Cover Image
close this book Appropriate community technology - A training manual
close this folder Phase II: Earthen construction and fuel-saving cookstoves
View the document Phase II Calendar
View the document Session 1. Environmental health and sanitation
View the document Session 2. Traditional methods of cooking: an introduction to cookstove technologies
View the document Session 3. Fuel-saying cookstoves: gathering information
View the document Session 4. Cookstove design and innovations
View the document Session 5. Thinking in pictures: introduction to design drawing
View the document Session 6. Introduction to independent study
View the document Session 7. Cookstove operation function and design principles
View the document Session 8. Understanding the cookstove design process and soil mixes
View the document Session 9. Insolation meter construction
View the document Session 10. Cookstove construction
View the document Session 11. Nature of volunteerism: expectations beyond training
View the document Session 12. Food issues
View the document Session 13. The role of the volunteer in development: definition of appropriate technology
View the document Session 14. Stove promotion and dissemination
View the document Session 15. Explaining completed cookstoves
View the document Session 16. Evaluating cookstove efficiency
View the document Session 17. Diagnosing and repairing malfunctioning cookstoves
View the document Session 18. Other responses to fuel scarcity
View the document Session 19. Charcoal production and stoves
View the document Session 20. Custom and food
View the document Session 21. Design and construction of the second stove part one: stove base
View the document Session 22. Alternative cookstoves: presentations
View the document Session 23. Basic nutrition
View the document Session 24. Cookstove operation
View the document Session 25. Cookstove development and innovation
View the document Session 26. Cookstove information and resources/ evaluation of cookstove training

Session 5. Thinking in pictures: introduction to design drawing

Total time:

2 hours


* To discuss basic concepts of mechanical and perspective drawing

* To do a sample mechanical and perspective drawing

* To discuss the effectiveness of mechanical drawing as an appropriate aid to communication


* Ching, Architectural Graphics, pp. 44-45, 67-69

* Lockard, Design Drawing Experiences

Trainer Notes

Copies of pages from Architectural Graphics should be prepared for distribution during this session.


Soft lead drawing pencils, drawing paper, graph paper, newsprint and felt-tip pens or chalkboard/ chalk

Meet with the co-facilitator(s) at least 24 hours before doing the session. Give each of them a copy of the session procedures and resource material. Be certain that they thoroughly understand what their roles will be. (See Steps 4 and 5.)


Step 1. (5 minutes)

Review the session objectives and distribute the resource materials.

Step 2. (20 minutes)

Discuss and demonstrate basic mechanical drawing concepts.

Trainer Notes

* Demonstrate the concepts of plan, elevation, section and the conventions of line width and shading.

* Draw these concepts on newsprint or on a chalkboard as they are discussed.

* Have the participants copy and practice drawing the concepts.

* Encourage questions and discussion.

Step 3. (20 minutes)

Demonstrate and discuss basic concepts of perspective drawing.

Trainer Notes

* Sketch and explain examples of one and two-point perspective eye-level and shading.

* Have the participants copy and practice drawing your examples.

Step 4. (40 minutes)

Have the participants form drawing groups and do a sample mechanical drawing.

Trainer Notes

Have each group draw the following:

* Plans, elevations and sections of an object

* A perspective drawing of the same object, using shading

There should be one co-facilitator with each drawing group to offer advice and assistance.

The co-facilitators can also be of assistance in selecting simple objects to draw (i.e., a solar dryer, breadbox water heater, a Lorena stove) and arranging the locations in which to draw them.

Step 4. (5 minutes)

Have the groups return and form new groups such that each of the new groups has only one person from each of the original drawing groups.

Trainer Notes

The co-facilitators should assist in forming the new groups by going to different parts of the room and asking the groups to form around them.

Step 6. (15 minutes)

Have the members of these new groups share and explain their drawings with one another.

Step 7. (15 minutes)

Reconvene the entire group and have participants discuss the use of mechanical drawings within the context of overseas development work.

Trainer Notes

Some questions for this discussion include:

* Can mechanical drawing be an effective aid in communicating new technologies to Third World people?

* What difficulties might arise in using a mechanical drawing to explain or demonstrate a technical concept?

* How could the drawings be modified to address these difficulties?

Mention that there will be a more extensive discussion of appropriate aids to communication in Phase III: Session 6.