Cover Image
close this book Forestry training manual Inter-America Region
View the document Information collection & exchange
View the document Acknowledgements
View the document Trainer guidelines
close this folder Training program overview
View the document Training program goals:
View the document Advance information
View the document Forestry observation guide for site visit
close this folder Getting ready
View the document 1. Stock the library
View the document Reference material listing
View the document 2. The training site
View the document 3. Plan the field trip
View the document 4. Tree planting site
View the document 5. Soil erosion site
View the document 6. Transportation
View the document 7. Materials
View the document Conducting the training program
View the document Weekly evaluation form
View the document Session I day one
View the document Daily schedule for technical training
View the document Session II special projects
View the document Session III The forest of the world, peace corps forestry goals, the individual volunteers' roles
View the document Session IV Language class
View the document Session V Exercise I: Record keeping
View the document Session VI Exercise II
View the document Session VII Flowers, seeds, the beginning
View the document Session VIII Spanish language class
View the document Session IX Non-verbal communication
View the document Session X Basic site selection, planning and layout of a nursery
View the document Session XI Spanish language class
View the document Session XII Cultural values
View the document Session XIII Soil preparation, seed bed sowing, and reproduction by clippings
View the document Session XIV Spanish language
View the document Session XV Communication through illustration
View the document Session XVI Fertilizers, watering and containers
View the document Session XVII Spanish language
View the document Session XVIII Protection and record keeping
View the document Session XIX Individual interviews
View the document Session XX Planting trees
View the document Session XXI Spanish language session
View the document Session XXII Introduction to extension
View the document Session XXIII The principals of pruning and thinning
View the document Session XXIV Spanish language
View the document Session XXV Volunteer's role as an extensionist
View the document Session XXVI Pacing, plane table, rustic transit and compass
View the document Session XXVIII Spanish language
View the document Session XVIII Forestry extension
View the document Session XXIX Forest menstruation
View the document Session XXX Spanish language
close this folder Session XXXI Working with groups as an extension worker
close this folder Unasylva
View the document Can farming and forestry coexist in the tropics?
View the document Some observations about agricultural plantations and agri-silviculture
View the document Session XXXIII Spanish language
View the document Session XXXIV Lesson plan and use of visual aids in teaching
View the document Session XXV Small research projects
View the document Session XXXVI Individual interviews
View the document Session XXXVII Soils
View the document Session XXXVIII Spanish language
View the document Session XXXIX Community analysis introduction
View the document Session XL Soil erosion
View the document Session XLI Spanish language
View the document Session XLIII Watershed management
View the document Session XLIV Spanish language
View the document Session XLV Review of expectations - mid way
View the document Session XLVI Spanish language
View the document Session XLVII Species report
close this folder Session XLVIII Forestry issues
View the document Exotic vs indigenous species
View the document Exotics vs indigenous - Ecuador
View the document Exotic vs. indigenous species - Paraguay
View the document Session XLIX Spanish language
View the document Session L Field trip overview
View the document Session LI Ecology teams give presentations
View the document Session LII Individual interviews
View the document Session LIII Review of field trips
View the document Session LIV Project planning: goal setting
View the document Session LV Spanish language
View the document Session LVI Resources
View the document Session LVII Compost heap - insect collection - light gaps
View the document Session LVIII Spanish language
View the document Session LIX Cultural shock - are we ready for it?
View the document Session LX Grafting and fruit trees
View the document Session LXI Spanish language
View the document Session LXII Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials
View the document Session LXIII Final interviews
View the document Session LXIV Graduation

Session VII Flowers, seeds, the beginning

Total Time: 1 hour


- To refresh the memories of the trainees about flowering cycles, pollination, seeds, seed germination, seed dispersal, basic seed storage and point out the lack of knowledge we have about seed germination and dispersal among many tropical species. To instruct the trainees in basic seed storage .

- Enable trainees to set up seed collection records.

- Conduct seed germination experiments.

- Look at small group process.


This session is a review of the flowering cycle and seeds from pollination to germination. It is necessary to start at. the beginning here as most trainees will have studied these cycles in North America and need to see the differences, particularly in tropical specie!,. The trainees will also have "hands-on" experience in treating seeds (stratification and scarification) and setting up a simple experiment and keeping records.


1. Lecture on flowers & seeds

2. Germination experiment

3. Small group process


- flip charts, marker pens, tape

- 20 different varieties of seeds about 300 or 400 in all

- small plastic hays

- blotter paper or newspaper

Exercise I Flowers & Seeds

Total time - 1 hour


Many of the participants will have learned in North American schools the cycles of flowering and seed development. However, the purpose of this lecture is to refresh their memories and have them relate the cycles to the Latin American forests and trees.





1. Trainer/forester states that this morning is a quick refresher for everyone and invites a botanist in the group to join in and add his/her comments throughout the lecture.

1 hour

It is recommended that the following outline he put on newsprint and trainees follow it as lecture is given.


