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close this book Water purification, distribution and sewage disposal for Peace Corps volunteers
close this folder Section 6: Operation and maintenance
View the document Overview:
View the document Water source maintenance and inspection
View the document Regulations for installing new service connections or extensions to existing system.
View the document Regulations for cleaning the distributions system
View the document Inventorying for operation in emergencies
View the document Types of financial statements for small waterworks
View the document Lesson plans

Section 6: Operation and maintenance

 

Overview:

A good water source, a well planned treatment and distribution system and good construction practices do not ensure a safe and continuing supply to consumers. If the system is not operated correctly, and if it is not maintained, the system will soon be unsafe and may be unusable even if the water remains safe. The correct operation and maintenance of the system is of prime importance.

This section covers the operation and maintenance of a distribution and treatment system. It also covers the training of local workers to assist and eventually operate and maintain the system. This training must be effective, or the system will deteriorate rapidly after the PCVs stay has ended.

SECTION 6: OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

OBJECTIVE:

Prepare an instruction manual for the operation and maintenance necessary to keep the above established system going. This should act as a reference for trained personnel, or as a training manual for the unskilled. The manufacturer's recommendations for the operation and maintenance procedures must be simplified and/or translated as situation demands so as to be easily followed by the operator or maintenance man (or trainee)

TASKS:

1. Write a guide to water inspection at the source

2. Devise laws safeguarding the source from trespassers who can either cause mechanical damage to machines or contaminate water at source by indiscriminate use of it, e.g., swimming or washing at an open reservoir.

3. Write down safety and sanitary precautions that must be observed by the operator or maintenance men, e.g., where to store chemicals, or where to wash their hands, etc.

4. Draw large scale picture of the pump or engine, labeling all operating switches (in local language if necessary); include a corresponding chart of directions to be followed in starting end closing.

5. On the large-scale picture and the machine itself, indicate with arrows where grease, 011, or fuel is applied and how often this should be done.

6. For a new component, set the limit of repairs the local operator can do, and write down to whom the need for mayor repairs should be reported.

7. Draw a flow chart of the treatment plant; and write down at each stage:

a. The purifications procedures to be carried out and how, e.g., at chlorinator add 1 1/2 cup HTH to a gallon of water and stir thoroughly, etc.

b. The cleaning of the parts, e.g., backwashing the filter, etc.

8. Draw large-scale maps of distribution system showing the inspection valves, identifying marks.

9. Draw up a record-keeping chart which must be used to record what repairs have been done and when, by whom, etc.

10. Write down directions for cleaning of water sources and pipes.

11. Lay down rules regarding the installation of new service connections to ensure that there is no unchecked connection to the mains; such connections can reduce the pressure in the mains.

12. Design a system of building up a stock of spare parts over the years from the very beginning. Te These must be the parts which often need regular replacements.

13. Design a rack for tools so they can be easily reached when needed.

14. Devise fire drills which must be used to train the operators and servicemen so they can fight small fires at the pump or engine house.

15. Build an inventory of parts which can be used in case of emergency.

16. Recommend tools according to the scope of the work the operator or serviceman is capable of doing. l7. Set the limit of motor repair works that can be done locally, and when to call for an experienced repairman.

18. Simplify (or translate) the producer's motor repairs and maintenance manual so it can be followed by the serviceman.

19. Prepare a financial statement procedure.

FUNCTIONAL SKILLS:

1. Decide what points of the source are to be inspected.

2. Recognize the risk of unrestricted public access to source and pumphouse premises.

3. Recall sanitary standards to he maintained during the operation and repair of water system.

4. Recognize harmful characteristics of chemicals. fuels and oils used.

5. Simplify or translate producer's operation and maintenance instructions.

6. Draw plans of machines.

7. Assess the capability of serviceman or operator as regards to his job.

8. Recall the various treatment processes in the plant.

9. Draw maps of distribution systems.

10. Recognize conditions indicating that pipes, sources or storage tanks need washing. ll. Recall the relationship between the available head and the required head at the service connection.

12. Recognize parts of equipment which most often need replacement.

13. Make simple designs for tool racks on walls.

14. Decide what extinguishing materials should be used for fires of different origins, e.g., electric fires, etc.

15. Recognize the vital parts of the system which must have spares in the inventory to be used in case of emergency.

16. Compare the operator's capability with the structure of the engine, pump or motor he is to work on.

17. Recognize fault in the functioning of the motor.

18. Follow and/or translate the producer's manual on operation and maintenance.

TERMINAL PERFORMANCE TESTS:

1. Given an operating water source, list the points that must be inspected during periodic maintenance checks.

2. Write down laws which should be posted as public notice prohibiting trespassing on the system premises.

3. List the precautions to be taken when cleaning the source and pumping house.

4. Given an electrically powered pump, draw its diagram and indicate the power connection.

5. Given a motor and its diagram, identify the corresponding parts labeled on the diagram.

6. From a detailed report on the capability of two operators, set the limit of repairs each can carry out on a given pump and engine.

