| Forestry training manual Inter-America Region |
|Information collection & exchange|
|Training program overview|
|Training program goals:|
|Forestry observation guide for site visit|
|1. Stock the library|
|Reference material listing|
|2. The training site|
|3. Plan the field trip|
|4. Tree planting site|
|5. Soil erosion site|
|Conducting the training program|
|Weekly evaluation form|
|Session I day one|
|Daily schedule for technical training|
|Session II special projects|
|Session III The forest of the world, peace corps forestry goals, the individual volunteers' roles|
|Session IV Language class|
|Session V Exercise I: Record keeping|
|Session VI Exercise II|
|Session VII Flowers, seeds, the beginning|
|Session VIII Spanish language class|
|Session IX Non-verbal communication|
|Session X Basic site selection, planning and layout of a nursery|
|Session XI Spanish language class|
|Session XII Cultural values|
|Session XIII Soil preparation, seed bed sowing, and reproduction by clippings|
|Session XIV Spanish language|
|Session XV Communication through illustration|
|Session XVI Fertilizers, watering and containers|
|Session XVII Spanish language|
|Session XVIII Protection and record keeping|
|Session XIX Individual interviews|
|Session XX Planting trees|
|Session XXI Spanish language session|
|Session XXII Introduction to extension|
|Session XXIII The principals of pruning and thinning|
|Session XXIV Spanish language|
|Session XXV Volunteer's role as an extensionist|
|Session XXVI Pacing, plane table, rustic transit and compass|
|Session XXVIII Spanish language|
|Session XVIII Forestry extension|
|Session XXIX Forest menstruation|
|Session XXX Spanish language|
|Session XXXI Working with groups as an extension worker|
|Can farming and forestry coexist in the tropics?|
|Some observations about agricultural plantations and agri-silviculture|
|Session XXXIII Spanish language|
|Session XXXIV Lesson plan and use of visual aids in teaching|
|Session XXV Small research projects|
|Session XXXVI Individual interviews|
|Session XXXVII Soils|
|Session XXXVIII Spanish language|
|Session XXXIX Community analysis introduction|
|Session XL Soil erosion|
|Session XLI Spanish language|
|Session XLIII Watershed management|
|Session XLIV Spanish language|
|Session XLV Review of expectations - mid way|
|Session XLVI Spanish language|
|Session XLVII Species report|
|Session XLVIII Forestry issues|
|Exotic vs indigenous species|
|Exotics vs indigenous - Ecuador|
|Exotic vs. indigenous species - Paraguay|
|Session XLIX Spanish language|
|Session L Field trip overview|
|Session LI Ecology teams give presentations|
|Session LII Individual interviews|
|Session LIII Review of field trips|
|Session LIV Project planning: goal setting|
|Session LV Spanish language|
|Session LVI Resources|
|Session LVII Compost heap - insect collection - light gaps|
|Session LVIII Spanish language|
|Session LIX Cultural shock - are we ready for it?|
|Session LX Grafting and fruit trees|
|Session LXI Spanish language|
|Session LXII Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials|
|Session LXIII Final interviews|
|Session LXIV Graduation|
Total Time: 1 hour
- To refresh the memories of the trainees about flowering cycles, pollination, seeds, seed germination, seed dispersal, basic seed storage and point out the lack of knowledge we have about seed germination and dispersal among many tropical species. To instruct the trainees in basic seed storage .
- Enable trainees to set up seed collection records.
- Conduct seed germination experiments.
- Look at small group process.
This session is a review of the flowering cycle and seeds from pollination to germination. It is necessary to start at. the beginning here as most trainees will have studied these cycles in North America and need to see the differences, particularly in tropical specie!,. The trainees will also have "hands-on" experience in treating seeds (stratification and scarification) and setting up a simple experiment and keeping records.
1. Lecture on flowers & seeds
2. Germination experiment
3. Small group process
- flip charts, marker pens, tape
- 20 different varieties of seeds about 300 or 400 in all
- small plastic hays
- blotter paper or newspaper
Exercise I Flowers & Seeds
Total time - 1 hour
Many of the participants will have learned in North American schools the cycles of flowering and seed development. However, the purpose of this lecture is to refresh their memories and have them relate the cycles to the Latin American forests and trees.
1. Trainer/forester states that this morning is a quick refresher for everyone and invites a botanist in the group to join in and add his/her comments throughout the lecture.
It is recommended that the following outline he put on newsprint and trainees follow it as lecture is given.
