| Forestry training manual for the Africa region |
Total time 1 hour 45 minutes
- To begin the process of transferring skills and experience to others,
- To assume the responsibility for teaching others,
- To assume the responsibility for completing task assignments,
- To produce a manual for use in the field to which all participants have contributed,
- To meet the dates given for each project's presentation,
- To measure the trainees' ability to be resourceful by the amount of explanation and assistance they ask from trainers.
The purpose of this exercise is to begin to identify those participants with special skills and have them assume responsibility of transferring those skills during the training. The trainees will have to look for resources and decide what materials, if any, they need to complete their projects. They will also discuss the need for research.
1. Introduction of Individual Projects
Materials needed for special projects
Flip charts, marker pens, tape, schedule of special projects due dates, *board ( 1 meter long by 1 meter wide), graph paper, common pins, rubber bands, *protractors, plumb line, weight, survey flags, stakes, *measuring tapes ( 3 meter long), pole ( 2 meters long bamboo is good), small piece of wood (2 centimeters high X 4 centimeters wide X 40 centimeters long), nails, wing nut (6 centimeter long), *thermometer/rain guage
* Indicates one for each Volunteer.
Trainer’s Note: These materials will definitely be needed. The trainees will determine what used materials are available and what are needed.
Exercise 1 Introduction of Individual Projects
Total time 1 hour 45 minutes
- To introduce special projects for each individual to manage,
- To give a brief explanation of each,
- To have the trainees volunteer for a project they want to do,
- To give time lines and due dates,
- To make project asignments.
1. The trainers introduce a list of projects for which individual trainees are asked to volunteer, it is explained that these projects are part of the design and are specific in nature. The forester trainer will need to demonstrate or explain in detail. Many projects will require the help of other trainees and the management of that help. There are enough projects so
that each trainee gets a different one.
Trainer’s Note: It is vital that each trainee have a project: Listed below are the 20 or so we have found to be moat effective. Some are intrinsic to a particular session: all are meant to be challenging.
A. Species Identification Manual: The trainee will assign two species per participant to be identified, re-searched and written-up. The species to be used in the manual will be decided by the trainee and final approval will be given by the technical trainer.
(The following outline is given to the trainee to transmit to other trainees so that all species reports have similar content and format.)
Outline for Species Reports
FLOWER: TYPE, FLOWERING CYCLE SKETCH
FRUIT: TYPE, COLOR
SEED: GERMINATION, WHEN SEEDS MATURES, HOW TO COLLECT, METHOD
OF STORAGE, TREATMENT, SKETCH
LEAVES: TYPE, ALTERNATE - OPPOSITE, MARGINS, SHAPE, COLOR
BARK: GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
SHAPE: YOUNG TREE, MATURE TREE
HABITAT: WHERE TREE GROWS, SOIL, WATER
USE: LOCAL, INDUSTRIAL, COMMERCIAL
RANGE : N-S-E-W
DISEASE/INSECTS: TYPES, CONTROLS
NURSERY MANAGEMENT NEEDS: HOW TO TREAT IN NURSERY
MAIN IDENTIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS
B. Agro-forestry Site Plan: The trainer should explain that this is a new sub-discipline of forestry - about ten years old - although it has been practiced for hundreds of years by farmers to some degree. Since it is a new discipline, there is very little written on agro-forestry and nothing which is site specific. The trainer should state that it is quite possible that this generation of participants are the ones who will write the books and become the authorities. Based upon their own observations and knowledge, we want them to work up a plan for their site area. It should be as extensive as possible. The trainee will be managing a moving presentation, and all the trainees will participate in this activity. There are three stages researching, planning and presenting.
C. Ecology Teams: Based upon country an geographical similarities, groups will be formed to report on the ecology of a particular area. These reports will be given in the same way one would present this concept to a group at a future site. The trainee for whom this is a special project is responsible for calling meetings and managing presentations.
Trainer’s Note: The training staff makes the team assignments for the project and they are posted on day three.
D. Making a Diameter Tape: This project involves a forester participant assembling materials (which are available) and determining the best way for each trainee to make his/her own diameter tape. Forester trainee demonstrates the use of the diameter tape and has the other trainees practice using it.
E. Rustic Transit: A forester trainee assembles a Rustic Transit from available material and shows the other trainees how to use it. He/she records the directions for construction.
F. Greenhouse: A trainee builds a greenhouse with help from trainees using the local material. He/she is responsible for drawing up plans to be put in the trainees' manual.