7. For a given treatment system, draw a flow chart of the different stages.

8. In a field exercise, follow the pipeline and draw a large-scale map of the system, showing the locations of all inspection valves.

9. Draw a chart for record keeping for the maintenance of a given system section.

10. Write the steps to be followed in cleaning a supply pipe and storage tank.

11. For a given available head, determine where new service connections can be installed without too much reduction of pressure in the mains.

12. In order of priority, list the spare parts of a given system which should be inventoried.

13. Given a list of tools available at a pumping station design a rack to hang the tools in an easily accessible place.

14. Design a drill for fighting: a. An electrically caused fire b. Gas fire

15. List the recommended minimum requirement of spares in emergency operation.

16. For a given motor and serviceman, determine the limit of repairs he can do.

17. Simplify a given manual on engine operation and maintenance.

 

Water source maintenance and inspection

QUALITY OF WATER AT SOURCE

After water has been purified, cleanliness of all handling facilities is of utmost importance. All stations and men who maintain them must maintain the sanitary quality of the water.

WELFARE Of PERSONNEL:

Persons suffering from communicable diseases must be prevented from coming into contact with the water supply. This includes grass-cutters in the premises of the pump-house, attendants who clean the filters and storage plants, etc. All personnel should be medically examined at least once a year, preferably Just before the annual cleaning operation.

PROTECTION OF FACILITIES

1. No unauthorized persons to enter pumping stations, treatment works, etc.

2. Open reservoirs should be fenced and the gate locked wherever possible. A guard should always be on duty to stop trespassers from washing or swimming in the reservoirs.

3. Install drinking fountains in a proper place, and a place for workmen to wash their hands.

4. Latrines should be built in the vicinity, but at a safe distance from the source.

5. Pump-house must be locked whenever the attendant is out of it.

6. Trespassers should be handed over to the local authorities for punishment.

7. Chemicals and fuels must be stored at their designated places at all times.

8. Inspection of water quality and quantity at the source must be carried out regularly and recommendations made whenever applicable.

INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS

1. Check all exposed joints for possible leaks.

2. Check possible growth of micro-organisms (e.g. algae) in the system.

3. Metal surfaces which come into contact with purified water (e.g. pipes) should be checked for possible emission of chemical solutions into the system.

4. Accidental cross-connections of pipes often occur, and the inspector must make sure there are no such mistakes.

5. Where applicable, pressure in the system must be maintained at the desired level at all times.

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF AUTOMATIC FACILITIES

Once a system has been installed, it is essential that maximum attention be paid to its maintenance and smooth operation. Experience points out that it is not often possible to find men with necessary skills to operate the system. Most often than not, such men have to be trained from the scratch.

PERSONNEL TRAINING

1. Select possible employees for administrative and operative Jobs early during the construction period. During this time, the men have an opportunity to learn how the system has been put together and works.

2. Where many such projects are run, a period of training personnel in key responsibilities is strongly recommended. This should be devoted to instilling into them the concept that the project is theirs and therefore must be treated as personal property.

3. Manufacturers' recommendations as to operation and maintenance procedures should be simplified (or translated) so that the men may scrupulously observe. This is especially important with regard to pumping machinery.

4. Draw large scale picture of the equipment in question and draw arrows indicating where and what to do.

5. On the equipment itself, wherever possible, large labels should show where to apply grease, fuel, etc.

6. Supervision should ensure that procedures and schedules are followed.

EXAMPLE OF A SIMPLIFIED TECHNICAL PROCEDURE:

A flow chart of a treatment system is shown below:


Fig. 58 Treatment System Flow Chart

RECORDING REPAIRS

Common causes to major system breakdowns:

1. Operators unable to recognize signs which portend failures and breakdowns.

2. Operators with no skill to pinpoint and repair minor breakdowns, but try at random to tighten a nut or screw. This often results in greater breakdowns.

3. Operators using equipment and materials under conditions for which they were not designed.

Record Chart - The illustration below can be modified to suit the occasion.

