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close this book Forestry training manual Inter-America Region
View the document Information collection & exchange
View the document Acknowledgements
View the document Trainer guidelines
Open this folder and view contents Training program overview
View the document Forestry observation guide for site visit
Open this folder and view contents Getting ready
View the document Conducting the training program
View the document Weekly evaluation form
View the document Session I day one
View the document Daily schedule for technical training
View the document Session II special projects
View the document Session III The forest of the world, peace corps forestry goals, the individual volunteers' roles
View the document Session IV Language class
View the document Session V Exercise I: Record keeping
View the document Session VI Exercise II
View the document Session VII Flowers, seeds, the beginning
View the document Session VIII Spanish language class
View the document Session IX Non-verbal communication
View the document Session X Basic site selection, planning and layout of a nursery
View the document Session XI Spanish language class
View the document Session XII Cultural values
View the document Session XIII Soil preparation, seed bed sowing, and reproduction by clippings
View the document Session XIV Spanish language
View the document Session XV Communication through illustration
View the document Session XVI Fertilizers, watering and containers
View the document Session XVII Spanish language
View the document Session XVIII Protection and record keeping
View the document Session XIX Individual interviews
View the document Session XX Planting trees
View the document Session XXI Spanish language session
View the document Session XXII Introduction to extension
View the document Session XXIII The principals of pruning and thinning
View the document Session XXIV Spanish language
View the document Session XXV Volunteer's role as an extensionist
View the document Session XXVI Pacing, plane table, rustic transit and compass
View the document Session XXVIII Spanish language
View the document Session XVIII Forestry extension
View the document Session XXIX Forest menstruation
View the document Session XXX Spanish language
Open this folder and view contents Session XXXI Working with groups as an extension worker
View the document Session XXXIII Spanish language
View the document Session XXXIV Lesson plan and use of visual aids in teaching
View the document Session XXV Small research projects
View the document Session XXXVI Individual interviews
View the document Session XXXVII Soils
View the document Session XXXVIII Spanish language
View the document Session XXXIX Community analysis introduction
View the document Session XL Soil erosion
View the document Session XLI Spanish language
View the document Session XLIII Watershed management
View the document Session XLIV Spanish language
View the document Session XLV Review of expectations - mid way
View the document Session XLVI Spanish language
View the document Session XLVII Species report
Open this folder and view contents Session XLVIII Forestry issues
View the document Session XLIX Spanish language
View the document Session L Field trip overview
View the document Session LI Ecology teams give presentations
View the document Session LII Individual interviews
View the document Session LIII Review of field trips
View the document Session LIV Project planning: goal setting
View the document Session LV Spanish language
View the document Session LVI Resources
View the document Session LVII Compost heap - insect collection - light gaps
View the document Session LVIII Spanish language
View the document Session LIX Cultural shock - are we ready for it?
View the document Session LX Grafting and fruit trees
View the document Session LXI Spanish language
View the document Session LXII Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials
View the document Session LXIII Final interviews
View the document Session LXIV Graduation
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Session XXIX Forest menstruation

Total Time: 3 1/2 hours

Goals:

- To have each trainee construct their own cruiser stick and learn how to use it.

- To instruct trainees in forest mensuration and provide a simple method for determining forest volume.

- To look at helping skills.

Overview

In this session participants will make a Biltmore Stick and learn how to use it in forest measurement. One of the trainees who has taken on making a Biltmore Stick instructs other trainees. Trainees look at one another's helping skills and give feedback.

Exercises:

1. Construction and use of a cruiser stick.

2. Lecture on forest mensuration.

3. Groups: Helping skills.

Materials:

Flip chart, marker pens, tape

- 1 board 1 meter long X 5 cm wide X 1 or 2 meters thick for each trainee

- Number table

- Knife to scratch graduation marks

- Waterproof pen to identify graduation

- Conversion factors for U.S. and metric units

Exercise I: Construction and Use of Cruiser Stick

Total Time: 2 hours

Overview

In this exercise trainee instructs other trainees in the construction and use of cruiser stick which is an instrument that can be used as:

a) Biltmore Stick - to measure tree diameter

b) Merritt Hypsometer - to measure tree height

c) Meter Stick - to measure length

Procedures

Time

Activities

15 minutes

1. Trainee/Instructor has all necessary materials assembled for this exercise. He/she then gives a brief lecture on the purpose of a cruiser stick using one he/she has made for demonstration.