1. Many different types.
2. Complete flowers - bisexual.
3. Staminate (male) flowers and pistillate (female) flowers on same tree, monaecius (pines; Douglas-fir).
4. Staminate and pistillate flowers occurring on separate trees (willow; poplar).
5. Polygamo - monoecius - complete flower plus staminate and pistillate flowers on same tree (Buckeye).
6. Polygamo - Dioecious - perfect flowers plus either staminate or pistillate flowers (Buckthorn).
Note: All of the above type trees can hear seeds except the dioecious tree that produces staminate flowers.
FLOWERING CYCLE/SEED MATURITY POLLINATION
d. Others- mice, bats
Two nuclei penetrate the ovule and double fertilization occurs.
1. One fertilization unites to egg forms embryo.
2. Other fertilization unites with two polar nuclei to form endosperm.
I. Mature Seed
A. Three - six months after fertilization
B. l year after fertilization - Pine C. Some take more time
A. Mature embryo embedded in endosperm (endosperm can be small or absent).
B. Seed coat (integument) forms around the ovule.
III. Embryo = Germ
A. Composed of:
1. Seed leaves - Cotyledon - mostly two (palms l, pines 4+) a) manufacture food or b) have stored food
2. Bud - Plumule
3. Stem - Hypocatyl
4. Rudimentary root - radicle
5. Seed Coats
a. hard (Pines)
c. leathery (Cypress)
IV. Types of Seed
A. True seeds (from Pine)
B. Dry fruits; fruit is seed (oak)
C. Fleshy fruit (apple)
A. Chemical change
D. Color change
Vl. Seed Dispersal
1. light seeds
2. Seeds w/wings
B. Mammals - Birds
VII. Seed Collection - Records
A. Seed Maturity
C. When to collect
1. early collection - not ripe
2. late collection - few viable seeds left
D . Methods
6. bamboo poles
7. collect off ground
8. spread sheet below tree
E. Seed Extraction
1. air dry
2. oven kiln
Note: Important in air drying that birds do not eat seeds.
Air drying is also the most used and practical method.
F. Seed Treatment
4. filing - soaking
5. cutting - soaking
6. tumbling - (with grit)
Internal domancy (triggering internal chemical reactions) External dormancy ( seed coat permeability)
To Take Place
1. internal factor - ripe
2. external factor
H. Seed Storage
1. dry - cold: In sealed containers: Pine (pino), Cypress (Cipres)
2. moist cold: Oak (roble), Maple (arce)
3. room temperature: Acacia (acacia), Eucalyptus (eucalipto) minutes
4. other possibilities
a. partial vacuum
b. dry freeze
c. hole in the ground - bury in sealed plastic bags.
5. how does nature to it? peat moss (turba)
6. small containers
Exercise II Germination Experiment
Total Time: 2 hours
The purpose of this exercise is to give trainees "hands-on" experience and to apply learnings from previous exercise. Trainees will also develop a record keeping system for their experiments which will reinforce learning from record keeping exercise of the previous day.
1. Trainees are asked to form groups of three. Groups are given a variety of seeds .
2. Groups are told that they are to figure out the best way to treat the seeds (scarify and/or stratify). They must decide three (different methods with at least two varieties of seeds. They are told the species.
Trainer's Note: The purpose of this exercise is not to furnish all the materials trainees need, but to have them find their own boiling water, sand paper, finger nail files etc., at the training site. Plastic hags, seeds and blotter paper are provided.
3. Trainees are told to figure out a record keeping system for the germination experiment.
4. Trainee/manager is identified; the groups are to report their data on progress of germination experiments to manager every three days.
Trainer's Note: Trainer or expert in seed management should present the most applicable procedures and record keeping system used for germination text. Obtain feedback on students' efforts.
Exercise III Small Group Process Total Time: 45 minutes Overview
The purpose of this exercise is to look at small group process as compared to larger group process of the previous day. We also make use of feedback skills.
1. Trainers look at the process of their groups. They are told to give each other feedback on the following:
a. leadership qualities
c. what helped/hindered getting task done. Everyone must get/give feedback. While one is giving feedback to another, the third trainee observes the quality of the feedback and gives feedback on the quality and skill used for giving/receiving feedback.
2. Trainees are asked to compare working in a small group to working in a larger group.
3. Trainer lists on newsprint findings of various groups as to:
- things that are harder,
- things that are easier,
- impact on individuals.
4. Trainer points out the greater responsibility of human interactions as trainees work together and become more skillful.