| Appropriate community technology - A training manual |
|Phase II: Earthen construction and fuel-saving cookstoves|
* To compare and contrast a variety of traditional and improved cookstove designs
* To practice designing cookstoves
* To discuss available resource material on cookstove technology
* Farallones/Aprovecho slide presentation, "Indigenous and Improved cookstove Technologies from Around the World".
* Attachment II-4-A, "Hypothetical Design Situations"
* Attachment II-4-B, "Catalogue" from cookstove News, Vol. I, No. 1
* Aprovecho Institute, Helping People in Poor Countries
* Evans & Boutette, Lorena Stoves
Projector and screen, chalkboard/chalk or newsprint and felt-tip pens
Step 1. (1 hour)
Provide a brief overview of the session objectives and present the slide show, "Indigenous and Im proved cookstove Technologies from Around the World."
The slide show presentation will expose the participants to a variety of cookstoves that have been built and used worldwide The program is designed to stimulate the participants' thinking about different cookstove innovations before they begin actual design and construction.
Don't dwell too long on any slide. Just briefly explain the origin of the stoves and the location of firebox and tunnel systems.
Step 2. (30 minutes)
Ask the participants to form four design groups. Assign each design group one of the hypothetical design situations outlined in Attachment II-4-A, "Hypothetical Design Situations," and ask them to prepare an explanation and a drawing of their cookstove design on newsprint, showing top and side views.
Circulate among the groups, providing hints and suggestions regarding their cookstove designs. Let them work it out themselves. Ideas are more important at this point than technical feasibility.
Step 3. (30 minutes)
Reconvene the groups. Ask each group to present their design. Facilitate any discussion which may arise.
Step 4. (20 minutes)
Distribute Attachment II4-B, the "Catalogue," and facilitate a discussion of the various cookstove models shown as well as the models seen in the slide show.
Explain the Spanish term "lorena" and its significance in this program:
"Lorena" refers to a sand/clay stove and a stove construction process. It also refers to a specific stove model, developed for use in highland Guatemala. It is the sand/clay mix and not the particular stove design that will be emphasized during this training phase.
Step 5. (5 minutes)
Distribute copies of Helping People in Poor Countries and Lorena Stoves. Present any other resource materials on cookstove technology or charcoal production that will be available during the training program
Step 6. (5 minutes)
Conclude the session by reviewing the objectives and facilitating a brief discussion of how effectively they were met.
HYPOTHETICAL DESIGN SITUATIONS
Design Situation #1
* Hot tropics. It rains about three months of the year.
* Cooking is done outside, except during the rainy season.
* Fuel is charcoal.
* Morning meal: thin gruel or warmed leftovers.
* Hid-day and evening meals:
One pot, 40cm diameter and made out of cast aluminum, is used for a mush of sweet potatoes or millet which must be stirred constantly.
A second pot, 25cm diameter and made out of cast aluminum, is used for a sauce or soup made of onions and meat or fish fried together, with vegetables added later and all simmered together like a stew.
* People drink tea after meals and between meals but not during meals.
Design Situation #2
* Highland tropics. Nights are cool; days are warm. It rains in the afternoon about six months of the year.
* Outdoor market stall: Food is cooked in the morning and kept warm while it is served during the course of the day (from about 10 a.m. to 4 p.m.).
* Fuel is firewood (small sticks to pieces about 4" thick and 18" long).
* Items cooked: rice, beans, sauces, meat stew, soup, tortillas and coffee. All foods are cooked in earthenware pots of various sizes, most with rounded bottoms. Tortillas are cooked on a large clay griddle and coffee is heated in a metal teakettle.
* As many of these foods as possible should be ready to serve at any one time.
Design Situation #3
* Very cold arctic climate, with 8 or 9 months of snow and cold.
* Cooking is done indoors. Excess heat from cooking is needed for warmth.
* Fuel is small sticks and driftwood. There are no trees in the area.
* Morning meal: pancakes and tea. Pancakes are cooked on an iron griddle.
* Mid-day and evening meals:
Meat stew, leftover pancakes and tea. Stew is cooked in a large iron pot and tea in a tea kettle with a flat bottom.
* Tea is often served during the day and evening.
* Once or twice yearly, great quantities of whale blubber are rendered in a very large (60cm diameter) iron kettle.
Design Situation #4
* Northern desert climate. Summers are hot and dry; winters, cold and dry.
* Semi-nomadic people who cook outdoors when they camp in tents for seven months of the year. During the winter (5 months), they cook indoors while living in huts.
* Fuel is brush and small twigs. Fuel is scarce.
* Morning meal: cold leftovers.
* Mid-day and evening meals:
Porridge from grass seeds, stew from wild tubers and vegetables and occasionally meat or pancakes from acorn meal. They use metal pots and griddle.
* Warm water is used for washing, especially in winter.
* Tea is drunk after dinner and when visiting friends.
CATALOGUE FROM cookstove NEWS, VOL . 1 /NO. 1
These are only a few examples of improved cookstoves. Details and contact people available from cookstove News/Aprovecho Institute.