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close this book A training manual in conducting a workshop in the design, construction, operation, maintenance and repair of hydrams
View the document Contents
View the document Foreword
View the document Introduction
close this folder Guidelines for users
View the document Workshop: tools, equipment, materials
View the document Hydram construction materials
View the document Sample worksheet for final materials list
View the document Suggested schedule for hydram workshop
close this folder Construction of a PVC hydram time: 4-5 hours (for demonstration purposes)
View the document Attachment A : PVC Hydram - illustration
close this folder Session 1: Introduction to training (1½ hours)
View the document Handout 1A: "What's in a name"
View the document Handout 1B: Hydram Training Workshop Objectives
close this folder Session 2: Introduction to hydrams (3½ hours)
View the document Handout 2A: Potential energy
View the document Handout 2B: Hydram installation
View the document Handout 2C: Typical hydram
View the document Handout 2D: Glossary of terms for session 2
View the document Handout 2E: Hydram training workshop participant site information
close this folder Session 3: Water measurement techniques (3 hours)
View the document Handout 3A: Using a Weir
View the document Handout 3B: Using a Weir - diagram
View the document Handout 3C: Weir table
View the document Handout 3C: Weir table - metric
View the document Handout 3D: The float method of measurement
close this folder Session 4: Measuring heads and distance (2-4 hours)
View the document Handout 4A: Calibrating a sight level
View the document Handout 4B: Using a sight level
View the document Handout 4C: Alternate ways of measuring heads
View the document Handout 4D: Alternate ways of measuring heads
View the document Handout 4E: Distance and head measurement worksheet
close this folder Session 5: Review exercise #1 (2 hours)
View the document Handout 5A: Review exercise #1
View the document Handout 5B: Answers to review exercise #1
close this folder Session 6: Hydram theory (2-3 hour)
View the document Handout 6A: Pressure analysis
View the document Handout 6B: Glossary of terms for session 6
View the document Handout 2B: Hydram installation
close this folder Session 7: Basic plumbing tools and materials (1-1½ hours)
View the document Handout 7A: Typical fittings
close this folder Session 8: Hydram construction - Pipefitting (4 - 6 hours)
View the document Handout 8A: Pipefitting hydram w/ Modified factory valves
View the document Handout 8B: Pipefitting hydram w/ Field-made valves
View the document Handout 8C: Materials and procedures: fabricated ram
close this folder Session 9: Hydram design theory and parameters (2 hours)
View the document Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - inches
View the document Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - metric
View the document Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing
View the document Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing - metric
View the document Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - inches
View the document Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - metric
View the document Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - inches
View the document Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - metric
View the document Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - inches
View the document Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - metric
View the document Handout 9A-1: Welded hydram: side view
View the document Handout 9A-2: Welded hydram: exploded view
View the document Handout 9A-3: Welded hydram: impulse cavity exploded view
View the document Handout 9A-4: Welded hydram: accumulator: exploded view
View the document Handout 9A-5: Welded hydram 20' drive head dimensions
View the document Handout 9A-7: Welded hydram 20' drive head dimensions
close this folder Session 10: Hydram construction - concrete (18 hours over a 7 day period)
View the document Handout 10A: Concrete hydram design parameters
View the document Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - inches
View the document Handout 10B: Thickness of the impulse valve plate - metric
View the document Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing - inches
View the document Handout 10C: Impulse valve steel backing - metric
View the document Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - inches
View the document Handout 10D: Impulse valve seat width - metric
View the document Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - inches
View the document Handout 10E: Check valve backing thickness - metric
View the document Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - inches
View the document Handout 10F: Check valve seat width - metric
View the document Handout 10H: Exploded view of 2- piece concrete hydram
View the document Handout 10I: Side view 2-piece concrete hydram
View the document Handout 10J: Two piece concrete hydram form
View the document Handout 10K: Two piece concrete hydram
View the document Handout 10L: One Piece Concrete Hydram Form
View the document Handout 10M: Problem