G. Slide Show Presentation: A forester trainee prepares a slide show on a forestry related topic. This slide presentation is to be used later by Peace Corps in the host country. If slides are not available, the forester trainee writes the directions for preparing a presentation.
H. Compost Heap: At the onset of training, a forester trainee prepares a compost heap near the nursery site. He/she explains the steps to the other trainees, keeps a graph of temperature and the times that the compost is turned. The compost will be available for use during the last week of training if done correctly.
I. Lesson Plan: The trainee prepares a lecture on the preparation of lesson plans. The trainee who has the special project writes directions and presents a lecture to the group. Have each trainee prepare a simple lesson plan and demonstrate it to the group.
J. Manual: A trainee manages the trainee manual, keeps track of the contents and prepares it for publication.
K. Plan Soil Erosion Walk Tour: The trainee rinds gullys for plugging and demonstrates the gully plug technique.
L. Gathering Climatic Data: The trainee selects volunteers to collect the daily weather conditions (including wind, temperature and humidity) and posts this information daily.
M. Insect Collection & Identification: The trainee prepares a lecture and gives a demonstration.
N. Methods of Research: A research demonstration is done by the trainees and instructions are given to the other trainees. The trainee for whom this is a special project writes the guidelines for the manual.
O. Irrigation Project: The trainee prepares a presentation on watering nursery and garden sites. He/she is responsible for drawing irrigation plans to be included in the manual.
P. Vegetable Gardening: A trainee prepares a presentation which will be included in the manual on how to plan and start a vegetable garden.
Q. Library : The trainee catalogues ale materials and oversees the distribution of materials. At the end of training, he/she sees that all materials are returned to those institutions or individuals from whom they were borrowed.
R. Germination Site: The trainee records all germination experiments, gathers other trainees' records and reports his/her findings. The trainee is responsible for watering the seed beds which were started prior to the trainees' arrival.
S. French Vocabulary: The trainee is responsible for conducting a mini-French lesson of forestry terms at the start of each day.
Trainer's Mote e You may want to delete some projects and add others that are more specific to the host country. Since these projects are built into the design, however, they will have to be covered by trainers if not done by trainees. (The trainees may also add a few on their own).
1 hour 45 minutes
2. The trainees are now invited to ask questions and to sign up for their special projects.
3. The summary by the trainers should state that we are aware that actual
training has not yet begun but you can already see that we are going to be very busy. We are sure that no one will be bored.
SAMPLE SPECIAL PROJECT
Climatic Data Gathering Methods
To establish some methods of collecting simple climatic information about an area. To chart the information about a specific area as an indicator of general weather conditions of that area over a period of time.
An ambient temperature thermometer was attached to the southern side of a tree located in a grassy area. This site was chosen for its provision of shade, a non-reflective ground surface, and shelter from the ground surface to avoid the influence of any ground heat. Accurate ambient temperature readings require sheltering of the thermometer from the sun, wind and reflected heat.
Temperature readings recorded at 6:00 AM and varying afternoon times were taken as the approximate low and high temperatures of the day.
Rainfall was determined by setting up a rainguage in an open area unobstructed by trees, buildings, or other factors that might lead to erroneous readings.
Wind direction was determined simply by throwing a little leaf matter into the air and noting the direction it was carried by the wind. This was done several times at each reading to assure accuracy.
In determining relative humidity, a crude psychrometer was designed and used. A small piece of cotton shoelace was slipped over the bulb of the thermometer. The thermometer was then waved through the air for about two minutes to determine a "wet-bulb" thermometer reading. The relative humidity could then be determined by comparing this "wet-bulb" temperature to the dry bulb or normal ambient temperature reading on a psychrometric table.
This method of determining relative humidity is based on the facts that:
1. The rate of water evaporation from the "wet-bulb" is positively correlated to the dry-ness of the air.
2. As the water evaporates from the "wet-bulb" when it is waved in the air, the thermometer is cooled and the temperature drops.
3. The amount of cooling i. positively correlated to the rate of water evaporation.
4. Thus, the amount of cooling is positively correlated to the dryness of the air. The more the cooling, the lower the humidity. The lee. the cooling, the greater the humidity.
F = (9/5)C + 32
C = (5/9)(F - 32)
Conclusion: The results given on the foregoing pages show that the various weather parameters during a particular time of year remain fairly constant and can be used to determine the type of climate to expect in an area at a certain time of year.