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close this book A training manual in conducting a workshop in the design, construction, operation, maintenance and repair of hydrams
View the document Contents
View the document Foreword
View the document Introduction
close this folder Guidelines for users
View the document Workshop: tools, equipment, materials
View the document Hydram construction materials
View the document Sample worksheet for final materials list
View the document Suggested schedule for hydram workshop
close this folder Construction of a PVC hydram time: 4-5 hours (for demonstration purposes)
View the document Attachment A : PVC Hydram - illustration
close this folder Session 1: Introduction to training (1½ hours)
View the document Handout 1A: "What's in a name"
View the document Handout 1B: Hydram Training Workshop Objectives
close this folder Session 2: Introduction to hydrams (3½ hours)
View the document Handout 2A: Potential energy
View the document Handout 2B: Hydram installation
View the document Handout 2C: Typical hydram
View the document Handout 2D: Glossary of terms for session 2
View the document Handout 2E: Hydram training workshop participant site information
close this folder Session 3: Water measurement techniques (3 hours)
View the document Handout 3A: Using a Weir
View the document Handout 3B: Using a Weir - diagram
View the document Handout 3C: Weir table
View the document Handout 3C: Weir table - metric
View the document Handout 3D: The float method of measurement
close this folder Session 4: Measuring heads and distance (2-4 hours)
View the document Handout 4A: Calibrating a sight level
View the document Handout 4B: Using a sight level
View the document Handout 4C: Alternate ways of measuring heads
View the document Handout 4D: Alternate ways of measuring heads
View the document Handout 4E: Distance and head measurement worksheet
close this folder Session 5: Review exercise #1 (2 hours)
View the document Handout 5A: Review exercise #1
View the document Handout 5B: Answers to review exercise #1
close this folder Session 6: Hydram theory (2-3 hour)
View the document Handout 6A: Pressure analysis
View the document Handout 6B: Glossary of terms for session 6
View the document Handout 2B: Hydram installation
close this folder Session 7: Basic plumbing tools and materials (1-1½ hours)
View the document Handout 7A: Typical fittings
close this folder Session 8: Hydram construction - Pipefitting (4 - 6 hours)
View the document Handout 8A: Pipefitting hydram w/ Modified factory valves
View the document Handout 8B: Pipefitting hydram w/ Field-made valves
View the document Handout 8C: Materials and procedures: fabricated ram
close this folder Session 9: Hydram design theory and parameters (2 hours)
View the document Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - inches
View the document Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - metric
View the document Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing
View the document Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing - metric
View the document Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - inches
View the document Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - metric
View the document Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - inches
View the document Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - metric
View the document Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - inches
View the document Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - metric
View the document Handout 9A-1: Welded hydram: side view
View the document Handout 9A-2: Welded hydram: exploded view
View the document Handout 9A-3: Welded hydram: impulse cavity exploded view
View the document Handout 9A-4: Welded hydram: accumulator: exploded view
View the document Handout 9A-5: Welded hydram 20' drive head dimensions
View the document Handout 9A-7: Welded hydram 20' drive head dimensions
close this folder Session 10: Hydram construction - concrete (18 hours over a 7 day period)
View the document Handout 10A: Concrete hydram design parameters
View the document Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - inches
View the document Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - metric
View the document Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing - inches
View the document Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing - metric
View the document Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - inches
View the document Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - metric
View the document Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - inches
View the document Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - metric
View the document Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - inches
View the document Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - metric
View the document Handout 10H: Exploded view of 2- piece concrete hydram
View the document Handout 10I: Side view 2-piece concrete hydram
View the document Handout 10J: Two piece concrete hydram form
View the document Handout 10K: Two piece concrete hydram
View the document Handout 10L: One Piece Concrete Hydram Form
View the document Handout 10M: Problem
View the document Handout 10N: Materials and procedures
close this folder Session 11: Hydram component design criteria (1-1½ hours)
View the document Handout 11A: Typical impulse valve
View the document Handout 11B: Typical check valves
View the document Handout 11C: Typical snifters
close this folder Session 12: Hydram selection (1½ - 3 hours)
View the document Handout 12A - Hydram comparison
close this folder Session 13: Inter-relationships within the hydram (11-15 hours)
close this folder Handout 13A: Exercises: Determining the effect of:
View the document Exercise 1: h:H ratio on efficiency
View the document Exercise 2: Frequency on the maximum delivery head to drive head ratio
View the document Exercise 3: Frequency on efficiency, quantity of water entering the hydram and quantity of water delivered
View the document Exercise 4: Volume of air in the accumulator on efficiency
View the document Exercise 5: Drive pipe length on efficiency
View the document Exercise 6: Drive pipe diameter on efficiency
View the document Exercise 7: The snifter on efficiency
View the document Exercise 8: Effect of the drive material on efficiency
View the document Handout 13B: Typical hydram experiment set-up
View the document Handout 13C: Sample graphs
close this folder Session 14: Repair and maintenance (2-4 hours)
View the document Handout 14A: Repair and maintenance chart
View the document Handout 14 B: Repair and maintenance worksheet
View the document Handout 14 C: Maintenance/service worksheet
close this folder Session 15: Review exercise #2 (2 hours)
View the document Handout 15A: Review exercise
close this folder Session 16: Use of multiple rams (1½ hours)
View the document Handout 16A: Series hydram installation
View the document Handout 16B: Waste water series hydram installation
View the document Handout 16C: Parallel hydrams
View the document Handout 16D: Sample problems
close this folder Session 17: Site development (2 hours)
View the document Handout 17A: Settling area - take-off system
View the document Handout 17B: Hydram box
View the document Handout 17C: Guidelines/checklist
View the document Handout 17D: Site development
View the document Handout 17E: Glossary of terms
close this folder Session 18: Hydram system site selection (2-4 hours)
View the document Handout 18A: Hydram system site selection
View the document Handout 18B: Diagram system for site selection
View the document Session 19: Project planning (2-4 hours)
View the document Session 20: Wrap up and evaluation (2-4 hours)
View the document Glossary of terms
View the document English-metric units conversion table
View the document References
close this folder Attachments
View the document Attachment 1-A
View the document Attachment 1-B
View the document Attachment 2-A
View the document Attachment 2-B
View the document Attachment 2-C
View the document Attachment 2-D
View the document Attachment 2-E
View the document Attachment 3-A
View the document Attachment 3-B
View the document Attachment 3-C
View the document Attachment 3-C - metric
View the document Attachment 3-D
View the document Attachment 4-A
View the document Attachment 4-B
View the document Attachment 4-C
View the document Attachment 4-D
View the document Attachment 5-A
View the document Attachment 5-B
View the document Attachment 6-A
View the document Attachment 6-B
View the document Attachment 2-B
View the document Attachment 7-A
View the document Attachment 8-A
View the document Attachment 8-B
View the document Attachment 8-C
View the document Attachment 10-B
View the document Attachment 10B - metric
View the document Attachment 10-C
View the document Attachment 10-C - metric
View the document Attachment 10-D
View the document Attachment 10-D - metric
View the document Attachment 10-E
View the document Attachment 10-E - metric
View the document Attachment 10-F
View the document Attachment 10-F - metric
View the document Attachment 9-A-1
View the document Attachment 9-A-2
View the document Attachment 9-A-3
View the document Attachment 9-A-4
View the document Attachment 9-A-5
View the document Attachment 9-A-7
View the document Attachment 10-A
View the document Attachment 10-H
View the document Attachment 10-I
View the document Attachment 10-J
View the document Attachment 10-L
View the document Attachment 10-M
View the document Attachment 10-N
View the document Attachment 11-A
View the document Attachment 11-B
View the document Attachment 11-C
View the document Attachment 12-A
View the document Attachment 13-A
View the document Attachment 13-B
View the document Attachment 13-C
View the document Attachment 14-A
View the document Attachment 14-B
View the document Attachment 14-C
View the document Attachment 15-A
View the document Attachment 16-A
View the document Attachment 16-B
View the document Attachment 16-C
View the document Attachment 16-D
View the document Attachment 17-A
View the document Attachment 17-B
View the document Attachment 17-C
View the document Attachment 17-D
View the document Attachment 17-E
View the document Attachment 18-A
View the document Attachment 18-B
View the document Attachment - Glossary of terms
View the document Attachment - English-metric units conversion table

