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Conflict and emergencies


Reducing Risk

Participatory learning activities for disaster-mitigation in Southern Africa

Astrid von Kotze and Ailsa Holloway

This fully-photocopiable training resource equips development and relief workers with techniques to strengthen the capacities of vulnerable communities to deal with emergencies such as those caused by drought, epidemics, floods, and population movements.

The collection of participatory learning activities is based on the experience of practitioners working in southern Africa, a region which has recently faced many hardships. The activities aim to increase understanding about community risk and vulnerability, and to strengthen the training capacities of those involved in community-based disaster management.

Each activity has been developed and extensively tested with organizations working in this field. Exercises are clearly laid out and are illustrated with maps, line drawings, and halftones. The approaches and activities are applicable, with adaptation for local differences, across the world.

Reducing Risk is primarily a tool for practitioners working with highly vulnerable communities. It is also useful for facilitating learning activities in disaster reduction, both as a reference and as a 'how to' manual.

Contents include:

- What terms do we use in disaster management? What are the components of disaster management? How does the 'disaster crunch model' work? What do we do in emergency preparedness and risk reduction? - What is gender? How do structural adjustment policies affect risk?- What are the causes of droughts and how do they impact on the environment?

- How do we construct hazard, risk and capacity maps? - How is community-based research relevant to risk assessment? How do we construct vulnerability and capacity assessments? What resources are available for reducing risk? - How does gender impact on vulnerability and capacity? - How do we assess household food security? - How do we target households most at risk? - Why do we need to understand perceptions of risk?

- How do we plan for emergency preparedness and response? Why should emergency preparedess and response be integrated with development? - How is gender analysis a tool for risk reduction? - Why are gender considerations essential to emergency preparedness and response planning? - What is the role of different players in drought interventions? How do we prepare public awareness campaigns?

- Astrid von Kotze works in the Department of Adult and Community Education at the University of Natal. Ailsa Holloway was formerly in the Harare Regional Delegation office for Southern Africa of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.

Published in South Africa by the International Federation of Red cross and Red crescent Societies and the Department of Adult and Community Education at the university of Natal.

1996, 0 85598 347 7, 300pp paperback, £14.95, $29.95


Disaster Mitigation

A Community-Based Approach

Andrew Mastrey

This book is to be commended for dealing with a very complex subject comprehensively, succinctly, and in an accessible style.' Journal of Refugee Studies

Disaster Mitigation examines the reasons for vulnerability to disaster and asks why poor people suffer most when disaster strikes. The author argues that when disaster-mitigation measures are carried out by community organizations, they are not only more effective. but can lead to a permanent reduction in vulnerability.

An Oxfam Development Guideline

1989, 112pp illustrated

0 85598122 9, hardback, £24.95, $39.95

085598123 7, paperback, £6-95, $11.95


Famine, Needs Assessment, and Survival Strategies in Africa

David Keen

Examines the shortcomings of existing systems of famine needsassessment and then considers the various survival strategies which may be employed by people facing famine.

An Oxfam Working Paper

1993, 0 85598 219 5, 40pp, £6.95, $12.95


Sanitation in Emergency Situations

Edited by John Adams

In 1995 an international workshop was held in Oxford to consider the technical and organizational problems of sanitation in emergency situations, and to share experience of good practice. This Working Paper collects together the edited conference papers and the recommendations and action points agreed by the participants, who included representatives from 25 organizations involved in emergency response.

An Oxfam Working Paper

1996, 0 85598 350 7, 51pp, £6.95, $12,95


War and Famine in Africa

Mark Duffiela

Shows how internal wars are fought on a terrain of semisubsistence economies, with the result that traditional strategies of coping with famine are destroyed.

An Oxfam Working Paper

1991, 0 85598161 X, 36pp, £6.95, %12.95


After The Guns Fall Silent

The Enduring Legacy of Landmines

Shawn Roberts and Jody Williams, for the Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation

'a very comprehensive and eminently useful work.' NOD and Conversion

After the Guns Fall Silent examines the impact of landmines on people, on their communities, and on their outlook and view of life. The report, commissioned by the WAY, examines the consequences of landmine use for postconflict reconstruction and development, for refugee movement and resettlement, and for the environment. It also investigates mine clearance and mine awareness, and medical, rehabilitative and psychological costs.

