Cover Image
close this book Wells construction: hand dug and hand drilled
View the document Acknowledgments
View the document Introduction
close this folder Section one: Planning
close this folder Chapter 1: Introduction to wells planning
View the document A. Overview
View the document B. The need for adequate water supply
View the document C. Involving the local community
View the document D. Selecting the most appropriate water source
View the document E. Site choice
View the document F. Preventing water contamination
View the document G. Types of wells
View the document H. Well sections
View the document I. Materials
View the document J. Tools and equipment
View the document K. Sinking method
View the document L. Preparation for construction
View the document M. Planning
close this folder Section two: Hand dug wells
View the document Chapter 2: Introduction to hand-dug wells
View the document Chapter 3: Well design
View the document Chapter 4: Supplies
View the document Chapter 5: Lowering and raising workers and equipment
View the document Chapter 6: Digging
View the document Chapter 7: The middle section: overview of lining techniques
View the document Chapter 8: Construction of the middle section
View the document Chapter 9: Construction of the bottom section
close this folder Section three: Drilled wells
View the document Chapter 10: Introduction to drilled wells
View the document Chapter 11: Drilling and casing techniques
View the document Chapter 12: Construction: hand rotary and hand percussion methods
View the document Chapter 13: Construction: sludger method
View the document Chapter 14: Construction: driven and jetted
View the document Chapter 15: The bottom section
close this folder Appendices
View the document Appendix I: Conversion factors and tables
View the document Appendix II: Vegetation as an index of ground water
View the document Appendix III: Uses of dynamite in hand dug wells
View the document Appendix IV: Cement
View the document Appendix V: Leveling and plumbing the mold
View the document Appendix VI: Pipe
View the document Appendix VII: Pumps
View the document Appendix VIII: Water treatment in wells
View the document Appendix IX: Rope strength
View the document Glossary
View the document Annotated bibliography

M. Planning

Planning the construction of a well can be complicated. There is the necessity to find the appropriate material, the initial decision as to which sinking method will be used, and the complexity in assessing the ground conditions of the well site. These factors are difficult ones to evaluate, especially when information about local conditions is incomplete. Because situations change, the feasibility studies and planning may have to be repeated and updated before well construction begins.

To help you to plan effectively, the following is an outline of the wells construction process.

Overview of Well Construction

Initial feasibility questions

• Is there a need for water?

• Is a well the most appropriate water source to build?

• Are construction materials available?

• Who can do the work?

Community involvement

• How will the community participate?

• What training is needed?

• How will they be organized?

Technical questions

• Where will the well be sunk?

• How will the well be sunk?

• How will the well be designed to best prevent water contamination?

Construction of the middle section

• Initial site preparation.

• Sinking the hole.

• Lining (casing) the hole.

Construction of the bottom section

• Testing the quality and quantity of water available.

• Sinking and lining below the water table.

• Constructing the bottom plug or filter.

Construction of the top section

• Building the head wall.

• Constructing the platform.

• Installing the pump.

Well disinfection before initial use

Maintenance - The question of who will maintain the well and pump after their construction should be realistically resolved before construction.

After you have read the rest of the manual and have decided how you can best sink a well, you should use this overview as a checklist to make sure that you have considered all the necessary aspects of wells construction.