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close this book Grazing and rangeland development for livestock production
View the document Table of contents
close this folder Management of rangelands and other grazing lands of the tropics and subtropics for support of livestock production. Technical Series Bulletin No. 23
View the document Preface
close this folder I. Introduction
View the document 1. Land Use and Livestock Populations
close this folder II. Inventory of the natural resources base of permanent grasslands.
close this folder 1. Climate.
View the document a. Rainfall.
View the document b. Sunlight.
View the document c. Temperatures.
View the document d. Evaporation and humidity.
View the document e. Length of the dry season.
View the document f. Monsoon climates.
View the document g. Mediterranean climates.
View the document h. Categories of climates
View the document 2. Land forms and elevation.
close this folder 3. Natural vegetation as an index of agricultural potential.
View the document Low latitude (tropical) forests
View the document Middle latitude forest
View the document Grasslands
View the document Desert
close this folder 4. World soil grouping for forage production.
View the document a. Tropical soils.
View the document b. Major soil groups.
View the document c. Soil deficiencies and plant growth.
View the document d. Dependence of plants on soils.
View the document e. Laterites and laterite soils.
View the document 5. Characteristics of permanent grasslands.
close this folder 6. Soil surveys and land capability classes.
View the document a. Lands suited for grasslands.
close this folder 7. Present land use patterns, by ecological zones.
View the document a. Dry rangelands in semi-desert zones.
View the document b. Savanna lands.
View the document c. Wet-dry tropics.
View the document d. The humid tropics .
close this folder III. Coping with constraints affecting forage production and utilization on rangelands, sod other Permanent Grasslands
View the document 1. Climatic constraints.
View the document 2. Soil degradation.
close this folder 3. Depletion of plant cover.
View the document a. Loss of perennial forage plants.
View the document b. Invasion by bush and tree growth.
View the document c. Loss of forage legumes.
View the document d. Shortened grazing season.
close this folder 4. Unbalanced animal nutrition on depleted grazing lands.
View the document a. Reduction in feed supply.
View the document b. Reduced nutritive value of forages.
View the document 5 Overstocking and overgrazing.
View the document 6. Lack of stored feeds, and/or reserved grazing lands to support livestock in dry seasons.
View the document 7. Uncontrolled burning.
close this folder IV. The elements of productive grassland management.
View the document 1. Adjusting livestock numbers to match year-round feed supplies.
View the document 2. Providing mineral supplements to native forage.
View the document 3. Rotation grazing to permit forage growth periods for natural restoration of vegetative cover, on a regular sequence.
View the document 4. Prohibit uncontrolled burning of all grassland, and invoke other methods of controlling undesired vegetation.
View the document 5. Adoption of management practices to protect against wind and water erosion, and to improve water conservation in regions of limited rainfall.
close this folder 6. Introducing superior forage species on rangelands and other permanent grasslands to improve forage yields and nutritive values.
View the document a. Adapted grasses and legumes for different rainfall zones.
View the document 7. Correcting mineral deficiencies in soils of rangelands and other permanent grasslands.
close this folder 8. Preparations for introducing superior Forage species in grazing lands.
View the document a. Control of brush and trees.
View the document b. Mineral requirements of forage species.
View the document c. Seeding practices.
View the document d. Planting methods.
View the document 9. Management of renovated grasslands.
close this folder V. Measuring productivity of rangelands and other permanent grasslands.
View the document 1. Estimating forage production during season of active growth.
close this folder 2. Methods of estimating available feed supplies.
View the document a. Sampling the standing forage plant growth
View the document b. Supplemental feeds
View the document 3. Predicting seasonal forage Production on the basis of rainfall.
close this folder VI. Estimating Feed Requirements of Ruminant Livestock in Tropical and Sub-Tropical Regions.
View the document 1. Feed requirements for cattle.
View the document 2. Feed requirements for sheep and goats
View the document 3. Feed values of edible forage plants.
View the document 4. Relative feed values of growing forage plants on rangeland and pastures, and of mature plants.
View the document 5. Feed value of crop byproducts.
View the document 6. Balancing livestock numbers against total yearly feed supplies.
View the document VII. Conclusions
View the document Appendices
View the document Appendix no. 1: Perennial Forage Grasses for the Tropics and Subtropics
View the document Appendix no. 2: Seed Characteristics and Adaptive Features of Forage Grasses
View the document Appendix no. 3: Major Forage Legumes for the Tropics and Sub-Tropics
View the document Appendix no. 4: Seed Characteristics and Adaptive Features of Forage Legumes
View the document Appendix no. 5: "Sources of Seed of Tropical Legumes"
View the document Appendix no. 6: Sources of Rhizobium Cultures for Tropical Legumes
View the document Appendix no. 7: Additional Publications Dealing with Livestock Production and Feed Supplies
View the document Leucaena leucocephala: an excellent feed for livestock. Technical Series Bulletin No. 25
close this folder Combined Crop/Livestock Farming Systems For Developing Countries of the Tropics and Sub-Tropics; Technical Series Bulletin No. 19
View the document Preface
View the document Outlook
close this folder I. Introduction
View the document Benefits From Combined Systems
View the document Land Resources & Livestock Populations
close this folder II. How livestock enterprises improve the profitability of farming systems
View the document A. Providing nitrogen in the crop rotation.
View the document B. Soil improvement for greater production.
View the document C. Providing feed for livestock.
View the document D. Animal manures for enhancing soil productivity.
View the document E. Improved control of Plant pests.
View the document F. Feed supplies for work animals.
View the document G. Effective use of non-arable lands associated with cropped lands.
View the document H. Profitable use of crop residues and by-products.
View the document I. Animal products for human foods.
View the document J. Livestock enterprises in combined farming systems stabilize incomes and cash flow
close this folder III. Facilitating the successful addition of livestock enterprises to crop farming systems.
View the document A. Information on costs and benefits.
View the document B. Providing livestock feed during dry seasons.
View the document C. Technical assistance on effective use of feedstuffs.
View the document D. Developing milk processing to greatly enlarge markets for local milk producers.
View the document E. Effective livestock husbandry.
View the document F Perennial forage grasses and legumes in crop rotations to support livestock enterprises.
View the document G. Suitable credit for animal enterprises.
View the document H. Providing animal health care.
View the document I. Cautions on use of communal or open grazing lands.

