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close this book Forestry training manual for the Africa region
View the document Acknowledgements
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close this folder Training program overview
View the document Training program goals
View the document Advance information
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View the document Training site
View the document Planning the field trip
View the document Tree planting site
View the document Soil erosion site
View the document Transportation
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View the document Medical
View the document Unexpected resources
close this folder Conducting the training program
View the document Timing
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View the document Trainers/ facilitators
View the document Sessions
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View the document Staff meetings
close this folder Presenting the sessions
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View the document Review/study the training program guidelines
View the document Adding to the given design
View the document Sequence for session/exercise
View the document Words about transition
View the document Session 1 : Welcome, expectations, and evaluation criteria
View the document Session 2 : Special projects
View the document Session 3 : The forests of the world, peace corps' forestry goals, the individual volunteer's role
View the document Session 4 : Record keeping - group process
View the document Session 5 : Video tapes
View the document Session 6 : Agro-forestry data collection
View the document Session 7 : Feedback
View the document Session 8 : Flowers, seeds, the beginning
View the document Session 9 : Nutrition
View the document Session 10 : Non-verbal communication
View the document Session 11 : Germination
View the document Session 12 : Coping skills
View the document Session 13 : Basic site selection, planning & layout of a nursery
View the document Session 14 : Review of trainees' nursery plan
View the document Session 15 communication through illustration
View the document Session 16 : Soil preparation, seedbed sowing
View the document Session 17 : Individual interviews
View the document Session 18 : Reproduction by clippings and nursery review
View the document Session 19 : Introduction to extension
View the document Session 20 : Protection and record keeping (Insect collection)
View the document Session 20A : Chicken preparation
View the document Session 21 : The volunteers' role as an extensionist
View the document Session 22 : Tropical horticulture: care, tending and disease control
View the document Session 23 : Women in development - part I
View the document Session 24 : Team building
View the document Session 25 : Building and using a rustic transit
View the document Session 26 : Women in development - part II
View the document Session 27 : Working with groups as an extension worker
View the document Session 28 : Trees: identification & planting
View the document Session 29 : Lesson plan and use of visual aids in teaching
View the document Session 30 : The ugly American
View the document Session 31 : Catchments - sowing of seedlings into catchments
View the document Session 32 : Weekly interview
View the document Session 33 : Agro-forestry
View the document Session 34 : Community analysis introduction
View the document Session 35 : Soils
View the document Session 36 : Community analysis
View the document Session 37 : Irrigation
View the document Session 38 : Review of expectations - mid-way
View the document Session 39 : Problem analysis
View the document Session 40 : Soil erosion
View the document Session 41 : Species report - research demonstration
View the document Session 42 : Cultural values
View the document Session 43 : Wellbeing
View the document Session 44 : Field trip overview
View the document Session 45 : Agro-forestry reports
View the document Session 46 : Weekly interview
View the document Session 47 : Leave on week-long field trip
View the document Session 48 : Pesticides
View the document Session 49 : Review of field trips
View the document Session 50 : Resources
View the document Session 51 : Area measurement, pacing, compass use
View the document Session 52 : Compost heap - greenhouse construction - germination percentage
View the document Session 53 : Culture shock
View the document Session 54 : Range management
View the document Session 55 : Grafting and fruit trees
View the document Session 56 : Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials
View the document Session 57 : Project planning: goal setting
View the document Session 58 : Final interviews
View the document Session 59 : Ecology teams presentations
View the document Session 60 : Graduation

Session 51 : Area measurement, pacing, compass use

Total time 3 hours


- For the trainees to learn how to measure an area,

- For the trainees to learn how to pace,

- For the trainees to learn how to use a compass,

- For the trainees to calculate an area's dimensions.


In this session, the trainees learn about land measurements, methods of measuring, instruments to use in measuring and how to calculate the area measured.


1. Pacing

2. Compass

3. Simple Traverse

4. Simple Calculations

Exercise 1 Pacing

Total time 30 minutes


- To teach the trainees how to measure distance by pacing.


Pacing, if done correctly, can be used to get good distance measurements. The technical trainer instructs the trainees in the method of pacing and how to measure distance by pacing.



1. The technical trainer lectures on pacing and gives instructions in the use of a pacing stick (lecture follows, post on newsprint).


