Cover Image
close this book Water purification, distribution and sewage disposal for Peace Corps volunteers
View the document Contents
View the document Preface
close this folder Section 1: Water supply sources
View the document Overview:
View the document Background information
View the document Evaluation of sources
View the document Factors influencing the quality of water
View the document The quantity of water
View the document Types of sources
View the document Development of water sources
View the document The basic requirements of a water supply
View the document Selection of the source of supply
View the document Lesson plans
close this folder Section 2: Water treatment
View the document Overview:
View the document Self purification
View the document Basic steps in treating water
View the document Sample designs for treatment systems
View the document Lesson plans
close this folder Section 3: Planning the distribution system
View the document Overview:
View the document Design
View the document Existing facilities
View the document Size and nature of the community
View the document System capacity
View the document Water source
View the document Proposed system
View the document Financing the project
View the document Lesson plans
close this folder Section 4: Characteristics of an adequate system
View the document Overview:
View the document Essential components of an adequate system
View the document General requirements for an adequate system
View the document Relationship of distribution system to community
View the document Headloss and distribution systems
View the document Lesson plans
close this folder Section 5: Construction techniques
View the document Overview:
View the document Scheme
View the document Concrete
View the document Construction at the source
View the document Construction at the pumping station
View the document Construction at storage facility
View the document Construction on supply line
View the document Lesson plans
close this folder Section 6: Operation and maintenance
View the document Overview:
View the document Water source maintenance and inspection
View the document Regulations for installing new service connections or extensions to existing system.
View the document Regulations for cleaning the distributions system
View the document Inventorying for operation in emergencies
View the document Types of financial statements for small waterworks
View the document Lesson plans
close this folder Section 7: Scope of disposal system projects in host communities
View the document Overview:
View the document Public health importance of excreta disposal
View the document How disease is carried from excreta
View the document The characteristics of an adequate system
View the document Possible sanitary measures in rural areas
View the document Soil and ground-water pollution
View the document Location of latrines and other excreta disposal facilities
View the document Sludge accumulation and the life of a pit privy
View the document Community participation
View the document Family participation
View the document Role of health department and other agencies
View the document Public versus private latrines
View the document Human factors
View the document Lesson plans
close this folder Section 8: The privy method of excreta disposal design for a village
View the document Overview:
View the document The sanitary survey
View the document The pit privy
View the document Example privy designs
View the document Latrine for village use
View the document Thailand water-seal privy
View the document Lesson plans
close this folder Section 9: Water carried sewage systems construction and maintenance
View the document Overview:
View the document The septic tank
View the document Operation and maintenance
View the document Lesson plans
View the document Appendix A
View the document Appendix B
View the document Bibliography

The sanitary survey

In most rural areas. community sanitary surveys are usually necessary to obtain first-hand information concerning local sanitary conditions and needs. Such surveys, undertaken with the participation of local leaders of the community, will be of immense help in program planning and evaluation. Such a survey should cover the following factors.

DESCRIPTION OF AREA

1. location, topography, climate, character, communications, maps;

2. geology and hydrology, with particular reference to nature of top and underground layers of the soil, its porosity, presence and abundance of ground water ( if any), direction of flow, level of ground-water table, its appearance and portability, estimation of yields of springs, rivers, and so on;

3. population - number, constitution by age-groups and sex, density, growth;

4. industries and agriculture, with particular reference to irrigation, drainage, and soil fertilizing practices;

MEDICAL AND SANITARY DATA

1. general health of the population, with special emphasis on communicate diseases and on intestinal infections;

2. vital statistics, mortality and morbidity data;

3. health and sanitary administration, with reference to organization, personnel, budget, and activities of voluntary or other agencies in the field of sanitation;

4. existing sanitary conditions in the area, with reference to description of private and public latrines, their distribution and use; to wells, springs, and other systems of water supply (including such information as number of persons served by piped water-supplies, and by wells, the consumption and uses of water, number of dwellings with private water supply, etc.); to wastes collection, disposal, and composting; to milk and food sanitation; to insects (flies, fleas, lice, mosquitoes); to health aspects and standards of housing; and to school sanitation.

5. sociological and cultural patterns, with particular reference to community and family organization, leadership; customs, beliefs, and habits bearing on personal hygiene and community sanitation; present methods (if any) of health education of the public.

RESOURCES AVAILABLE

1. general economic level of the population; average income per worker;

2. co-operation expected from agricultural, educational, and other agencies or groups for training and health education of the public;

3. housing and vehicle transport for program, vehicle and equipment repair and maintenance facilities; sources or power (electricity, fuel);

4. local construction materials and their costs;

5. local craftsmen and wages;

6. potential resources for self-help;

This information has an important bearing on the project and makes it possible to make a reasonably accurate cost estimate. Such a survey is a useful educational tool and also serves to acquaint the PCV with the families and with their customs, beliefs, interests, and attitudes. In short, it helps to prepare a "social map" of the community.