TABLE 8: REPAIR RECORD CHART

Classification

Minor

Major

Operator

Consultant

X

 

X

 
 

X

 

X

X

 

X

 

X

 

X

 

X

 

X

 

X

 

X

 
 

X

 

X

X

 

X

 

X

 

X

 

X

 

X

 
 

X

 

X

X

 

X

 

Description of Breakdown

At Source

1. Cracked well-cover

2. Decrease in well yield

Pump

3. Broken pump belt

4. Clogged plugs

5. Broken cup leathers (washers)

6. Faulty fuel and air filters and cooling fans

7. Faulty injectors in diesel engines

Distribution System

8. Leaky reservoirs

9. Leaky pipe joints and valves

10. Broken inspection covers

11. Faulty meters

Purification system

12. Faulty chemical dispenser

The above suggestions should be expanded to suit the scope of the system and the capability of the operators and maintenance men. See Table 9 as an example for the maintenance of a G. M. Diesel 71.

TABLE 9: MAINTENANCE CHART OF A G. M. DIESEL

 

Time Interval

 

Daily

8

50

100

200

300

500

1,000

2,000

   

240

1,500

3,000

6,000

9,000

15,000

30,000

60,000

Item

Operation

 

Miles

Miles

Miles

Miles

Miles

Miles

Miles

Miles

1

Engine Oil

X

               

2

Oil Filter

                 

3

Coolant and Filter

X

         

X

X

 

4

Belts and Fan Bearings

           

X

X

X

5

Heat Exchanger Electrodes and Care

           

X

X

 

6

Hoses

           

X

   

7

Row Water Pump

X

               

8

Radiators

               

X

9

Fuel Tank

X

         

X

   

10

Fuel Strainer and Filter

X

       

X

     

11

Air Cleaner

 

X

             

12

Blower Screen

             

X

 

13

Air Box Drains

       

X

 

X

   

14

Crankcase Ventilation

             

X

 

15

Starting Motor

                 

16

Battery-Charging Generators

     

X

X

 

X

 

X

17

Battery

     

X

         

18

Tachometer Drive

     

X

         

19

Throttle Controls

       

X

       

20

Tune-Up

             

X

 

21

Power Take-Off

 

X

X

     

X

   

22

Reduction Gear (Single Engine Unit)

 

X

X

     

X

X

 

23

Torqmatic Marine Gear

X

     

X

       

24

Paragon Marine Gear

X

     

X

       

25

Torqmatic Converted*

* Single and Multiple Engine Units

X

           

X

 

26

Reduction Gear (Multiple Engine Industrial Units)

X

X

         

X

 

27

Reduction Gear (Multiple Engine Industrial Units)

X

     

X

       

28

Turbocharger

X

           

X

 

29

Overspeed Governor

           

X

   

30

Power Generator

     

X

 

X

     

31

Transmission (Roilcor)

X

           

X

 

32

Oil Filter (Roilcor)

                 

33

Hydrostarter

             

X

X

 

RECORD KEEPING

The operation and maintenance of a distribution system require the establishment of system maps and records.

Requirements of the Systems Map

1. Large scale; no less than 1:10,000

2. Show all streets and their names

3. Locations of mains and their sizes should be shown

4. Valves (and hydrants) must be labelled and numbered appropriately.

5. Sources, reservoirs and pump-houses should be Included in the map.

6. A wall-size map of the whole system should be supplied for office use. Copies of the map should be divided into sections and bound for easy handling in the field.

 

Regulations for installing new service connections or extensions to existing system.

1. New connections should be made only with the full acknowledgment of the designer, who should know hether there will be enough pressure for that branch. In this way the problem of maintaining adequate pressure in the system can be eliminated.

2. Financial agreements (where applicable) should be reached before such a connection is amde.

3. The connection must be made by a regular installer in the system.

4. In small water-supply schemes, these connections should be rigidly connected to the street pipe, and the addition included in the systems maps for up-to-date record.

5. New pipes must be disinfected before inclusion in the system

6. Open ends should be covered during construction period.

 

Regulations for cleaning the distributions system

1. Dead-end branches must be completely flushed regularly.

2. Other systems should have a thorough cleaning at least once a year.

3. During the general cleaning the systems should also be inspected for possible deformities.

 

Inventorying for operation in emergencies

Building up a stock of spare parts, if started from the beginning will spread the expense of their purchase over the first ten years. Minimum requirement of spare parts stock;

PARTS

1. For gasoline engines - sets of plugs, gaskets, gasket-sealing compound, spare magneto, gasoline-feed pipe, air and oil filter elements, carburetor float, spare washers for gasoline-feed pipe, and carburetor timing chain.