Using original research, the report is illustrated by case studies from countries including Angola, Mozambique, Cambodia and the Former Yugoslavia. Scholarly and accurate analysis combines with people's own words and real personal stories to present an informative and thoughtprovoking evaluation of the effect of this potent and deadly weapon.

Published by the Vietnam veterans of America Foundation Distributed in the UK by Oxfam UK and Ireland

1995, 0 85598 337 x, paperback 538pp ,£12.95, $19.95


Landmines and Underdevelopment

A case study of Quang Tri Province, Central Vietnam

Jim Monah

In this study of the landmines situation in one small province of Vietnam, Jim Monan brings home the devastating effect which mines and other unexploded weapons can have on the lives of ordinary people, and the way in which they can inhibit the development of entire communities.

Although it is more than two decades since the end of the Vietnam War, unexploded bombs and mines are still claiming lives: in the past four years in Quang Tri Province alone, fifteen people have been killed and more than 200 have been injured and maimed by landmines and bombs. The area is typical of other centrally-located provinces near the 1eth parallel that once divided North and South Vietnam, and which was the site of some of the heaviest fighting.

This study, based on fieldwork carried out in July and August 1994, was the first investigation of its kind in Vietnam carried out by an external agency.

Published by Oxfam Hong Kong

Distributed in the UK by Oxfam UK and Ireland

1995, 962 6640014, 28pp illustrated, £2.50, $4.50


Landmines: Legacy of Conflict A Manual for Development Workers

Rae McGrath

Landmines: Legacy of Conflict is written for development and emergency workers in mine-affected countries, and for policy-makers and planners. The changing technology of mines and mine-deployment is explained, with photographs and descriptions of the most common types of mine. The book describes the vulnerability of particular groups within rural communities, advises on how best to avoid hazardous areas, considers activities that mine-affected communities can undertake, and suggests measures that could be introduced at local and international levels to deal with the problem.

• Rae McGrath is Director of the Mines Advisory Group.

A co-publication with the Mines Advisory Group

1994, 0855982640, paperback 96pp illustrated, £7.95, $12.95


The Somali Conflict

Prosoects for Peace

Mark Bradbury

This study examines the complex range of forces that have shaped the conflict in Somalia and recommends contributions which NGOs might make towards the building of a lasting peace.

An Oxfam Working Paper

1994, 085598 2713, 150pp, £9.95, $15.95


Learning the Lessons: United Nations

Interventions in Conflict Situations

A topical and important assessment of the United Nations' failures and successes. Includes contributions from Australia's Foreign Minister Senator Gareth Evans, and Lieut-General John Sanderson, the Australian Commander of the United Nations forces in Cambodia, plus aid workers and academics.

Published by Community Aid Abroad

1994, 187887010 5, 118pp paperback, £9.95, $15.95


Plastic Sheeting

Its Use for Emergency Housing and Other Purposes

Jim Howard and Ron Spice

This technical guide to the advantages and problems involved in the use of plastic sheeting materials is supplied together with details of a temporary shelter in kit form which Oxfam has developed.

1988, 0 85598140 7, paperback 40pp illustrated, £3.95, $5.95



An Agenda for International Action

Guy Vassall-Adams

This accessible book investigates the background to the genocide and refugee crisis which devastated Rwanda in 1994. There are crucial lessons to be learned from the catastrophe. For Rwanda and the whole region, the priorities now are to tackle poverty and promote peace. For the international community, which intervened too late to prevent the tragedy, the challenge is to ensure that it is never repeated. This book argues for radical reform and proper funding of the UN's peackeeping and emergency capacities, and presents specific recommendations for action.

• Guy Vassall-Adams was formerly a researcher in Oxfam's Policy Department, working on conflict-related emergencies.

Oxfam Insight, 1994, 64pp

0 85598299 3, paperback, £3.95, $7.50


Development in Conflict

The Gender Dimension

Judy El Bushra and Eugenia Piza Lopez

This paper is intended for development workers who need clearer practical and theoretical insights into the problems of integrating a gender perspective into conflict-related work.

An Oxfam Working Paper

1994, 0 85598 194 2, £6.95, $12.95


Conflict and Development

Organisational Adaptation in Conflict Situations

Mark Adams and Mark Bradbury

This paper considers ways in which NGOs might adapt policies, practices, and organizational structures to meet the challenge of working in situations of conflict.

Published by Oxfam with ACORD, Responding to Conflict, and the University of Birmingham

An Oxfam Working Paper

0 85598 320 5, £9.95, $15.95