Cover Image
close this book Water purification, distribution and sewage disposal for Peace Corps volunteers
View the document Contents
View the document Preface
close this folder Section 1: Water supply sources
View the document Overview:
View the document Background information
View the document Evaluation of sources
View the document Factors influencing the quality of water
View the document The quantity of water
View the document Types of sources
View the document Development of water sources
View the document The basic requirements of a water supply
View the document Selection of the source of supply
View the document Lesson plans
close this folder Section 2: Water treatment
View the document Overview:
View the document Self purification
View the document Basic steps in treating water
View the document Sample designs for treatment systems
View the document Lesson plans
close this folder Section 3: Planning the distribution system
View the document Overview:
View the document Design
View the document Existing facilities
View the document Size and nature of the community
View the document System capacity
View the document Water source
View the document Proposed system
View the document Financing the project
View the document Lesson plans
close this folder Section 4: Characteristics of an adequate system
View the document Overview:
View the document Essential components of an adequate system
View the document General requirements for an adequate system
View the document Relationship of distribution system to community
View the document Headloss and distribution systems
View the document Lesson plans
close this folder Section 5: Construction techniques
View the document Overview:
View the document Scheme
View the document Concrete
View the document Construction at the source
View the document Construction at the pumping station
View the document Construction at storage facility
View the document Construction on supply line
View the document Lesson plans
close this folder Section 6: Operation and maintenance
View the document Overview:
View the document Water source maintenance and inspection
View the document Regulations for installing new service connections or extensions to existing system.
View the document Regulations for cleaning the distributions system
View the document Inventorying for operation in emergencies
View the document Types of financial statements for small waterworks
View the document Lesson plans
close this folder Section 7: Scope of disposal system projects in host communities
View the document Overview:
View the document Public health importance of excreta disposal
View the document How disease is carried from excreta
View the document The characteristics of an adequate system
View the document Possible sanitary measures in rural areas
View the document Soil and ground-water pollution
View the document Location of latrines and other excreta disposal facilities
View the document Sludge accumulation and the life of a pit privy
View the document Community participation
View the document Family participation
View the document Role of health department and other agencies
View the document Public versus private latrines
View the document Human factors
View the document Lesson plans
close this folder Section 8: The privy method of excreta disposal design for a village
View the document Overview:
View the document The sanitary survey
View the document The pit privy
View the document Example privy designs
View the document Latrine for village use
View the document Thailand water-seal privy
View the document Lesson plans
close this folder Section 9: Water carried sewage systems construction and maintenance
View the document Overview:
View the document The septic tank
View the document Operation and maintenance
View the document Lesson plans
View the document Appendix A
View the document Appendix B
View the document Bibliography

Overview:

A sanitary survey and a description of the area where a disposal system will be installed is necessary so the project will ensure the public health. This section covers the design and construction of disposal projects of the privy type. The trainees will learn to construct several types of privy and be able to make the proper selection for a given situation.

SECTION 8 THE PRIVY METHOD OF EXCRETA DISPOSAL DESIGN FOR A VILLAGE

OBJECTIVE:

Design, plan, and construct a privy system which extends the present system to provide minimum satisfactory service within the community's social and economic limits of acceptability.

TASKS:

1. Establish criteria that proposed system must meet.

2. Define the capacity of the present system.

3. Sketch the location of any disposal facilities with respect to any water supply sources, irrigation systems, and food supply areas.

4. Determine whether these facilities are potential sources of contamination of any of the above.

5. For each disposal facility that is a potential source of contamination, determine whether a feasible means for arresting this situation is available.

6. Estimate population and define the community's capacity requirements for a disposal system.

7. Determine whether the present system is adequate in terms of the community requirements and the design criteria established above.

8. Define the extent to which new installations are necessary.

9. Determine the attitude toward sanitation and the practices of personal hygiene in the community.

10. Determine which types of installations are most likely to be maintained by the community.

11. Determine where any new facilities should be located so that:

a. They do not contaminate any of the existing water supply sources.

b. They are dry, well drained, and above flood level.

c. They are compatible with social attitudes in the community.

12. Identify the types of pit privy systems that satisfy the design criteria.

13. Determine what material and financial resources are available.

14. Prepare a plan to acquire public support toward and finances for the system.

15. Select the privy system that is most feasible.

16. Set up a program to construct this privy system.

17. Carry out this program.

FUNCTIONAL SKILLS:

1. Bore a test hole with a hand-held auger.

2. Determine how far faecal borne diseases can be carried in each of the strata or soils encountered in the test hole.

3. Conduct a survey to determine the population of the community.

4. Estimate the volume of pits, holes, and tanks.

5. Determine the practices of hygiene in the community.

6. Identify the components of various types of pit privies.

7. Dig a pit.

8. Mix concrete

9. Construct structures with brick, stone masonry, and rough cut logs.

10. Train local persons in the masonry and carpentry skills needed to build the system.

11. Provide instruction in the maintenance of the system.

TERMINAL PERFORMANCE TESTS:

1. With a hand-held auger, bore a hole, with horizontal dimensions of from 4 to 12 inches to a depth of 24 feet and determine how far faecal borne diseases can be carried in each of the strata or soils encountered in this test hole.

2. Determine the population of a designated community.

3. In a field exercise, determine the volume of any pits, holes, and tanks.

4. Determine the practices of personal hygiene in a designated community.

5. On a written examination, sketch three different designs for pit privies and list opposite each one of these the materials needed 'or construction.

6. Given the designs and materials needed to construct a pit privy, in a field exercise, construct this privy.