45 minutes

2. Trainee/instructor now shows participants how to make their own cruiser stick and the participants do so.

 

3. Trainee/instructor along with technical instructor takes trainees who have been divided up into small groups with a 1 hour forester in each group out to a stand of trees and trainees practice using cruiser stick for measuring trees. In turn, they calculate the volumes of trees using table provided.

Trainer's Note: We have included here number tables or formulae to calculate graduations on cruiser stick but suggest that trainee who takes this on as a special project figure out these tables for him/herself.

We have also given conversion factors for U.S. and Metric Unit Charts to participants during this exercise.

CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF A CRUISER STICK

Cruiser Stick:

a. Biltmore stick - measure tree diameter,

b. Merritt Hypsometer - measure tree height,

c. Meter stick - measure length.

Materials:

a. Board: 1 meter long X 5 cm wide X 1 or 2 cm thick.

b. Number table or formulas to calculate graduations.

c. Knife to scratch permanent graduation marks.

d. Pen with waterproof ink to identify graduations and v rite needed information on stick.

I. BILTMORE STICK - To measure tree diameter.

A. Construction

Use hardwood board (1 meter long), knife, and marker. First determine reach. Reach is the distance from cruiser's eye to the stick held out in front of his/her hand. Find if your reach (eye to outstretched hand holding boars) is more comfortable at 57cm or 65cm. Graduations for specified reaches of 57 to 65 cm are on the number table. Starting from the left end graduate the stick using the number table. The number table provides graduations for measuring DBHs of 1 - 153 centimeters. DBH marks are placed every C, centimeters from the left end of the stick.

If a number table is not available for your specified reach it is possible to construct one using the following formula:

G = D2R/D + R

Where:

C = distance (cm) from zero mark (left end of stick to D-cm graduations,

D = diameter mark (cm) currently being placed on stick,

R = reach in centimeters.


Fig. 39 - Use of the Biltmore Stick showing similar triangles.

B. USE of THE Biltmore STICK:

1. The Hiltmore stick is held against the tree with the line of sight to the left side of the tree crossing the zero end of the scale. The diameter of the tree is then read at the point where the line of sight, to the right side of the tree crosses the scale (see figure 1).

2. The following precautions must he observed to obtain accurate readings with the Biltmore Stick: a. The stick must be held against a tree. b. The stick must be perpendicular (at right angles) to the trunk of the tree. c. The stick must be perpendicular to the imaginary line between the observer and the tree. d. The cruiser's head must not be moved during the measuring operation. e. The stick is calibrated for a specified reach. This means that the cruiser's eye must be exactly the specified distance from the stick.

II. MERRITT HYPSOMETER - To measure tree height. A. CONSTRUCTION

The Merritt Hypsometer scale for measuring tree height in meters is placed on the back side of the cruiser stick. This scale is calibrated for the same reach as the Biltmore Stick on the other sine.

The Merritt is designed for use at a particular distance from the tree (30 meters for graduations on number chart). This base distance of 3() meters should be printed on the scale. Graduations, beginning with zero at the bottom of the stick, are found on the number table for your specified reach. Using the number table, tree heights of 1 - 40 meters can be measured.

If a number table is not available for your specified reach it is possible to construct one using the following formula:

L + H x R/B

Where:

L = length (cm) to be marked off on stick for each H meters of tree height,

h = tree height in meters,

B = base distance in meters,

R = reach in centimeters.


(Fig. 40)


Fig. 41 - Basis for Merritt Formula.

B. USE OF MERRITT HYPSOMETER:

1. The cruiser stands at a specified distance (30m) from the tree, with the hypsometer scale held vertically at arms' length. The bottom end of the scale is moved upward or downward until it is on the line of sight to the base of the tree. Tree height, in meters, is then read at the point where the line of sight to the upper limit of the stem intersects the scale (see figure 2).