2. For diesel engines;- sets of injectors, gaskets, gasket-sealing compound, washers, filter elements, fuel pipe, timing chain.

3. For electric motors - sets of fuses, brushes, insulation tape.

4. For pumps - cup washers, valve rubbers or leathers, belt and belt fasteners, grease nipples.

5. For mains and distribution systems - minimum of halfdozen pipes for each diameter, Joints, tees and bends, odd valve, air verve and hydrant for each size.

FUEL

In order to estimate the required quantity to store, there is a rough guide:

Small diesel engine consumes .06 gallons of diesel fuel per hour for each horsepower.

Small gasoline engine consumes .08 gallons of gasoline per hour for each horsepower.

Lubricating oil for engines + = 1/15 of fuel consumption.

STORAGE

1. Protection against dangers of fire end theft.

2. Underground tanks recommended for large systems. A handoperated pump can be installed.

3. For small systems the fuel drums should be kept in fireproof fuel store. The drums should be kept almost horizontal, on stillness, at a convenient height above floor to allow measuring gallons to stand below the tap on the end of the drum.

4. Allowance should be made for 2% loss of gasoline, 1% loss of diesel fuel in the tropics.

5. Accurate record of fuel consumption should be kept.

6. "No Smoking" signs should be posted and the rule enforced.

7. In case of electrically powered systems all personnel should know and observe the safety regulations. No unqualified person should try to wire or repair anything on the system.

CHEMICALS

1. Most commonly used chemicals are bleaching-powder and high test hypochlorite (HTH)

2. Bleaching Powder - must be stored in dry, cool place.

3. Minimum stock must be specified depending on the capacity of the system.

4. Persons who get into contact with these chemicals should wash them off immediately.

TOOLS

Where there is no skilled fitter or mechanic in charge, a minimum n number of tools should be kept in order to keep to a minimum repairs that might be attempted by the inexperienced repairman. However, the following should be available:

1. Plug spanner, a pair of spanners to fit the fuel-pipe lines, hammer, screw driver, and pliers for belt fixing.

2. Oil can, grease-gun, fuel and oil measures, watering-can and bucket, head pan, chemical measures.

3. Shovels

Tool Rack

1. Should be designed and built on the walls. Systematic labeling of such tools should show at a glance which tool is missing.

2. Should be within easy reach from the floor.

FIRE PROTECTION

Full protection should be provided against fire. Fire-fighting equipment may consist of:

1. Buckets containing sand or water

2. Chemical extinguishers

3. Asbestos blankets.

Regulations

1. Fire-drills should be organized to make sure the men can use the equipment effectively.

2. Fire buckets should be painted red and labelled "Fire". Strict rules must be enforced for proper use of such buckets.

3. Where water stands in a bucket it must be renewed once a week to prevent mosquitoes breeding in the pumphouse.

FIRST AID KIT

A first aid kit should be in every pump-house or treatment house. The men should be trained on the proper use of each item in the box. It must be pointed out that these are for the immediate personnel, not relatives. If not checked, this could prove expensive for the water management.

MAINTAINING CONSTANT INVENTORY

1. Whenever an item is used it must be replaced immediately.

2. Spares must be kept in locked cupboards or boxes with proper labels

3. A list of all available spares in the box must be included, a copy of which should be filed.

 

Types of financial statements for small waterworks

DETAILED COST BREAKDOWN

A detailed cost breakdown is calculated for the total yearly production of water.

Production Costs

Water pumping labor

Water pumping electricity (or other fuel)

Other production expense

Depreciation

Insurance

Interest

Allocated administrative expense

Total production costs

Distribution costs

Operating expense

Maintenance

Depreciation

Insurance

Interest

Stores expense

Total distribution costs

Other operating costs

Customer accounting and collecting

Administrative and general

Total other operating costs

Total all costs

Total water revenue

Net income to surplus

Administrative and general expense

Sales promotion expense

Sales: general, officers and executives

Other general office salaries

General office supplies and expense

Special services

Legal services

Insurance

Miscellaneous general expense

Maintenance of general property

Rent

Rent on office equipment

Stores expense

Total

STATEMENT OF OPERATING EXPENSES

The following operating expenses are tabulated for both monthly periods and the year to date.