15 minutes


2. The trainees determine their pace and make a pacing stick for themselves.


15 minutes


Pacing, if done correctly, can be used to get good distance measurements.

Methods for developing pacing skills:

1. Lay out a base line 20 meters long,

2. Walk naturally along base line to determine how many paces you take for 20 meters (1 pace = 2 steps),

Figure 34

3. Cut a stick the length of your pace,

4. On flat ground you can pace naturally keeping track of every 20 meter interval,

5. On slopes you can use your stick to measure your horizontal pace.

Figure 35

Pacing Examples

1. My paces 2 steps = 1.6 meters, (My stick is 1.6 meters long),

My pace for the 20 meter baseline = 12.5 paces,

62.5 paces = 100 meters.

2. When actually pacing an unknown distance, put out a finger, or pick up a stone or stick to keep track of every 20 meter segment. Total distance can easily be calculated in your head.

You have the man move up or down the slope until you see the mark through the sight. He puts a stake in that spot, and then moves to the next mark. Fairly soon, you will have stakes all along the contour of the slope for that particular terrace.

Figure 36

Figure 37

All of these points are ten meters apart. You want to make an average line from these points (stake markers) since a jaggered line would be difficult with which to work. Further, puddles of water would gather in the pockets.

Example: At the end of an unknown segment, I have 3 stones in my hand and 4 paces more.

3 X 20 meters = 60 meters

4 X 1.6 approx. equals 4 X 1.5 = 6 meters

Total Distance = 66 meters

Trainer's Note: Although pacing is not widely used in the U.S., it is desirable for PCVs to know this method for use in developing countries and to be able to teach the same.

Exercise 2 Compass

Total time 30 minutes


Some of the participants will not have been instructed in the use of a compass. Those who know how to use a compass will assist other trainees in learning to use it.



1. The trainer lectures on the use of a compass. On newsprint, show the Azimuth compass, Quadrant compass and the European compass and their use.


15 minutes


2. The trainees who do not know how to use compasses practice aided by the trainees who know how to use them.


15 minutes

Figure 38 : European compass

Figure 39 : Using the Compass

Figure 40 : Azimuth compass

Figure 41 : Quadrant compass

Figure 42 : Compass declination

Exercise 3 Simple Traverse

Total time 1 hour


This exercise gives the trainees a chance to use pacing skills and a compass to run a simple traverse.



1. Prior to this session, the technical trainer stakes an area on which the trainees practice. The technical trainer uses flags to mark points. The area selected should have some steep slopes.


2. The trainees are divided into groups with at least one forester trainee in each group.


3. The trainees run a traverse using a hand compass and pacing.


30 minutes


4. Upon completion of traverse, the trainees plot the area on graph paper and calculate the area.


30 minutes

Figure 43

Exercise 4 Simple Calculations

Total time 1 hour


In this session, the trainees learn a simple method of determining approximate land areas.



1. The technical trainer lectures on area calculations and posts the following on newsprint.

A. Plot a traverse to scale on sheet,

B. Break down the traversed figure into right triangles and/or rectangles,

C. Calculate each area in right triangle and/or rectangle,

D. Divide by 10,000 to get hectares,

Area Formulae

Area of right triangle = 1/2 (base) (height)

Area of rectangle = (base) (height)

(can check by counting squares on graph paper).


2. The technical trainer continues with lecture on area traverse record keeping. Displays the following example.

Figure 44 : Example of calculating area by breaking area figure into right triangles

Area Traverse

Keeping records - what, again? Field book traverse records

Field Sketch Figure 45) :






580°E (100°)


B.S. N80° (265°)







B.S. N86°E (265°)






N 10°E


B.S. S11°W (10°)





Hypothetical Data Sheet

Date: November 18, 1981

Weather: Clear

Crew: Mohammed Bah Peter, PCV Flomo Garteh

Tools: Hand. Compass & Pacing stick

Figure 46


3. The technical trainer checks each group's area map, calculations and traverse.

Trainer’s Note: While the technical trainer works with one group at a time the other groups use a rustic transit. This gives everyone time to practice. This is also a time to observe how wolf forester trainees are able to transfer skills, explain, have patience, etc., with generalist trainees. Record these observations because you will want to give forester trainees feedback during the interview on their performance.