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close this book About the International institute of rural reconstruction
View the document International institute of rural reconstruction
View the document IIRR's mission
View the document Vision of sustainable development since the 1920s
View the document Information kits
View the document Ethnoveterinary medicine in Asia: an information kit on traditional animal health care practices
View the document Environment, natural resources and agriculture program
View the document Community health, reproductive health and nutrition program
View the document Institutional capacity building
View the document Conference and training facilities
View the document International training courses 1997 and 1998
View the document Training of trainers on
View the document International course on farmer-led extension
View the document Sustainable rural aquaculture for small-scale farmers
View the document Challenges in occupational health services for agricultural worcers:
View the document International course on systems in community managed health
View the document Household food security through home gardening
View the document Integrated watershed management workshop
View the document Environmental management training on integrated conservation and development
View the document International course on rural development management

Conference and training facilities

Enjoy the relaxed atmosphere of IIRR's modern conference and training facilities. Located just 4() km south of Manila, IlRR's 50 hectare campus— the Y.C. James Yen Center—lies 1,000 ft above sea level. Set in its own nature reserve, it enjoys a cool climate with a relaxed, refreshing atmosphere and a beautiful landscape of lawns and tail trees.

The campus is ideal for training events, seminars, conferences and other activities that require an ambience of peace and quiet concentration. It is just 20 minutes from the resort town of Tagaytay, with its breathtaking views of Lake Taal and Volcano Island. IIRR is close enough to Manila to allow easy access to education, transport, shopping and entertainment facilities (the campus is only 30 km from Ninoy Aquino International Airport), yet is far from the heat, traffic and pollution of the city.


Two hostels contain a total of 44 guest rooms able to accommodate up to 108 persons. A newly constructed hostel, completed in 1995, offers 24 rooms with twin beds and private bathrooms; a second hostel has 20 rooms with 2 or 3 beds and shared bathrooms. Both hostels have common reception areas. A self-contained three-bedroom guest cottage is also available for groups of up to 10 people; it can also serve as a venue for sessions.

Conference and training rooms

Training and meeting rooms—The lecture hall is a fully-equipped session room with audio-visual equipment and sound-proof booths for observation, recording and translation services. The modular tables can be rearranged to suit the requirements of any group. The hall can seat up to 50 people.

Several smaller meeting rooms seat 8-20 people each.

Conference hall—The large conference hall can be configured to seat from 30 to 300 people. Dividers can be set up for smaller groups. The size and design of this room allows flexibility for many different arrangements.

International Institute of Rural Reconstruction

World Center/Asia: Y.C. James Yen Center, Silang, Cavite 4118, Philippines - Tel.63-046-414 2417 up to


Fax 63-046- 414 2420 . Email iirr@

Africa: P.O. Box 66873, Westlands, Nairobi. Kenya . Tal.254-2-442 610.446 522 . Fax 254-2 448 148 - Ernail

Latin America: Pasaja Muirriagui Donoso 4451 y Av. America Apartado Postal 17-0a-8494, Quito. Ecuador Tel/Fax 593-2-443 763 ~ Email

Manila: Room 38, Elena Apts., 512 R. Salas St., Ermita, Manila, Philippines - Tel. 63-2-525 1284, 524 1585 - Fax 63-2-522 2494 . Cable IlRRINC MANILA.

New York: 475 Riverside Drive. Room 1035, New York, NY 10115, USA Tel.1-212-8702992. Fax 1-212-


- Telex 238573 RRNYUR - Cable MEMINTCOM Email

"Campsite" -: Used for informal meetings and socials, the two opensided "campsite" halls can seat up to 40 people for meetings. They can accommodate up to 200 for socials.

Kiosks-Ideal for small workshop gropes, three kiosks located near the lecture hall can accommodate up to 10 people each.

Cafeteria Services

IIRR's cafeteria offers a varied menu ,from regular service to international-quality buffet. The self-service dining area can seat up to 150 people. Catering can by provided at other venues on the IIRR campus on request. Special meals can by prepared for participants with dietary restrictions.

Recreation facilities

Relax after a hard day's work! A 15-meter swimming pool and basketball/volleyball court are open to conference and training participants. Equipment for badminton, table tennis and board games sucks as chess and Scrabble may also be borrowed.

The campus is an ideal place for walking, jogging and cycling. A three kilometer nature trail winds along a picturesque river valley in the campus nature reserve.

Audio-visual equipment and services

Audio visual equipment includes overhead projectors, televisions, video cassette recorders, slide projectors, chalk boards and whiteboards. Qualified technicians are on hand to set up and maintain equipment. Translation and recording services are available on request. Generators ensure minimal interruptions to the power supply .


A 25-seat bus, a 15-seat van, sedan cars and four-wheel-drive vehicles are available. Rates differ according to the type of vehicle and distance.


Learning resource center

The Institute library carries a modest collection of literature on rural reconstruction and related subjects. The media resource center maintains a growing collection of slide-tape and video program with emphasis on environment end sustainable agriculture.

For more information :

Contact lIRR, Room 38, Elena Apts, 512 R. Salas St., Ermita, Manila. Tel. 63-2-582 659 501 585 - Fax 63-2-522 2494 - Cable IIRRINC MANILA.

Other services

- Secretarial services

- Telecommunications (telephone, fax and email) and mailing

- Free clinic (medicines sold at cost)

- Currency exchange

- Safekeeping of valuables

- Housekeeping and laundry

- Security.

