| Forestry training manual for the Africa region |
|Training program overview|
|Training program goals|
|Library reference materials|
|List of reference material|
|Planning the field trip|
|Tree planting site|
|Soil erosion site|
|Conducting the training program|
|Presenting the sessions|
|Review/study the training program guidelines|
|Adding to the given design|
|Sequence for session/exercise|
|Words about transition|
|Session 1 : Welcome, expectations, and evaluation criteria|
|Session 2 : Special projects|
|Session 3 : The forests of the world, peace corps' forestry goals, the individual volunteer's role|
|Session 4 : Record keeping - group process|
|Session 5 : Video tapes|
|Session 6 : Agro-forestry data collection|
|Session 7 : Feedback|
|Session 8 : Flowers, seeds, the beginning|
|Session 9 : Nutrition|
|Session 10 : Non-verbal communication|
|Session 11 : Germination|
|Session 12 : Coping skills|
|Session 13 : Basic site selection, planning & layout of a nursery|
|Session 14 : Review of trainees' nursery plan|
|Session 15 communication through illustration|
|Session 16 : Soil preparation, seedbed sowing|
|Session 17 : Individual interviews|
|Session 18 : Reproduction by clippings and nursery review|
|Session 19 : Introduction to extension|
|Session 20 : Protection and record keeping (Insect collection)|
|Session 20A : Chicken preparation|
|Session 21 : The volunteers' role as an extensionist|
|Session 22 : Tropical horticulture: care, tending and disease control|
|Session 23 : Women in development - part I|
|Session 24 : Team building|
|Session 25 : Building and using a rustic transit|
|Session 26 : Women in development - part II|
|Session 27 : Working with groups as an extension worker|
|Session 28 : Trees: identification & planting|
|Session 29 : Lesson plan and use of visual aids in teaching|
|Session 30 : The ugly American|
|Session 31 : Catchments - sowing of seedlings into catchments|
|Session 32 : Weekly interview|
|Session 33 : Agro-forestry|
|Session 34 : Community analysis introduction|
|Session 35 : Soils|
|Session 36 : Community analysis|
|Session 37 : Irrigation|
|Session 38 : Review of expectations - mid-way|
|Session 39 : Problem analysis|
|Session 40 : Soil erosion|
|Session 41 : Species report - research demonstration|
|Session 42 : Cultural values|
|Session 43 : Wellbeing|
|Session 44 : Field trip overview|
|Session 45 : Agro-forestry reports|
|Session 46 : Weekly interview|
|Session 47 : Leave on week-long field trip|
|Session 48 : Pesticides|
|Session 49 : Review of field trips|
|Session 50 : Resources|
|Session 51 : Area measurement, pacing, compass use|
|Session 52 : Compost heap - greenhouse construction - germination percentage|
|Session 53 : Culture shock|
|Session 54 : Range management|
|Session 55 : Grafting and fruit trees|
|Session 56 : Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials|
|Session 57 : Project planning: goal setting|
|Session 58 : Final interviews|
|Session 59 : Ecology teams presentations|
|Session 60 : Graduation|
Total time 3 hours
- For the trainees to learn how to measure an area,
- For the trainees to learn how to pace,
- For the trainees to learn how to use a compass,
- For the trainees to calculate an area's dimensions.
In this session, the trainees learn about land measurements, methods of measuring, instruments to use in measuring and how to calculate the area measured.
3. Simple Traverse
4. Simple Calculations
Exercise 1 Pacing
Total time 30 minutes
- To teach the trainees how to measure distance by pacing.
Pacing, if done correctly, can be used to get good distance measurements. The technical trainer instructs the trainees in the method of pacing and how to measure distance by pacing.
1. The technical trainer lectures on pacing and gives instructions in the use of a pacing stick (lecture follows, post on newsprint).
2. The trainees determine their pace and make a pacing stick for themselves.
Pacing, if done correctly, can be used to get good distance measurements.
Methods for developing pacing skills:
1. Lay out a base line 20 meters long,
2. Walk naturally along base line to determine how many paces you take for 20 meters (1 pace = 2 steps),
3. Cut a stick the length of your pace,
4. On flat ground you can pace naturally keeping track of every 20 meter interval,
5. On slopes you can use your stick to measure your horizontal pace.
1. My paces 2 steps = 1.6 meters, (My stick is 1.6 meters long),
My pace for the 20 meter baseline = 12.5 paces,
62.5 paces = 100 meters.
2. When actually pacing an unknown distance, put out a finger, or pick up a stone or stick to keep track of every 20 meter segment. Total distance can easily be calculated in your head.
You have the man move up or down the slope until you see the mark through the sight. He puts a stake in that spot, and then moves to the next mark. Fairly soon, you will have stakes all along the contour of the slope for that particular terrace.
All of these points are ten meters apart. You want to make an average line from these points (stake markers) since a jaggered line would be difficult with which to work. Further, puddles of water would gather in the pockets.
Example: At the end of an unknown segment, I have 3 stones in my hand and 4 paces more.
3 X 20 meters = 60 meters
4 X 1.6 approx. equals 4 X 1.5 = 6 meters
Total Distance = 66 meters
Trainer's Note: Although pacing is not widely used in the U.S., it is desirable for PCVs to know this method for use in developing countries and to be able to teach the same.
Exercise 2 Compass
Total time 30 minutes
Some of the participants will not have been instructed in the use of a compass. Those who know how to use a compass will assist other trainees in learning to use it.
1. The trainer lectures on the use of a compass. On newsprint, show the Azimuth compass, Quadrant compass and the European compass and their use.
2. The trainees who do not know how to use compasses practice aided by the trainees who know how to use them.
Exercise 3 Simple Traverse
Total time 1 hour
This exercise gives the trainees a chance to use pacing skills and a compass to run a simple traverse.
1. Prior to this session, the technical trainer stakes an area on which the trainees practice. The technical trainer uses flags to mark points. The area selected should have some steep slopes.
2. The trainees are divided into groups with at least one forester trainee in each group.
3. The trainees run a traverse using a hand compass and pacing.
4. Upon completion of traverse, the trainees plot the area on graph paper and calculate the area.
Exercise 4 Simple Calculations
Total time 1 hour
In this session, the trainees learn a simple method of determining approximate land areas.
1. The technical trainer lectures on area calculations and posts the following on newsprint.
A. Plot a traverse to scale on sheet,
B. Break down the traversed figure into right triangles and/or rectangles,
C. Calculate each area in right triangle and/or rectangle,
D. Divide by 10,000 to get hectares,
Area of right triangle = 1/2 (base) (height)
Area of rectangle = (base) (height)
(can check by counting squares on graph paper).
2. The technical trainer continues with lecture on area traverse record keeping. Displays the following example.
Keeping records - what, again? Field book traverse records
Field Sketch Figure 45) :
B.S. N80° (265°)
B.S. N86°E (265°)
B.S. S11°W (10°)
Hypothetical Data Sheet
Date: November 18, 1981
Crew: Mohammed Bah Peter, PCV Flomo Garteh
Tools: Hand. Compass & Pacing stick
3. The technical trainer checks each group's area map, calculations and traverse.
Trainer’s Note: While the technical trainer works with one group at a time the other groups use a rustic transit. This gives everyone time to practice. This is also a time to observe how wolf forester trainees are able to transfer skills, explain, have patience, etc., with generalist trainees. Record these observations because you will want to give forester trainees feedback during the interview on their performance.