Cover Image
close this book Water purification, distribution and sewage disposal for Peace Corps volunteers
View the document Contents
View the document Preface
close this folder Section 1: Water supply sources
View the document Overview:
View the document Background information
View the document Evaluation of sources
View the document Factors influencing the quality of water
View the document The quantity of water
View the document Types of sources
View the document Development of water sources
View the document The basic requirements of a water supply
View the document Selection of the source of supply
View the document Lesson plans
close this folder Section 2: Water treatment
View the document Overview:
View the document Self purification
View the document Basic steps in treating water
View the document Sample designs for treatment systems
View the document Lesson plans
close this folder Section 3: Planning the distribution system
View the document Overview:
View the document Design
View the document Existing facilities
View the document Size and nature of the community
View the document System capacity
View the document Water source
View the document Proposed system
View the document Financing the project
View the document Lesson plans
close this folder Section 4: Characteristics of an adequate system
View the document Overview:
View the document Essential components of an adequate system
View the document General requirements for an adequate system
View the document Relationship of distribution system to community
View the document Headloss and distribution systems
View the document Lesson plans
close this folder Section 5: Construction techniques
View the document Overview:
View the document Scheme
View the document Concrete
View the document Construction at the source
View the document Construction at the pumping station
View the document Construction at storage facility
View the document Construction on supply line
View the document Lesson plans
close this folder Section 6: Operation and maintenance
View the document Overview:
View the document Water source maintenance and inspection
View the document Regulations for installing new service connections or extensions to existing system.
View the document Regulations for cleaning the distributions system
View the document Inventorying for operation in emergencies
View the document Types of financial statements for small waterworks
View the document Lesson plans
close this folder Section 7: Scope of disposal system projects in host communities
View the document Overview:
View the document Public health importance of excreta disposal
View the document How disease is carried from excreta
View the document The characteristics of an adequate system
View the document Possible sanitary measures in rural areas
View the document Soil and ground-water pollution
View the document Location of latrines and other excreta disposal facilities
View the document Sludge accumulation and the life of a pit privy
View the document Community participation
View the document Family participation
View the document Role of health department and other agencies
View the document Public versus private latrines
View the document Human factors
View the document Lesson plans
close this folder Section 8: The privy method of excreta disposal design for a village
View the document Overview:
View the document The sanitary survey
View the document The pit privy
View the document Example privy designs
View the document Latrine for village use
View the document Thailand water-seal privy
View the document Lesson plans
close this folder Section 9: Water carried sewage systems construction and maintenance
View the document Overview:
View the document The septic tank
View the document Operation and maintenance
View the document Lesson plans
View the document Appendix A
View the document Appendix B
View the document Bibliography

Lesson plans

CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES

LESSON NO. 1

LESSON OBJECTIVE: To build an intake site and install pumping facilities.

TOPIC

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURE

SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS/RELATED READING

Intake Structures

Discuss need for and effectiveness of, various types of intake structures.

WHO Monograph Series #42,

Chapter 5.

 

Take field trip to an open source with a visible intake structure

Intake Structure.

Designing Intake Structures

Divide class in small groups. Let each design (and construct) a simple intake structure.

structure.

 

Draw conclusions indicating when to use an intake structure.

 

Pump Selection

Discuss in class what sort of lift pump is required.

Section 3 on Pump Selection.

Concrete in Construction Work

Introduce concrete in construction work - its structure.

Concrete blocks.

Raw ingredients for making concrete.

 

Demonstrate how to determine the amount of each ingredient.

 
 

Demonstrate how to mix concrete properly.

 
 

Let students determine the required amount of each ingredient using the chart.

 

Testing Concrete

Demonstrate the test for strength.

Slump Tester.

 

Discuss in class the need for reinforcing concrete.

Concrete pipes:

a) reinforced

b) not reinforced.

 

Test reinforced concrete and one not reinforced.

Strain-Stress Testing Machine.

Bu Tuing a Pump House

Discuss when a pump house is necessary.

 
 

In the field demonstrate how to build a pump house. (If not possible, the students should be given chance to work with a building crew).

Building Materials.

 

CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES

LESSON NO. 2

LESSON OBJECTIVE: To teat water obtained from a source for drinking water standards.

TOPIC

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURE

SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS/RELATED READING

Testing Water

Samples

Ask students to recall the characteristics of water that should be tested.

WHO Monograph #42, pp. 46-54.

 

In the laboratory (or in the field) demonstrate how to use the various kits commonly used in the field.

Portable water laboratory field kit. Microfilte tester.

Exercise on Water Tests

Divide class into convenient groups and let each group test for a different pollutant.

 
 

Verify each result.

 

 

CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES

LESSON NO. 3

LESSON OBJECTIVE: To construct a treatment system appropriate for simple water purification.

TOPIC

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURE

SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS /RELATED READING

Assembling

Treatment Systems

Ask students to recall the functions of component parts of various treatment processes.

Sand filters, chlorinators, aerators, settlement basins, chemicals, measuring vessels.

 

Divide students in working groups.

Section 4 on the functions of component parts of various

 

Let each assemble a most complete purification system. processes.

 
 

Test the efficiency of the constructed treatment systems

 

 

CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES

LESSON NO. 4

LESSON OBJECTIVE: To install a storage tank and distribution pipes properly suited to the local environment.

TOPIC

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURE

SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS/RELATED READING

Building a Distribution

Reservoir

Take a field trip to storage sites.

Section 4 on storage tank. Central distribution system.

 

Using model designs, let each student assemble a distribution reservoir.

Plans and model block instruction manuals on assemblage.

 

Stress the importance of outlet, inlet and overflow pipe screens.

Paint and brush (or spray).

 

In a field inspection of local systems, let each student trace a distribution line from reservoir to a house.

 

Pipe Laying

As field exercise, take the whole class to dig a trench and lay 50 ft. of pipe.

Short pipes of different diameters, pipe joints, welding torch

Rivets.