1. Many different types.

2. Complete flowers - bisexual.

3. Staminate (male) flowers and pistillate (female) flowers on same tree, monaecius (pines; Douglas-fir).

4. Staminate and pistillate flowers occurring on separate trees (willow; poplar).

5. Polygamo - monoecius - complete flower plus staminate and pistillate flowers on same tree (Buckeye).

6. Polygamo - Dioecious - perfect flowers plus either staminate or pistillate flowers (Buckthorn).

Note: All of the above type trees can hear seeds except the dioecious tree that produces staminate flowers.


Staminate Flower

Pistillate Flower


a. wing

b. Insects

c. Birds

d. Others- mice, bats

Two nuclei penetrate the ovule and double fertilization occurs.

1. One fertilization unites to egg forms embryo.

2. Other fertilization unites with two polar nuclei to form endosperm.


I. Mature Seed

A. Three - six months after fertilization

B. l year after fertilization - Pine C. Some take more time

II. Formation

A. Mature embryo embedded in endosperm (endosperm can be small or absent).

B. Seed coat (integument) forms around the ovule.

III. Embryo = Germ

A. Composed of:

1. Seed leaves - Cotyledon - mostly two (palms l, pines 4+) a) manufacture food or b) have stored food

2. Bud - Plumule

3. Stem - Hypocatyl

4. Rudimentary root - radicle

5. Seed Coats

a. hard (Pines)

b. soft

c. leathery (Cypress)

IV. Types of Seed

A. True seeds (from Pine)

B. Dry fruits; fruit is seed (oak)

C. Fleshy fruit (apple)

V. Ripening

A. Chemical change

B. Hardening

C. Dry

D. Color change

Vl. Seed Dispersal

A. Wind

1. light seeds

2. Seeds w/wings

B. Mammals - Birds

1. Rodents

2. Animals

C. Water

D. Fish

E. Man

VII. Seed Collection - Records

A. Seed Maturity

B. Ripeness

C. When to collect

1. early collection - not ripe

2. late collection - few viable seeds left

D . Methods

1. climbing

2. clippers

3. cutters

4. shaking

5. logging

6. bamboo poles

7. collect off ground

8. spread sheet below tree

E. Seed Extraction

1. air dry

2. oven kiln

3. depulting

4. dewinging

5. floating

6. winnowing

Note: Important in air drying that birds do not eat seeds.

Air drying is also the most used and practical method.

F. Seed Treatment

1. burning

2. soaking

3. boiling

4. filing - soaking

5. cutting - soaking

6. tumbling - (with grit)

7. others

Internal domancy (triggering internal chemical reactions) External dormancy ( seed coat permeability)

G. Germination

To Take Place

1. internal factor - ripe

2. external factor

a. moisture

b. temperature

3. dormancy

4. oxygen

5. light

H. Seed Storage


1. dry - cold: In sealed containers: Pine (pino), Cypress (Cipres)

2. moist cold: Oak (roble), Maple (arce)

10 minutes

3. room temperature: Acacia (acacia), Eucalyptus (eucalipto) minutes

4. other possibilities


a. partial vacuum


b. dry freeze


c. hole in the ground - bury in sealed plastic bags.


5. how does nature to it? peat moss (turba)


6. small containers


Exercise II Germination Experiment

Total Time: 2 hours


The purpose of this exercise is to give trainees "hands-on" experience and to apply learnings from previous exercise. Trainees will also develop a record keeping system for their experiments which will reinforce learning from record keeping exercise of the previous day.





1. Trainees are asked to form groups of three. Groups are given a variety of seeds .


2. Groups are told that they are to figure out the best way to treat the seeds (scarify and/or stratify). They must decide three (different methods with at least two varieties of seeds. They are told the species.

Trainer's Note: The purpose of this exercise is not to furnish all the materials trainees need, but to have them find their own boiling water, sand paper, finger nail files etc., at the training site. Plastic hags, seeds and blotter paper are provided.

45 minutes

3. Trainees are told to figure out a record keeping system for the germination experiment.

15 minutes

4. Trainee/manager is identified; the groups are to report their data on progress of germination experiments to manager every three days.

Trainer's Note: Trainer or expert in seed management should present the most applicable procedures and record keeping system used for germination text. Obtain feedback on students' efforts.

Exercise III Small Group Process Total Time: 45 minutes Overview

The purpose of this exercise is to look at small group process as compared to larger group process of the previous day. We also make use of feedback skills.





1. Trainers look at the process of their groups. They are told to give each other feedback on the following:

30 minutes

a. leadership qualities


b. participation


c. what helped/hindered getting task done. Everyone must get/give feedback. While one is giving feedback to another, the third trainee observes the quality of the feedback and gives feedback on the quality and skill used for giving/receiving feedback.

5 minutes

2. Trainees are asked to compare working in a small group to working in a larger group.

5 minutes

3. Trainer lists on newsprint findings of various groups as to:


- things that are harder,


- things that are easier,


- impact on individuals.

2 minutes

4. Trainer points out the greater responsibility of human interactions as trainees work together and become more skillful.