Handout 3A: Using a Weir

A weir may be defined as an overflow structure built across an open channel, usually to measure the rate of flow of water. Weirs are acceptable measuring devices because, for a weir of a specific size and shape (installed under proper conditions) only one depth of water can exist in the upstream pool for a given discharge. The discharge rates are determined by measuring the vertical distance from the crest of the overflow portion of the weir to the water surface in the pool upstream from the crest, and referring to tables which apply to the size and shape of the weir. For standard tables to apply, the weir must have a regular shape, definite dimensions, and be set in a bulkhead and pool of adequate size so the system performs in a standard manner.

Whenever the flow from a creek is too great to be measured in a bucket and yet is small enough to be dammed by a board, the weir method of measurement should be used.

Determine the dimensions to be used for the weir notch. The width of this notch is related to the measurement of the flow rate by the height of the water in the pool formed behind the weir. This height is measured in inches and by using a weir table, the inches can be conversed to gallons per minute. A number of notches of different widths and height can accommodate a stream's flow. A rule of thumb is to make the width of the notch 3 times the height.

From your estimate of the flow of the stream, Look at the weir table and guesstimate what size notch will accommodate your flow. Keep in mind that the whole stream must pass over the notch end that the pool formed behind the weir should become deep enough for you to easily get a decent height measurement, i.e., 2½" vis a vis 1/16". Example: you estimate the stream is flowing at 150 gal/mint If you made a notch 12" wide and 4" high, at full flow this weir would read approximately 290 gal/min. (4"-- 23.936 gal/mint x 12" = 286.89 gal/min). This weir would fit your stream if an actual weir reading of 2½" water height were obtained, it would indicate a flow rate of 11.818 gal/min/inch of notch or 141.8 gal/min (11.818 x 12") for the stream.

Once you have determined the dimension of the notch, cut the notch in the board and place the weir board in the stream making certain that it is kept level and seal off the stream completely. Support it with stakes and large rocks.

Measure 2 feet upstream from the weir board and drive a stake. Using a level, put a mark on the stake even with the top of the weir board. Next, measure down from this mark to the water level, subtract this measurement from the depth of your notch and that will give you the height of the water level above the bottom of the weir notch.

Using the weir table attached, locate the integer on the left hand column and the fraction on the top column. Where these two rows intersect is the amount of gallons per minute flowing past the weir for every inch of width. Next multiply this figure by the width and this gives you the total flow of the creek.

Example:

Water is flowing through a creek three feet wide and about 3 inches deep. It looks like about 30 gallons per minute. After looking at the weir table we decide that a notch 6" wide and 2" deep would probably work. After cutting the notch in a 4 foot 1x6 piece of lumber, the weir board was placed in the stream. Two feet upstream a stake is driven in the water in front of the notch. A level is used to place a mark on the stake level with the top of the weir board. The water level is then measured to be ½" down from this mark.

We now know by subtracting this measurement from the depth of the notch that the water level is 1¼" above the bottom of the notch. Now looking at the weir table we find 1 on the left hand column and ½ on the top row. These two rows meet at 5.46. We multiply this by the width of the notch (6") to find that the flow rate was 32.76 gallons per minute.