Planning the construction of a well can be complicated. There is the necessity to find the appropriate material, the initial decision as to which sinking method will be used, and the complexity in assessing the ground conditions of the well site. These factors are difficult ones to evaluate, especially when information about local conditions is incomplete. Because situations change, the feasibility studies and planning may have to be repeated and updated before well construction begins.
To help you to plan effectively, the following is an outline of the wells construction process.
Overview of Well Construction
Initial feasibility questions
• Is there a need for water?
• Is a well the most appropriate water source to build?
• Are construction materials available?
• Who can do the work?
• How will the community participate?
• What training is needed?
• How will they be organized?
• Where will the well be sunk?
• How will the well be sunk?
• How will the well be designed to best prevent water contamination?
Construction of the middle section
• Initial site preparation.
• Sinking the hole.
• Lining (casing) the hole.
Construction of the bottom section
• Testing the quality and quantity of water available.
• Sinking and lining below the water table.
• Constructing the bottom plug or filter.
Construction of the top section
• Building the head wall.
• Constructing the platform.
• Installing the pump.
Well disinfection before initial use
Maintenance - The question of who will maintain the well and pump after their construction should be realistically resolved before construction.
After you have read the rest of the manual and have decided how you can best sink a well, you should use this overview as a checklist to make sure that you have considered all the necessary aspects of wells construction.