1. Adjusting livestock numbers to match year-round feed supplies.

a. Identifying available grazing areas. The first requirement is to designate the rangeland areas open to specific herdsmen and their stock. The common practice of allowing any herdsmen who arrive first to use the forage for his herds should give way to assignment of specific grazing lands to designated groups of herdsmen. This is doubtless a government function.

b. Probable feed supplies. The probable forage producing capacity of these specific grazing lands may then be estimated, with revisions each year to adjust to apparent forage plant vigor. The number of animal units authorized to use these grazing lands may then be determined. Some flexibility is permissible if there are supplemental feed sources that the herdsmen may use. For example, if it is determined that the feed supply on a specific rangeland area will carry 100 animal units* for 12 months (or 1,200 animal unit months per year), the herdsmen may graze more animal units for a shorter period, but the total permissible grazing pressure must not exceed 1,200 animal unit months per year. The herd size must be adjusted to stay within the allowable number, by one of several methods, such as removal of livestock to other feed sources, or sale of merchantable stock, and additional reduction if necessary, by culling the breeding herd.

*One animal unit = 1 bovine, or 5 sheep, or 5 goats.

c. Selecting grazing land units for developing a grazing system. Dividing the total grassland area into several sectors, and grazing these in rotation, is a useful method of maximizing feed production and utilization without degrading carrying capacity of the grasslands. The yearly sequence of crazing the several sectors should be rotated, so that every sector will be protected every three to five years for production of seed and seedling establishment. The feeding of salt-mineral mixtures as needed to supplement the grazed forage usually increases the feed value of native plants.

d. Balancing livestock numbers in relation to available feed supplies. The yearly balancing of the grazing animal numbers against actual feed supplies should prevent the prevalent ruinous practice of overstocking that results in degradation of the rangelands, and a decline in reproduction, in growth and in physical condition of the herd. Prevention of such deterioration Is feasible; and it is sound economics to avoid the heavy expense involved in restoring grazing land productivity, and in rebuilding a decimated livestock herd after a severe drought strikes an overstocked range.

e. Providing feeds for the dry season. Supplemental feeds may be provided in several ways.

(1) Additional grazing lands are held in reserve without stocking, until such time as they are required to support the herd when normal grazing Lands are not sufficient.

(2) Feeds maybe grown and stored as hay or silage, on lands not included in the grazing areas. These can be used for breeding herd and young stock in periods of feed shortage.

(3) Crop products (stalks, vines, straw, screenings) may be saved and fed.