View the document Handout 10N: Materials and procedures
close this folder Session 11: Hydram component design criteria (1-1½ hours)
View the document Handout 11A: Typical impulse valve
View the document Handout 11B: Typical check valves
View the document Handout 11C: Typical snifters
close this folder Session 12: Hydram selection (1½ - 3 hours)
View the document Handout 12A - Hydram comparison
close this folder Session 13: Inter-relationships within the hydram (11-15 hours)
close this folder Handout 13A: Exercises: Determining the effect of:
View the document Exercise 1: h:H ratio on efficiency
View the document Exercise 2: Frequency on the maximum delivery head to drive head ratio
View the document Exercise 3: Frequency on efficiency, quantity of water entering the hydram and quantity of water delivered
View the document Exercise 4: Volume of air in the accumulator on efficiency
View the document Exercise 5: Drive pipe length on efficiency
View the document Exercise 6: Drive pipe diameter on efficiency
View the document Exercise 7: The snifter on efficiency
View the document Exercise 8: Effect of the drive material on efficiency
View the document Handout 13B: Typical hydram experiment set-up
View the document Handout 13C: Sample graphs
close this folder Session 14: Repair and maintenance (2-4 hours)
View the document Handout 14A: Repair and maintenance chart
View the document Handout 14 B: Repair and maintenance worksheet
View the document Handout 14 C: Maintenance/service worksheet
close this folder Session 15: Review exercise #2 (2 hours)
View the document Handout 15A: Review exercise
close this folder Session 16: Use of multiple rams (1½ hours)
View the document Handout 16A: Series hydram installation
View the document Handout 16B: Waste water series hydram installation
View the document Handout 16C: Parallel hydrams
View the document Handout 16D: Sample problems
close this folder Session 17: Site development (2 hours)
View the document Handout 17A: Settling area - take-off system
View the document Handout 17B: Hydram box
View the document Handout 17C: Guidelines/checklist
View the document Handout 17D: Site development
View the document Handout 17E: Glossary of terms
close this folder Session 18: Hydram system site selection (2-4 hours)
View the document Handout 18A: Hydram system site selection
View the document Handout 18B: Diagram system for site selection
View the document Session 19: Project planning (2-4 hours)
View the document Session 20: Wrap up and evaluation (2-4 hours)
View the document Glossary of terms
View the document English-metric units conversion table
View the document References
close this folder Attachments
View the document Attachment 1-A
View the document Attachment 1-B
View the document Attachment 2-A
View the document Attachment 2-B
View the document Attachment 2-C
View the document Attachment 2-D
View the document Attachment 2-E
View the document Attachment 3-A
View the document Attachment 3-B
View the document Attachment 3-C
View the document Attachment 3-C - metric
View the document Attachment 3-D
View the document Attachment 4-A
View the document Attachment 4-B
View the document Attachment 4-C
View the document Attachment 4-D
View the document Attachment 5-A
View the document Attachment 5-B
View the document Attachment 6-A
View the document Attachment 6-B
View the document Attachment 2-B
View the document Attachment 7-A
View the document Attachment 8-A
View the document Attachment 8-B
View the document Attachment 8-C
View the document Attachment 10-B
View the document Attachment 10B - metric
View the document Attachment 10-C
View the document Attachment 10-C - metric
View the document Attachment 10-D
View the document Attachment 10-D - metric
View the document Attachment 10-E
View the document Attachment 10-E - metric
View the document Attachment 10-F
View the document Attachment 10-F - metric
View the document Attachment 9-A-1
View the document Attachment 9-A-2
View the document Attachment 9-A-3
View the document Attachment 9-A-4
View the document Attachment 9-A-5
View the document Attachment 9-A-7
View the document Attachment 10-A
View the document Attachment 10-H
View the document Attachment 10-I
View the document Attachment 10-J
View the document Attachment 10-L
View the document Attachment 10-M
View the document Attachment 10-N
View the document Attachment 11-A
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View the document Attachment 11-C
View the document Attachment 12-A
View the document Attachment 13-A
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View the document Attachment 13-C
View the document Attachment 14-A
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View the document Attachment 14-C
View the document Attachment 15-A
View the document Attachment 16-A
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View the document Attachment 16-C
View the document Attachment 16-D
View the document Attachment 17-A
View the document Attachment 17-B
View the document Attachment 17-C
View the document Attachment 17-D
View the document Attachment 17-E
View the document Attachment 18-A
View the document Attachment 18-B
View the document Attachment - Glossary of terms
View the document Attachment - English-metric units conversion table

