Cover Image
close this book Grazing and rangeland development for livestock production
View the document Table of contents
close this folder Management of rangelands and other grazing lands of the tropics and subtropics for support of livestock production. Technical Series Bulletin No. 23
View the document Preface
close this folder I. Introduction
View the document 1. Land Use and Livestock Populations
close this folder II. Inventory of the natural resources base of permanent grasslands.
close this folder 1. Climate.
View the document a. Rainfall.
View the document b. Sunlight.
View the document c. Temperatures.
View the document d. Evaporation and humidity.
View the document e. Length of the dry season.
View the document f. Monsoon climates.
View the document g. Mediterranean climates.
View the document h. Categories of climates
View the document 2. Land forms and elevation.
close this folder 3. Natural vegetation as an index of agricultural potential.
View the document Low latitude (tropical) forests
View the document Middle latitude forest
View the document Grasslands
View the document Desert
close this folder 4. World soil grouping for forage production.
View the document a. Tropical soils.
View the document b. Major soil groups.
View the document c. Soil deficiencies and plant growth.
View the document d. Dependence of plants on soils.
View the document e. Laterites and laterite soils.
View the document 5. Characteristics of permanent grasslands.
close this folder 6. Soil surveys and land capability classes.
View the document a. Lands suited for grasslands.
close this folder 7. Present land use patterns, by ecological zones.
View the document a. Dry rangelands in semi-desert zones.
View the document b. Savanna lands.
View the document c. Wet-dry tropics.
View the document d. The humid tropics .
close this folder III. Coping with constraints affecting forage production and utilization on rangelands, sod other Permanent Grasslands
View the document 1. Climatic constraints.
View the document 2. Soil degradation.
close this folder 3. Depletion of plant cover.
View the document a. Loss of perennial forage plants.
View the document b. Invasion by bush and tree growth.
View the document c. Loss of forage legumes.
View the document d. Shortened grazing season.
close this folder 4. Unbalanced animal nutrition on depleted grazing lands.
View the document a. Reduction in feed supply.
View the document b. Reduced nutritive value of forages.
View the document 5 Overstocking and overgrazing.
View the document 6. Lack of stored feeds, and/or reserved grazing lands to support livestock in dry seasons.
View the document 7. Uncontrolled burning.
close this folder IV. The elements of productive grassland management.
View the document 1. Adjusting livestock numbers to match year-round feed supplies.
View the document 2. Providing mineral supplements to native forage.
View the document 3. Rotation grazing to permit forage growth periods for natural restoration of vegetative cover, on a regular sequence.
View the document 4. Prohibit uncontrolled burning of all grassland, and invoke other methods of controlling undesired vegetation.
View the document 5. Adoption of management practices to protect against wind and water erosion, and to improve water conservation in regions of limited rainfall.
close this folder 6. Introducing superior forage species on rangelands and other permanent grasslands to improve forage yields and nutritive values.
View the document a. Adapted grasses and legumes for different rainfall zones.
View the document 7. Correcting mineral deficiencies in soils of rangelands and other permanent grasslands.
close this folder 8. Preparations for introducing superior Forage species in grazing lands.
View the document a. Control of brush and trees.
View the document b. Mineral requirements of forage species.
View the document c. Seeding practices.
View the document d. Planting methods.
View the document 9. Management of renovated grasslands.
close this folder V. Measuring productivity of rangelands and other permanent grasslands.
View the document 1. Estimating forage production during season of active growth.
close this folder 2. Methods of estimating available feed supplies.
View the document a. Sampling the standing forage plant growth
View the document b. Supplemental feeds
View the document 3. Predicting seasonal forage Production on the basis of rainfall.
close this folder VI. Estimating Feed Requirements of Ruminant Livestock in Tropical and Sub-Tropical Regions.
View the document 1. Feed requirements for cattle.
View the document 2. Feed requirements for sheep and goats
View the document 3. Feed values of edible forage plants.
View the document 4. Relative feed values of growing forage plants on rangeland and pastures, and of mature plants.
View the document 5. Feed value of crop byproducts.
View the document 6. Balancing livestock numbers against total yearly feed supplies.
View the document VII. Conclusions
View the document Appendices
View the document Appendix no. 1: Perennial Forage Grasses for the Tropics and Subtropics
View the document Appendix no. 2: Seed Characteristics and Adaptive Features of Forage Grasses
View the document Appendix no. 3: Major Forage Legumes for the Tropics and Sub-Tropics
View the document Appendix no. 4: Seed Characteristics and Adaptive Features of Forage Legumes
View the document Appendix no. 5: "Sources of Seed of Tropical Legumes"
View the document Appendix no. 6: Sources of Rhizobium Cultures for Tropical Legumes
View the document Appendix no. 7: Additional Publications Dealing with Livestock Production and Feed Supplies
View the document Leucaena leucocephala: an excellent feed for livestock. Technical Series Bulletin No. 25
close this folder Combined Crop/Livestock Farming Systems For Developing Countries of the Tropics and Sub-Tropics; Technical Series Bulletin No. 19
View the document Preface
View the document Outlook
close this folder I. Introduction
View the document Benefits From Combined Systems
View the document Land Resources & Livestock Populations
close this folder II. How livestock enterprises improve the profitability of farming systems
View the document A. Providing nitrogen in the crop rotation.
View the document B. Soil improvement for greater production.
View the document C. Providing feed for livestock.
View the document D. Animal manures for enhancing soil productivity.
View the document E. Improved control of Plant pests.
View the document F. Feed supplies for work animals.
View the document G. Effective use of non-arable lands associated with cropped lands.
View the document H. Profitable use of crop residues and by-products.
View the document I. Animal products for human foods.
View the document J. Livestock enterprises in combined farming systems stabilize incomes and cash flow
close this folder III. Facilitating the successful addition of livestock enterprises to crop farming systems.
View the document A. Information on costs and benefits.
View the document B. Providing livestock feed during dry seasons.
View the document C. Technical assistance on effective use of feedstuffs.
View the document D. Developing milk processing to greatly enlarge markets for local milk producers.
View the document E. Effective livestock husbandry.
View the document F Perennial forage grasses and legumes in crop rotations to support livestock enterprises.
View the document G. Suitable credit for animal enterprises.
View the document H. Providing animal health care.
View the document I. Cautions on use of communal or open grazing lands.

