigalpa

JAMAICA

Musgrove Avenue

Kingston 10

KENYA

P. O. Box 30518

Nairobi

LESOTHO

P. O. Box 554

Maseru

LIBERIA

Box 707

Monrovia

MALAWI

Box 208

Lilongwe

MALI

B P 85

Box 564

MAURITANIA

B P 222

Nouakchott

MICRONESIA

P. O. Box 9

Kolonia, Ponape

F. S. M. 96941

MOROCCO

I, Zanquat

Benzerte

Rabat

NEPAL

P. O. Box 613

Kathmandu

NIGER

B P 10537

Niamey

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

P. O. Box 1790

Boroko

Port Moresby

PARAGUAY

c/o American

Embassy

Asuncion

PHILIPPINES

P. O. Box 7013

Manila

RWANDA

c/o American

Embassy

Kigali

SENEGAL

B P 254

Dakar

SEYCHELLES

B P 697

Victoria

SIERRA LEONE

Private Mail Bag

Freetown

SOLOMON ISLAND

P. O. Box 547

Honiara

SRI LANKA

50/5 Siripa Road

Colombo, 5

Sri Lanka

SUDAN

Djodi Deutsch

Administrator/PCV's

c/o American Embassy

Khartoum

SWAZILAND

P. O. Box 362

Mbabane

TANZANIA

Box 9123

Dar es Salaam

THAILAND

42 Soi

Somprasong 2

Petchburi Road

Bangkok 4

TOGO

B P 3194

Lome

TONGA

B P 147

Nuku' Alofa

TUNISIA

B P 96

1002 Tunis-Belvedere

Tunis

WESTERN SAMOA

Private Mail Bag

Apia

YEMEN

P. O. Box 1151

Sana'a

ZAIRE

B P 697

Kinshasa