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close this book Forestry training manual for the Africa region
View the document Acknowledgements
View the document Trainee guidelines
Open this folder and view contents Training program overview
Open this folder and view contents Conducting the training program
Open this folder and view contents Presenting the sessions
View the document Words about transition
View the document Session 1 : Welcome, expectations, and evaluation criteria
View the document Session 2 : Special projects
View the document Session 3 : The forests of the world, peace corps' forestry goals, the individual volunteer's role
View the document Session 4 : Record keeping - group process
View the document Session 5 : Video tapes
View the document Session 6 : Agro-forestry data collection
View the document Session 7 : Feedback
View the document Session 8 : Flowers, seeds, the beginning
View the document Session 9 : Nutrition
View the document Session 10 : Non-verbal communication
View the document Session 11 : Germination
View the document Session 12 : Coping skills
View the document Session 13 : Basic site selection, planning & layout of a nursery
View the document Session 14 : Review of trainees' nursery plan
View the document Session 15 communication through illustration
View the document Session 16 : Soil preparation, seedbed sowing
View the document Session 17 : Individual interviews
View the document Session 18 : Reproduction by clippings and nursery review
View the document Session 19 : Introduction to extension
View the document Session 20 : Protection and record keeping (Insect collection)
View the document Session 20A : Chicken preparation
View the document Session 21 : The volunteers' role as an extensionist
View the document Session 22 : Tropical horticulture: care, tending and disease control
View the document Session 23 : Women in development - part I
View the document Session 24 : Team building
View the document Session 25 : Building and using a rustic transit
View the document Session 26 : Women in development - part II
View the document Session 27 : Working with groups as an extension worker
View the document Session 28 : Trees: identification & planting
View the document Session 29 : Lesson plan and use of visual aids in teaching
View the document Session 30 : The ugly American
View the document Session 31 : Catchments - sowing of seedlings into catchments
View the document Session 32 : Weekly interview
View the document Session 33 : Agro-forestry
View the document Session 34 : Community analysis introduction
View the document Session 35 : Soils
View the document Session 36 : Community analysis
View the document Session 37 : Irrigation
View the document Session 38 : Review of expectations - mid-way
View the document Session 39 : Problem analysis
View the document Session 40 : Soil erosion
View the document Session 41 : Species report - research demonstration
View the document Session 42 : Cultural values
View the document Session 43 : Wellbeing
View the document Session 44 : Field trip overview
View the document Session 45 : Agro-forestry reports
View the document Session 46 : Weekly interview
View the document Session 47 : Leave on week-long field trip
View the document Session 48 : Pesticides
View the document Session 49 : Review of field trips
View the document Session 50 : Resources
View the document Session 51 : Area measurement, pacing, compass use
View the document Session 52 : Compost heap - greenhouse construction - germination percentage
View the document Session 53 : Culture shock
View the document Session 54 : Range management
View the document Session 55 : Grafting and fruit trees
View the document Session 56 : Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials
View the document Session 57 : Project planning: goal setting
View the document Session 58 : Final interviews
View the document Session 59 : Ecology teams presentations
View the document Session 60 : Graduation

Session 18 : Reproduction by clippings and nursery review

Total time Approximately 4 hours


- To give information pertinent to reproduction by clippings,

- To review the trainees' plan for the nursery and to check the progress to date,

- To introduce a problem to be solved by the trainees' resourcefulness.


Information about reproduction by clipping is given in this session. The participants' nursery plan is reviewed and progress is checked. A problem of missing seedling containers is introduced.


1. Reproduction by Clippings

2. Review of Trainee's Nursery Plan and Progress of Nursery

3. Plastic Bag Caper


Flip charts, marker pens, tape, string, shovels, rakes, newspapers, staples.

Exercise 1 Reproduction by Clippings

Total time 1 hour 30 minutes


In this exercise, the technical trainer gives a lecture on reproduction by clippings. For many participants this will be a refresher session and the technical trainer should ask people to make comments about their experiences.



1. The technical trainer gives a lecture using the following outline. It is recommended that the outline be placed on newsprint and displayed as the technical trainer shows the various stages of the outline during the lecture. The newsprint outline below helps hold the attention of trainees.


1 hour 30 minutes


1. Sprouts cut and stuck in ground.

2. More experimentation needed in hardwoods.

3. Rooting medium.

4. Other:

a. Layering,

b. Moss-soil around sprout.

5. Horticulture:

a. Roots,

b. Fertilizer.


The common willow evidently contains a substance, which you can extract and use at home, that far surpasses synthetic plant hormones in its ability to stimulate almost any plant into rooting. That means hard-to-root trees like beech, cherry, pine and oak - to say nothing of vegetable cuttings, flower slips and woody ornamental bushes - now may be routinely turned out from our potting sheds and window sills.