Production expense

Operation supervision

City water pumping labor

Miscellaneous station labor

City water pumping, electricity, and fuel

Station expenses

Maintenance of structures and improvements

Maintenance of city wells

Employees' welfare and expense plant

Treatment labor

Treatment supplies and expense

Maintenance of structures and improvements

Maintenance of treatment equipment

Total

Distribution expense

Operation supervision and engineering

Operation of lines

Services on customer premises

Street repairs, labor and material

Maintenance of mains

Maintenance of valves and equipment

Maintenance of services

Maintenance of meters

Employees' welfare and expense - district

Total

Customers' accounts and collecting

Customers' contracts, meter reading

Customers' billing and accounting

Total

PROFIT OR LOSS STATEMENT

The profit or loss statement features, in addition to the following items figures on the number of customers served by the utility, and the amount of water pumped, sold, and lost. The number of customers for that month is compared to the number for the same month in the previous year. The amount of water pumped, sold and lost is tabulated for that month, for the year to date, and for the 12 previous months to date. The net profit or loss is drawn up for that month and the year to date.

Operating revenue

Water sales

Water for city

Interdepartmental sales - plant use

Total

Water taps

Service charges

Miscellaneous revenue

Total operating revenue less charges for water for city

Net operating revenue

Operating expense

Production expense

Distribution expense

Customer collection and accounting

Administrative and general

Total

Depreciation

Total operating expense

Net operating profit

Other expense

Bond interest expense

Interest on contracts

Services to city

Labor and material - fire hydrants

Other services to city

Total

 

Lesson plans

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

LESSON NO. 1

LESSON OBJECTIVE: To outline rules that must be observed by operators and maintenance men and devise laws safeguard facilities from trespassers.

TOPIC

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURE

SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS/RELATED READING

Rules for efficient maintenance and operation of water facilities.

Discuss need for water inspection

Tour nearby pumping stations, treatment and storage facilities.

Nearby water supply system.

 

Discuss in class how the stations you toured meet these standards.

Section on sanitary standards of water at the source

Protection of facilities from trespassers

Discuss in class the possible (and probable) risks of unrestricted public access to supply facilities.

 

 

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

LESSON NO. 2

LESSON OBJECTIVE: To simplify operational and service instructions so that efficient job be done by a relatively inexperienced man.

TOPIC

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURE

SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS/RELATED READING

Need for simplifying technical instructions.

Discuss in class the difficulty of finding skilled labor in developing countries.

WHO Monograph, Series #42

Chapter 9.

How to simplify technical instructions.

Lecture on how to simplify technical materials.

 
 

Demonstrate how to label instructional procedures on a machine.

 

Exercise

For exercise, give out a sample of manufacturers' instructions to operation of a pump.

Copies of operators' manual for hand-pump installation if available (relevant substitutes if necessary).

 

Let students simplify it.

 

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

LESSON NO. 3

LESSON OBJECTIVE: To prepare a record keeping chart for repairs, set limits to repairs that can be done by the operator and recommend who to contact for mayor repairs.

TOPIC

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURE

SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS/RELATED READING

Capability of the operator.

Discuss in class how to determine the capability of an operator by serviceman.

 
 

Ask Students to dray up criteria for assessing the operators' capability with respect to the structure of the system.

 

 

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

LESSON NO. 4

LESSON OBJECTIVE: To draw a detailed map of the distribution systems, specifying regulations for installing new service connections and cleaning procedures.

TOPIC

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURE

SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS/RELATED READING

Record Keeping

Discuss in class the frustrations of "lost" systems.

Water Supply for Rural Areas and Small

Communities , pp. 244-5

(WHO Monograph Series No. 42. Geneva 1959.)

 

Review section on residual pressure in service connections.

 

Extension of Distribution Systems

Review the characteristics of dead-end systems

Annex 9, p. 316 in same book above.

 

Relate them to the importance of regular flushing of the systems.

 

 

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

LESSON NO. 5

LESSON OBJECTIVE: To design a system of building up an inventory and emergency precautions.

TOPIC

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURE

SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS/RELATED READING

Inventorying

Discuss in class the advantages of long term planning in building up a stock of inventory.

 

Minimum Required Stock of Spares

Ask students to name what parts of engines require replacements.

 
 

Draw up the minimum required stock of spares.

 

Exercise

For exercise let students determine the minimum stocks for fuels (diesel or petrol) to be recommended for small engines.

Specify engine capacity for each student; e. 1 hp, 10 hp., etc.

Tool Back

Demonstrate how to design a good tool rack suitable for use in small pump houses.

 

Fire-fighting

In the field demonstrate how to use various fire extinguishers and conduct a fire fighting drill.

 

First Aid

Demonstrate how to use first-aid kit.

 

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

LESSON NO. 6

LESSONS OBJECTIVE: To prepare a procedure for systematic records of financial transactions.

TOPIC

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURE

SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS/RELATED READING

Financial Report

Discuss in class the importance of proper financial report as a vital part of good management.