2. The following precautions must be observed to obtain accurate readings with the Merritt Hypsometer:

a. The stick is designed for use at a particular base distance (horizontal distance) from a tree. This distance should be printed on the scale.

b. The stick is calibrated for a specified reach. This should be the same specified reach as for the Biltmore on the other side.

c. Failure to hold the stick vertically will cause inaccurate readings.

III. METER STICK - To measure length.

The stick for the Biltmore and Merritt should be 1 meter long. On the side one can add a centimeter scale. This will provide the cruiser with a handy measuring stick.

(m) TREE

cm from bottom of stick

Height Mark

57 cm reach

65 cm reach

1

1.90

2.17

2

3.80

4.35

3

5.70

6.50

4

7.60

8.67

5

9.50

10.83

6

11.40

13.00

7

13.30

15.17

8

15.20

17.33

9

17.10

19.50

10

19.00

21.67

11

20.90

23.83

12

22.80

26.00

13

24.70

28.17

14

26.60

30.33

15

28.50

32.50

16

30.40

34.67

17

32.30

36.83

18

34.20

59.00

19

36.10

41.17

20

38.00

43.33

21

39.90

45.50

22

41.80

47.67

23

43.70

49.83

24

45.60

52.00

25

47.50

54.17

26

49.40

56.33

27

51.30

58.50

28

53.20

60.67

29

55.10

62.83

30

57.00

65.00

31

58.90

67.17

32

60.80

69.33

33

62.70

71.50

34

64.60

73.67

35

66.50

75.83

36

68.40

78.00

37

70.30

80.17

38

72.20

82.33

39

74.10

84.50

40

76.00

86.67

 

DBH

cm from left end of stick

Mark (cm)

57 cm reach

65 cm reach

1

0.99

0.99

3

2.92

2.93

5

4.79

4.82

7

6.61

6.65

9

8.36

8.43

11

10.07

10.17

13

11.73

11.87

15

13.25

13.52

17

15.13

15.14

19

16.45

16.71

21

17.95

18.26

23

19.41

19.77

25

20.84

21.25

27

22.24

22.69

29

23.61

24.12

31

24.95

25.51

33

26.26

26.88

35

27.55

28.22

37

28.81

29.54

39

30.05

30.83

41

31.27

32.11

43

32.46

33.36

45

33.64

34.59

47

34.80

35.81

49

35.93

37.00

51

37.05

38.18

53

38.15

39.34

55

39.24

40.48

57

40.31

41.61

59

41.36

42.72

61

42.40

43.81

63

43.42

44.89

65

44.43

45.96

67

45.43

47.02

69

46.41

48.06

71

47.38

49.08

73

48.34

50.10

75

49.28

51.10

77

50.22

52.10

79

51.14

53.08

81

52.06

54.05

83

52.96

55.01

85

53.85

55.95

87

54.74

56.89

89

55.61

57.82

91

56.47

58.74

93

57.33

59.65

95

58.18

60.55

97

59.01

61.44

99

59.84

62.33

101

60.66

63.20

103

61.48

64.07

105

62.28

64.93

107

63.08

65.78

109

63.87

66.62

111

64.66

67.46

113

65.43

68.28

115

66.20

69.11

117

66.97

69.92

119

67.72

70.73

121

68.47

71.53

123

69.22

72.32

125

69.95

73.11

127

70.69

73.89

129

71.41

74.67

131

72.13

75.44

133

72.85

76.20

135

73.56

76.96

137

74.26

77.71

139

74.96

78.46

141

75.65

79.20

143

76.34

79.94

145

77.02

80.67

147

77.70

81.40

149

78.38

82.12

151

79.05

82.83

153

79.71

83.54

Conversion Factors for U.S. and Metric Units

To convert column 1 into column 2. multiply by

Column 1

Column 2

To convert column 2 into column 1 multiply by

Length

     