The discovery of the "willow rooting substance", as Dr. Makota Kawase, professor of horticulture at the agricultural research center in Wooster, Ohio, calls his finding, was an accident. (Ever notice how man scientific breakthroughs are the result of accidents? I finally know why: If scientist could define what it is they're looking for, they'd have already found it. It's when they're looking for something else that they find what they seek.)

An experimental team was using water from a basin where willow twigs were soaking to moisten softwood cuttings in a centrifuge. The softwood cuttings sent out extraordinary numbers of roots. In tracing why, the scientists found the willow rooting substance - which may turn out to be "rhizocaline" (literally "root-stimulator"), a hypothetical substance that scientist long felt must exist, even though they'd never found it.

Is willow rooting sustance the long-sought rhizocaline?

"They share many characteristics, "says Dr. Kawase. Willow rooting substance is a "remarkably strong root-promoting agent. A crude extract from only a third of an ounce of willow twig stimulated production of 12 times as many roots per mung bean cutting as controls in plain water. At the highest concentration tested, the willow rooting substance could easily produce more than 100 roots in the two-inch stem of mung bean cuttings, while control sections produced only four or five roots. Alone, it seems to have the ability to stimulate rooting unmatched by any previously known rooting substance, including plant hormones." Commercially available rooting preparations are usually synthetic plant hormones.

"the newly discovered willow rooting substance is not a plant hormone, Its root-promoting effect increases sharply when it is applied to cuttings along with plant hormones, however, and this is another important link to the true rhizocaline."

How strong is willow rooting substance?

Yellow birch cuttings are known to be almost impossible to root' In one study, yellow birch cuttings treated with plant hormones produced no roots at all. When the hormones were combined with a water solution of willow twigs and applied to the cuttings, 100 per cent of them rooted These test also showed significant results with bittersweet, forsthia, peach and spirea.

Dr. Kawase says use of willow rooting substance could mean an end to the time-consuming bedding and transplanting now needed for propagation of woody plants. Using it during routine transplanting of potted plants could ease shock and reduce plant loss by stimulating new root growth. He even suggest we try it on seeds before planting.

To make an extract of the willow rooting substance at home, gather current-year willow shoots, remove the leaves, and cut the shoots into short pieces - an inch or less. pack as many as you can into a container such as a cup or mason jar. Cover with water and use a lid or plastic bag to prevent evaporation. Let it sit for about 24 hours, then drain off the liquid for use.

For softwood or herbaceous plants, place the cuttings upright in a container with willow extract in the bottom. Allow them to absorb the extract, adding more if needed, until about 24 hours have passed. Then root them normally in soil. As usual, a plastic tent over the potted cuttings will prevent them from drying out. if you're dealing with a plant that ordinarily roots well in water, try rooting it in willow water.

Now that I think of it, willows always were the easiest plants to root - just stick slips in the ground, keep them moist, and they take hold. Maybe now we can transfer something of the willow's rooting power to our other plants.

*This article reprinted from Organic Gardening. September 1981. Jeff Cox’s Organic Discoveries.

Exercise 2 Review of Trainees' Nursery Plans and Progress of Nursery

Total time 1 hour


In this exercise, the technical trainer reviews the trainees' nursery plan and comments on the process of arriving at the plan The trainees then proceed to the nursery site with the technical trainer. The technical trainer makes suggestions, points out possible pitfalls, etc.



1. The technical trainer reviews the nursery plan and then goes to the nursery with the trainees and points out the quality of the work He/she discusses with group that this nursery will be their responsibility during the rest of the training No one will remind them, but trainee will check progress, from time to time.


1 hour


2. The technical trainer moves to Exercise 3 while at the nursery site.

Trainer’s Note: There will be more trainees than space with which to work. The groups will have to negotiate the use of tools and space with each other.

Exercise 3 Plastic Bag Caper

Total time 20 minutes


The trainees are aware that there are several seedlings which were started by the technical trainer weeks before the training program commenced. The technical trainer announces that the plastic bags ordered for transplanting are unavailable and that the trainees will have to make containers for the seedlings.



1. The technical trainer tells the trainees that the seedlings are ready to be transplanted and the plastic beg a that were ordered have not arrived and may not for some time. The trainees will have to figure out how to get 1,500 to 2,000 seedlings transplanted into containers in the next week.

Trainer’s Note: We called this the plastic bag caper. It comes after the trainees are aware that the trainers expect them to use available materials whenever possible. This exercise is processed all week long. We had stacks of newspapers from the first day we arrived. Having asked the trainees to stack their newspapers, we eventually wanted then to make paper tube containers from newspaper. In the pilot training program, the trainees eventually had to be instructed to do this. Instructions for paper tubes are shown below in case you also have to demonstrate the use of newspaper to construct seedling containers.

1. Take a standard size shoes of newspaper, fold in half, then fold in half again.

2. Roll folded paper around fingers to give cylindrical shape.

3. Staple top and bottom.

4. Pack bottom tightly with potting soil using tamping stick.

5. Transplant needling packing soil tightly around roots, pack up to collar of seedling.


20 minutes