Session 4: Measuring heads and distance (2-4 hours)

Total Time: 2-4 hours

OBJECTIVE:

By the end of this session the trainees will have demonstrated skills in measuring heads by using sight levels, hose levels, pressure gauges, and in measuring distances using their stride and sight levels.

OVERVIEW:

At a potential hydram site trainees will perform a series of measurement procedures for determining the head of a stream/spring, using sight levels, hose levels and pressure gauges (where applicable). In addition trainees will measure the distance from the point where water will be taken from the stream/creek to where the ram will be installed using tape measures and their stride.

MATERIALS:

• Handouts 4A - 4E

 

• 15 ft of 1x2 lumber (or something similar which is straight) and string.

TOOLS:

• sight levels: 1 per pair of trainees; calibrated

 

• before session

 

• tape measures

 

• clear hose or tubing

 

• pressure gauges

*TRAINERS NOTES:

1. Distances and heads for trainee practice must be identified and measured ahead of time.

2. 3-4-5 triangle sight level should be pre-cut, since purpose of this activity is to measure not construct.

3. Pre-construction of site levels, weirs is recommended.

4. Time and available materials may make some techniques impractical. Select techniques ahead of time.

 

PROCEDURES

NOTES

1.

Distribute the handouts and go over the objective of the session.

 

2.

Describe the total activity and the techniques the trainees will be using .

 

3.

Divide the trainees into pairs making certain the total competency of each group is about the same.

 
 

Part I: Head Measurement

 

1.

Start by demonstrating how to calibrate sight level and then have the trainees calibrate their sight levels and measure the height of their eyes.

 

2.

Give the trainees the task of measuring the drive head and the delivery head of either an existing or a future hydram using a sight level.

 

3.

The trainees should next compare measurements and any measurements that seem out of line should be rechecked along with the sight level calibrations.

 

4.

The trainees should build sight level from indigenous materials using a 6 foot, 5 ft., and a 4 ft. 1 x 2, nails, string, and a rock. The three boards should be nailed together to form a right triangle. The string is attached to the 90 corner of the triangle with the rock attached to the other end (see handout 4C). With , the triangle held so the string remains parallel to the longer leg, one can sight down the shorter leg perfectly horizontally. These indigenous sight levels are now used to measure the same heads

It may be best to simply describe how this simple sight level works. If necessary to construct, trainer should pre cut lumber.

5.

Measure the same head using a clear

This is a very accurate technique, but cumbersome to practice plastic hose or tube filled with water with one end of the hose attached to a stick of known length (see Handout 4D).

6.

If there is a hydram installed at the site, attach a pressure gauge to the drive and delivery side and give the trainees the task of calculating the heads from the pressure readings. If this is a potential storage tank to the hydram site, then fill the pipe with water and ' attach a pressure gauge. Pressure readings should be taken and the delivery head calculated.

 

7.

If the sight levels are of the kind that have more than one horizontal cross hair, explain to the trainees how to use these levels for distance measuring .

 

8.

With the help of their partner, each trainee will measure ten normal paces using the tape measure and then divide by ten to determine their pace.

 

9.

Give the trainees the task of measuring a distance using their pace .

 

10.

Have them then measure a distance using a tape measure; compare the two measurements.

 

11.

The groups should then be given a task of measuring the drive and/or the delivery pipe distance.

 

12.

Back in the classroom, discuss any variations of the readings taken and the degree of accuracy that can be expected with each method used.