0.621

kilometer, km

mile, mi

1.609

1.094

meter, m

yard, yd

0,914

0 394

centimeter, cm

inch. in

2.54

Area

     

0.386

kilometer2, km2

milch, mi2

2 590

247.1

kilometer2, km2

acre, acre

0.00405

2.471

hectare, ha

acre, acre

0.405

Volume

     

000973

meter3, m3

acre-inch

102.8

3.532

hectoliter, hl

cubic foot, ft3

0.2832

2.838

hectoliter, hl

bushel, bu

0.352

0.02X4

liter

bushel, bu

35.24

1.057

liter

quart (liquid), qt

0.946

Mass

     

1.102

ton (metric)

ton (U.S.)

0.9072

2.205

quintal, q

hundredweight,

0.454 cwt (short)

2.205

kilogram. kg

pound, lb

0.454

0.035

gram, g

ounce (avdp), oz

2X.35

Pressure

     

14.50

bar

lb/inch2, psi

0.06895

0.9869

bar

atmosphere, atm

1.013

0.9678

kg(weight)/cm2

atmosphere. atm

1.033

14.22

kg(weight)/cm2

lb/inch2, psi

0.07031

14.70

atmosphere, atm

lb/inch2, psi

0.06805

Yield or Rate

     

0.446

ton (metric)/hectare

ton (U.S.)/acre

2.240

0.892

kg/ha

lb/acre

1.12

0.892

quintal/hectare

hundredweight/acre

1.12

Temperature

     

( 9/5 °C ) + 32

Celsius

Fahrenheit

3/9 ( °F -12)

 

-17.8C

0F

 
 

0C

32F

 
 

20C

68F

 
 

100C

212F

 

Water Measurement

     

8.108

hectare-meters. ha-m

acre-feet

0.1233

97.29

hectare-meters. ha-m

acre-inches

0.01028

0 08108

hectare-centimeters. ha-cm

acre-feet

12.33

0.973

hectare-centimeters, ha-cm

acre-inches

1.0:8

0.00973

meters3, m3

acre-inches

102.8

0.981

hectare-centimeters/hour. ha-cm/hour

feet3/sec

1.0194

440.3

hectare-centimeters/hour ha-cm/hour

U.S. gall./min

0.00227

0.00981

meters3/hour, m3/hour

feet3/sec

101.94

4.403

meters3/hour, m3/hour

U. S. gall./min

0.227

Exercise II: Forest Mensuration Lecture

Total Time: 1 hour

Overview

The purpose of this lecture is to acquaint the trainees with forest mensuration and provide a simple method for determining forest volume.

Procedures

Time

Activities

 

1. Technical trainer gives following lecture posting lecture outline on newsprint.

OBJECTIVES: To acquaint the trainees with forest mensuration and provide a simple method for determining forest volume.

Trainer explains how volume is determined and diagrams instructions.


(Fig. 42)

Draw in how many boards can be produced out of each log depending on diameter of small end of 109.

VOLUME = end area in hoard feed/12 X length How Volume is determined - Formula rules

Diameter small end of log


(Fig. 43)

V = Area small end/12 • Length

V = 06545(D2)(Length)

Less Slab - Deduct 2" - 4" from Diameter (Variable X)

V = U6545(D - X)length

Less kerf = K/(K +/- T)

Explanation of what is saw keft

A=% of volume deduced for saw kerf

K = Thickness of saw kerf

T = Thickness of board

V= (1-A).06545(P-K)2L

Standard Volume Table

Sample trees


Altura (height) DAP (DBH) (Fig. 44)

- Trees felled and bucked into logs

- "DAP" and "altura" taken

- calculation of volumes made by log and totaled for each tree sampled

- Volumes of trees in same DAP and altura class averaged and put in tabular form

DAP

Altura

 

10

15

20

25

30

14

0.081

0.103

0.126

-

-

16

0.098

0.128

0.159

-

-

Forest Area

Important: Determine area of forest


Forest

If it is done first or last: You have to know area of forest to compute the total volume.

Forest stand area for purposes of example calculated to be 6.5 hectares.

