| Tools for teaching - A visual aids workshop, and instruction manual for health educators |
Without exception, virtually all contemporary literature outlining primary health care training techniques in developing countries worldwide stresses the need to adopt the following four strategies for an effective health education program at the village level:
A. participatory (as opposed to didactic) methods of health education
B. supplemental visual aids/curricula materials to encourage audience participation and promote learning
C. adaptation of existing methods and materials to address the specific needs and perceptions of local populations
D. effective methods of evaluation
This visual aids workshop is designed to acquaint personnel responsible for primary health care education with more effective teaching strategies by instructing them in the use and construction of simple supplementary curricula materials from inexpensive, indigenous sources. It will enable PHC facilitators to train incoming health personnel in participatory educational techniques. It will also provide district personnel with the skills to adapt and personalize the lessons presented in the Primary Health Care Household Teaching Manual (MOH: 1985) for local audiences. Finally, because visual aids are a proven method for stimulating audience response, facilitators will be able to readily evaluate the educational effectiveness of their presentations.
1. Public health personnel will be trained in the construction and use of visual educational aids. This supplementary curricula material shall be consistent with MOH goals and guidelines, but specific to current public health issues in the province and targeted toward local populations.
2. Workshop participants will be able to share their technical and design skills with other members of the primary health care team, thereby ensuring that visual aids and innovative problem-solving strategies become an ongoing supplement to the primary health care education program.
3. Self-reliance at the village level will be fostered through participatory educational experience.
1. Workshop participants will become familiar with the basic principles of communication design.
2. Participants will learn to work with a variety of techniques and media.
3. Workshop participants will be able to analyze a public health problem, assess their target audience, and select/create supplementary curriculum material appropriate to the occasion.
4. Workshop participants will know how to test the effectiveness of supplementary curricula materials and to evaluate the educational effectiveness of their presentation.
5. Projects created during the workshop will be useable models and will form the nucleus for an expandable supply of visual aids available for use-as-needed by all primary health care personnel.
IV. Course Content
A. Principles of Communication Design
B. Problem Analysis
C. Identification of Target Audience
D. Selection of Presentation Method
E. Design Process
F. Media and Techniques
G. Testing and Evaluation
The visual aids workshop will be conducted as a participatory hands-on experience. Specific problems will be selected by the group from the current local public health situation. A variety of solutions will be explored in such a way that all participants can become actively involved in the design/ construction of posters, flip charts, diagrams, flannelboard activities, puppets, games, and simple silkscreen reproduction for multiple copies. Participants will be encouraged to work cooperatively, contributing their individual talents and expertise to the group effort.
A. Projects will be evaluated in terms of:
1. design concept
3. educational effectiveness
B. Project evaluation will be accomplished by:
1. personal feedback from instructor
2. two or more group critiques of each project-in-progress
3. final effectiveness test of each project in the community with a sample audience
VII. Operating Details
1. 3 hours once a week for 10 consecutive weeks
2. total in-class training time: 30 hours
E. Selection of participants
a) commitment to primary health care education
b) willingness to solve problems creatively and to experiment with innovation
c) willingness to work cooperatively in a team situation
d) commitment to attend and participate fully in all ten classes
2. class size
a) 12-16 participants (4 teams of 3-4 members each)
b) selection priority should go to those persons whose professional roles would be most enhanced by the acquisition of these skills
A. Compulsory attendance at all ten sessions
B. Full participation in all workshop activities
C. Completion of all homework assignments
IX. Materials and Supplies:
A certificate of completion will be awarded to every participant who attends all ten sessions of the workshop and completes all the assigned projects as required.