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close this book Forestry training manual for the Africa region
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View the document Planning the field trip
View the document Tree planting site
View the document Soil erosion site
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View the document Unexpected resources
close this folder Conducting the training program
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close this folder Presenting the sessions
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View the document Sequence for session/exercise
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View the document Session 1 : Welcome, expectations, and evaluation criteria
View the document Session 2 : Special projects
View the document Session 3 : The forests of the world, peace corps' forestry goals, the individual volunteer's role
View the document Session 4 : Record keeping - group process
View the document Session 5 : Video tapes
View the document Session 6 : Agro-forestry data collection
View the document Session 7 : Feedback
View the document Session 8 : Flowers, seeds, the beginning
View the document Session 9 : Nutrition
View the document Session 10 : Non-verbal communication
View the document Session 11 : Germination
View the document Session 12 : Coping skills
View the document Session 13 : Basic site selection, planning & layout of a nursery
View the document Session 14 : Review of trainees' nursery plan
View the document Session 15 communication through illustration
View the document Session 16 : Soil preparation, seedbed sowing
View the document Session 17 : Individual interviews
View the document Session 18 : Reproduction by clippings and nursery review
View the document Session 19 : Introduction to extension
View the document Session 20 : Protection and record keeping (Insect collection)
View the document Session 20A : Chicken preparation
View the document Session 21 : The volunteers' role as an extensionist
View the document Session 22 : Tropical horticulture: care, tending and disease control
View the document Session 23 : Women in development - part I
View the document Session 24 : Team building
View the document Session 25 : Building and using a rustic transit
View the document Session 26 : Women in development - part II
View the document Session 27 : Working with groups as an extension worker
View the document Session 28 : Trees: identification & planting
View the document Session 29 : Lesson plan and use of visual aids in teaching
View the document Session 30 : The ugly American
View the document Session 31 : Catchments - sowing of seedlings into catchments
View the document Session 32 : Weekly interview
View the document Session 33 : Agro-forestry
View the document Session 34 : Community analysis introduction
View the document Session 35 : Soils
View the document Session 36 : Community analysis
View the document Session 37 : Irrigation
View the document Session 38 : Review of expectations - mid-way
View the document Session 39 : Problem analysis
View the document Session 40 : Soil erosion
View the document Session 41 : Species report - research demonstration
View the document Session 42 : Cultural values
View the document Session 43 : Wellbeing
View the document Session 44 : Field trip overview
View the document Session 45 : Agro-forestry reports
View the document Session 46 : Weekly interview
View the document Session 47 : Leave on week-long field trip
View the document Session 48 : Pesticides
View the document Session 49 : Review of field trips
View the document Session 50 : Resources
View the document Session 51 : Area measurement, pacing, compass use
View the document Session 52 : Compost heap - greenhouse construction - germination percentage
View the document Session 53 : Culture shock
View the document Session 54 : Range management
View the document Session 55 : Grafting and fruit trees
View the document Session 56 : Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials
View the document Session 57 : Project planning: goal setting
View the document Session 58 : Final interviews
View the document Session 59 : Ecology teams presentations
View the document Session 60 : Graduation

Session 34 : Community analysis introduction

Total time 2 hours 30 minutes


- For the trainees to receive feedback from non-verbal exercise,

- The trainees should learn the names of the 14 sub-systems in the social cybernetics framework,

- The trainees should define each system and its elements,

- The trainees should develop a series of questions for inquiry which fit into the categories.


Community analysis is introduced in this session. Building upon the extension workers' role, the social cybernetics sub-system are used in this session because they were developed in Latin America and are widely used for analysis by many institutions in the Inter-American region.


1. Feedback on Non-verbal Observations

2. Introduction to Social Cybernetics Sub-systems


Flip charts, marker pens, tape.

Exercise 1 Feedback on Non-verbal Observations

Total time 30 minutes


Trainees started observing each other's non-verbal behavior in Session 10. They will now give their partner feedback on nonverbal behavior.



1. The trainees will have selected partners in Session 10 and will now exchange information on their observations of non-verbal behavior.


30 minutes


2. At the and of one-half hour, the trainer starts on next exercise.

Exercise 2 Introduction to Social Cybernetics Sub-Systems

Total time 2 hours


Social Cybernetics Methodology was developed in South America and has been applied in Central and South America particularly among tribal people for the last 15 years. In this session, the 14 sub-systems are introduced and defined. Trainees then develop a list of questions for each sub-system that will generate data necessary for analysis of their communities.



1. The trainer introduces sub-systems and gives a brief lecture including:

A. The community analysis model with which you will be working assumes that you can break down a community into a series of segments or sub-systems for purposes of analysis.

B. Each segment, in the real world, interacts with the other to produce a continual movement and balance which keeps the community active. Change in one segment can affect the other and vice versa. Intervention will do the same, e.g., if you introduce improved piggery techniques by penning up pigs and feeding them rather than letting them forage for food (an economic intervention), you affect community health by reducing swine-borne diseases.

C. Cutting across all segments of the community, you will find that there are common elements. These common elements are defined ass:

- Resources (both human, natural and manmade);

- Problems possibly exist problems are defined as the gap between what is and what should be (what "should be" is often defined culturally);

- Patterns exist which give you clues about what is there, and how persons perceive them (these patterns of behavior often include cultural habits, as well as biological necessities); and,

- Among the human resources you will probably find that leadership exists in many of the sub-areas of the community.

The following model describes this approach to the community.


15 minutes



Birth, sex, marital status, ethnic groups, habitation, migration, family, relatives, demography, population.


Hygiene, infirmity, hospitals, campaigns, nursing, pharmacy, medicine, dentistry, sanitation, public health, mortality.


Consumers, bars, stores, hotels, diets, food/drink, clothing, warehouse, malnutrition.


Friendship, love, hate, association, clubs, unions, coops, federations, societies, solidarity, integration.


Tourism, holidays, games, free time, music/songs, diversions, sports, hobbies, exhaustion, relaxation.


Trips, transportation, accidents, languages, newspapers, broadcast stations, telecommunications, networks.


Culture, teachers, didactics, research, study, school, library, education, academics, teaching.


Public/private property, possessions, assets, wealth/salaries, rich/poor, distribution of wealth, stock market, GNP.


Manufacture, enterprises, firms, specialists, departments, arts, technologies, farming, energy, extractive industry.


Creeds, beliefs, participation, churches, ministers, rites, congregations.


Police power, combativity, defense, attacks, crimes, violence/war, armed forces, military operations, fear.


Public power, planning, political parties, bureaucracy, regime, public administration, government.


Laws, justice, rights, duties, courts, codes, legal process, jurists.


Prestige, respect, merit, competition, privilege, titles, excellence, elites, "who's who", nobel prize, monuments.

Trainer’s Note: We have used this model because it is all inclusive of social sub-systems used in social planning in the Americas. You may wish to use a shorter version called KEEPRAH, Holistic Model, developed by Phil Donohue and used in the early 1960's at Peace Corps Training Center, Escondido, California.


2. The trainees are instructed to write their autobiography using the 14 sub systems.


1 hour 30 minutes


3. The trainees meet with their non-verbal partner and share the learnings they have derived from seeing themselves through the 14 sub-systems.


15 minutes


4. The trainer links the exercise to Session 36 on the following night.