Planning the Field Work (Planificacion de trabajo de terreno)

- Delineate Forest Types

- Make types as homogenous as possible

1 monoculture

Planted

planted

planted

1952

'52

'55

70% stocked

30% stocked

100%

Planted 1955

70% stocked

2 monocultures (native)

Major species X, Y and Z

70% stocked

Major Species A,B and C

30% stocked

 

Major species A,B and C

70% stocked

Plot Layout

(Sistema de Ubicacion de parcelas)


Systematic

Plots rayed out at set distance from one another along a straight line: lines evenly spaced, and should cross drainages


Random

Plots located randomly - no pattern

1. Lay out on graph paper with X & Y coordinates; pick random numbers for X and Y coordinates to plot.

2. Throw beans or rice over map of area.

Plots (Parcelas)

Circular

1/10 Hectares

A= r2

r2=A/ r= 100m2/3.14169


(Fig. 47)

Square (cuadrado)

10 meters


(Fig. 48)

Diameters DBH=DAP


(Fig. 49)

Heights For "shooting" tree heights all measurements are.....


Fig. 50

HORIZONTAL DISTANCE

Tree Height = HD X %

Tree Height = 40 X 1.10

Tree Height = 44 meters

Field Notes

Species

Plot

DAP

ALTURA

DEFECT

Notes Volume*

 

1

14

42

-0-

 
   

18

46

10%

 
   

26

69

-0-

 
 

2

22

61

-0-

 
   

28

75

10%

 
   

32

79

-0-

 

Determining Volume of a Tree (Determinacion de Volumen de un arbol)


(Fig. 51)

Height (Altura) = 20m


(Fig. 52)

DAP

Altura en Metras

 

10

15

20

14

0.084

0.108

0.133

16

0.099

0.131

0.163

Total Volume Cruised by Forest Type

Plot No.

Total volume for each plot

1

8.172 m3

2

12.101

3

15.111

4

11.002

5

10.301

6

9.221

Total Cruise Volume

65.908m3

 

Total Volume of Stand

Total cruise volume

= 65.908m3

Total no. of plots

= 6

65.908m3/6

= 10.985m3/Plot (Average)

1 ha size of plot

= /10

10.983m3/plot x 10 Plots/ha

= 109. 85m3/hectare

Area Estimation

= 6.5 has

109.85m3/Ha x 6.5Has

= 714.025m3

 

= Total Volume of Stand

Exercise III Group Helping Skills

Total Time: 1 hour

Overview

During this session, it has been necessary for generalist trainees to lean on forester trainees for help in understanding and using a cruiser stick. The generalist trainees will need further help understanding the intricacies of forest mensuration. The trainees will give feedback to forester trainees and vice versa.

Procedures

Time

Activities

½ hour

1. Technical trainer asks groups formed earlier to use cruiser sticks to regroup. Technical trainer asks forester trainees to go over forest mensuration with generalist trainees and to answer questions they may have about forest mensuration and clear up any misunderstandings. Technical trainer floats during this period and can be called on as a resource person.

 

2. Groups are now asked to give each other feedback on skills transference during session: The following guidelines are posted on newsprint.

 

Forester Trainee:

 

2.1 Ask for feedback from others on your ability to help them.

15 minutes

 

- What did it feel like to be a giver of help and what can we learn from this?

   

- What may be different about helping others in host country?

   

- How might cultural variables affect

   

- Helping relationship?

15 minutes

Generalist Trainees:

   

- How can I approach others for help (Be it PCVs or HCNs)?

   

- How was I perceived as a helpee during this session?

   

- What did it feel like to he helped and what can I learn from this?

   

- Putting myself in a HCN's shoes, what might it feel like to get technical help?

 

2.3 All Trainees

   

- How can we apply the helping relationship to extension work in forestry?

   

- What things have we learned in this exercise that might help or hinder us as extension workers?

15 minutes

2.4 Trainer asks groups for their findings on things that help/ hinder and writes them on newsprint. Forester trainer now summarizes the learnings about helping relationships.