Appendix no. 6: Sources of Rhizobium Cultures for Tropical Legumes

This list of names and addresses of organizations handling inoculants is necessarily incomplete but supplies information as to where inoculants can be obtained. Sources of inoculants for temperate legumes can be obtained from Dr. E. Hamatova, Department of Microbiology, Central Research Institute of Plant Production, Prague, Ruzyne, or Professor O.N. Allen, Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, U.S.A.

As more effective strains are developed, the present ones will be superseded and an up-to-date list is published from time to time in the Rhizobium Newsletter edited by Professor J.M. Vincent, Department of Microbiology, School of Biological Sciences, University of New South Wales, P.O. Box l, Kensington, New South Wales, Australia. It is available to persons interested in using it, for a small charge.


Dr. Enrique Schiel

Instituto de Microbiologia e Industrias Agropecuarias

Villa Udaondo, Castelar

F.C.N.D.F.S., Prov. De Buenos Aires, Argentina

(on agar)

Roberto E. Halbinger

Quimica Industrial y Comercial

Tecnologia en Industrias Agricola

H. Yrigoyen 571, Buenos Aires

Jose P. Radibak

Tamborini 3094

Buenos Aires, Argentina

Grace & Crawford Keen y Cia

San Martin 232

Buenos Aires,


Florida 622

Buenos Aires,

Instituto Agrotecnico

Avenida Las Heras 727,


Prov. del Chaco, Argentina

(on agar)


Dr. R.A. Date

CSIRO Division of Tropical Pastures

St. Lucia, Oueenland 4067

Tropical Inoculants

1 Kneale St.

Holland Park


(inoculants sold under the trade name of TROPICAL INOCULANTS)

Dr. R. Roughley

Biological and Chemical Research Institute

PMB 10, Tydalmere

New South Wales, 2116

Professor J.M. Vincent

School of Microbiology

University of New South Wales

P.O. Box 1, Kensington

New South Wales, 2033

D.J. Pulsford

Agricultural Laboratories

P.O. Box 8

Carlington St., Regent's Park New South Wales, 2143

(inoculants sold under the trade name of NOCULAID)

R. Daniels

Root Nodules Pty. Ltd

49 Chandos St., St. Leonards New South Wales, 2065

(inoculants sold under the trade name of NITROGERM)

The Head of the Department of Soil Service and Plant Nutrition

Institute of Agriculture

University of Western Australia

Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009

The Director

Dept. of Agriculture, Stock and Fisheries


Papua, New Guinea


J.R. Jardim Freire, Ing. Agr.

Seccion de Microbiologia Agricola

Secretaria de Agricultura,

Porto Alegre

Rio Grande del Sur

Instituto de Biologia y Pesquisas Tecnologicas

Casilla Postal 357

Curitiba, Parana

Laboratorio Leivas Leite S.A.

P.O. Box 91, Pelotas

Rio Grande del Sur


Luis S. Longeri

Universidad de Concepcion, Dep. Microbiologia

Casilla 272, Concepcion

(inoculants distributed under the trade name of NITROFIX)


The Kenya Seed Company

P.O. Box 553

Kitale, Kenya

(sole distributor of rhizobia for east Africa)


Dr. C.C. Casas

Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas

IPN Apartado Postal 42-186

Mexico, D.F.

(inoculants distributed under the trade names of NITRAGIN and PAGADOR)


Ing. Agric. Rodolfo Vargas

Estacion Experimental Agricola de La Molina

Apartado 2791


American inoculants distributed as:

NODOGEN - Nodogen Laboratories,

Princeton, Illinois, United States

NITRAGIN - The Nitragin Co. Inc.,

Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53209,

United States


Dr. B.W. Strydom

Dept. of Agricultural Technical Services

Plant Protection Research Institute

Agriculture Building

Beatrix St., Private Bag 134


S.A. Legume Inoculant Company (Pty) Ltd.

P.O. Box 248



Dr. Carlos Batthyany

Laboratorio de Microbiologia de Suelo del M.G.A.

Ciudadela 1471


Laboratorios Dispert S.A.

Avenida Garibaldi 2797


(inoculants distributed under the trade name of NITRASOIL)

Esur Ltda.

Azara 3387


(inoculants distributed under the trade name of NITRUR)


Selected tropical-temperate inoculants

Plant Cultures

P.O. Box 284

Gainesville, Florida

Dr. U.M. Means

U S Soils Laboratory

Dept. of Agriculture

Beltsville, Maryland 20705

The Nitragin Company

3101 W. Custer Avenue

Station F. P.O. Box J

Milwaukee 9, Wisconsin

(inoculants sold under the trade name of NITRAGIN)