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close this book Grazing and rangeland development for livestock production
close this folder Management of rangelands and other grazing lands of the tropics and subtropics for support of livestock production. Technical Series Bulletin No. 23
close this folder IV. The elements of productive grassland management.
View the document 1. Adjusting livestock numbers to match year-round feed supplies.
View the document 2. Providing mineral supplements to native forage.
View the document 3. Rotation grazing to permit forage growth periods for natural restoration of vegetative cover, on a regular sequence.
View the document 4. Prohibit uncontrolled burning of all grassland, and invoke other methods of controlling undesired vegetation.
View the document 5. Adoption of management practices to protect against wind and water erosion, and to improve water conservation in regions of limited rainfall.
Open this folder and view contents 6. Introducing superior forage species on rangelands and other permanent grasslands to improve forage yields and nutritive values.
View the document 7. Correcting mineral deficiencies in soils of rangelands and other permanent grasslands.
Open this folder and view contents 8. Preparations for introducing superior Forage species in grazing lands.
View the document 9. Management of renovated grasslands.
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2. Providing mineral supplements to native forage.

Native forages are very often deficient in the essential minerals required by livestock for normal reproduction and growth. The improvement in overall performance of livestock herds is frequently quite outstanding when mineral supplements are fed. Thus, on the Llanos of eastern Colombia, the following mineral mixture has been proposed:



Percent by Weight



47 percent

blended mixture

Dicalcium phosphate, or bone meal

47 percent


Minor element mixture

6 percent


100 percent

The minor element mix contained the following: copper sulfate - 1.95%, iron sulfate - 5.00%, zinc oxide - 1.24%, magnesium sulfate - 3.09%, cobalt sulfate - 0.20%, potassium iodide - 0.07%, and ground cereal grains (to provide volume) - 88.45%.

The mineral mix was offered to stock at a considerable distance from the watering point, to avoid abnormal consumption in harmful amounts.

This Colombia mixture was a general purpose mixture formulated without specific information as to which trace elements might be seriously deficient. However, it may be assumed that phosphate is widely deficient in forage on grasslands of the semi-desert and subhumid regions. Dicalcium phosphate was used as a source of phosphate since bone meal was not available.