IIRR Program Highlights

International Institute of Rural Reconstruction

Y.C. James Yen Center Silang Cavite, Philippines 1996


The 1996 IIRR Program Highlights provides an overview of some of the major events and activities reported by IIRR program staff in 1996 While it is not a detailed, comprehensive report it will hopefully provide the reader with a general sense of what IIRR has been engaged in and the scope of its activities during the year This is designed primarily as an internal document for informal sharing across the various regional offices.

Participatory Workshop to Produce a Publication on Environmental Education in china

IIRR has been working in the Guanxi province with the State Education Commission for the past two years. One of the major activities in 1996 was a workshop conducted primarily to produce an environmental textbook for use in rural vocational schools. Some 22 Chinese authors were involved. The workshop received funding from the Starr Foundation and World Wide Fund for Nature.

China has some very major environmental concerns and papers were prepared on 37 varied topics covering ecological concepts (e.g. biodiversity, habitat), ecosystems (e.g. forests, lakes), livelihoods (e.g. brick making, paper industry) and other special topics (e.g. chemical fertilizers, nature reserves).

The next step is the training of local teachers in the use of these materials. IIRR staff will return to China in 1997 for this activity. Given the dearth of existing environmental education material in China, it is expected the textbook will be well received and will be used in other Provinces as well. A central objective of the textbook is to influence young minds towards sustainable development strategies that will help conserve China's natural resources.

This is the second IlRR publication which is designed for use in the school system Guanxi. The previous publication, also supported by the Starr Foundation focussed on Environmental health issues. That publication is already in use in the Guanxi Educational system

CRS PRA Training

IIRR is currently engaged in a collaborative project with the Catholic Relief Services (CRS/Cambodia) entitled "Sustainable Agriculture and Integrated Farming in Svay Teap". IIRR is mandated to provide technical support to the project which is executed by the CRS, and funded in part by CEBEMO.

IIRR sent four of its staff to Cambodia late February to mid-March to conduct a training on Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) for the CRS project staff, interested LGU' s and NGOs working in Svay Rieng. Part of the training, induced the actual conduct of PRA' s in the three projects sites where the training participants engaged in the whole PRA process assisted by the llRR trainers.

This Cambodia initiative is expected to generate enthusiasm among other NGOs in the use of PRA. IIRR is also providing other forms of technical support to the CRS project in Cambodia. In addition to PRA, IIRR undertook two other technical mission including one on Water Resources Development in Svay Rieng.

Philippines: Appropriate Community Health Model Project

We do not have to go farther to seek health services or buy medicines said the villagers of Pinagsanhan A and B in Maragondon, Cavite. Farther, would mean crossing a rickety hanging bridge that connects the village to the poblacion, walking a kilometer to the Rural Health Unit and waiting for half an hour or half to see the doctor. This is slowly changing with the trainings, supervision and technical assistance provided by the project (Appropriate Community Health Model) to Volunteer Community Health Workers in three villages of Cavite. Trained volunteer Community Health Workers in Pinagsanhan A and B in Maragondon and Tua, Magallanes provide regular health services to the villagers through the weekly opening of their Barangay Health Station and home visits. Other projects are also being undertaken by different sectoral groups to address various concerns of the villagers. This activity is supported by the Lutheran World Relief Service (LWR).

Primary Cooperatives Manage the children's Program in Bicol, Philippines

There are a total of 13 day care centers day care with one extension in the 13 rural villages in the municipality of Sto. Domingo, Albay. The total number of enrollees for the schoolyear 1996 was 338. The goal of the program is to promote total development (motor, social, emotional and intellectual development) of children in the rural areas. This is achieved through the continuos and sustained implementation of nutrition and health activities, early childhood care and parent-education with active participation of parents and people's organizations (coops) in coordination with local government units, NGOs, GO' s and civic organizations.

The Day Care program started in five rural villages in 1989, another five in 1990 and the three others in 1991. The second phase of funding support was for the years 1992 - 1994 and the third phase will end by May 1997.

The program is directly managed and implemented by the 13 primary cooperatives. The cooperative federation, called the Sto. Domingo People's Cooperative provides overall management and coordination of the program. Two CP workers (CPW) manage the day-to-day activities of the centers. Three cluster coordinators trained by the project provide the technical guidance and supervision to the CPW' s.

The institutionalization of the day care program was the main focus for the year 1996. Negotiation and accreditation of the program with the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) is being finalized. In preparation for phase out, guidelines for CP operations and curricula are being completed. This project was started with support from German Agro Action

(DWW). The local government units provide supplementary financial support to the operations. The rural health units conduct regular medical and dental examination to the children. The Barangay Council have allocated some village funds for repair of the centers. International nongovernment organizations like the Helen Keller international provide supplies like Vitamin A. llRR is expected to finally hangover all operations to local cooperatives within 1997.

HIV/AIDS Education in Rural Communities

IIRR has developed some strategic approaches to rural aids-education in the Philippines, utilizing participatory approaches. A pilot project was undertaken in collaboration with the Health Committee of KASAKA (an acronym for the people's federation in Cavite) in five villages. Today, this project had expanded to 7 other villages. The Health Committee continues to provide HIV/AIDS education among their own villagers. The efforts of the Health Committee were recognized by the Philippine HIV/AIDS Network Support (PHANSUP) as being innovative and appropriate. Its one of the few AlDs project that uses community-based approaches (as opposed to activities targeted to specific groups e.g. sex workers, truck drivers etc. Efforts to scale up these efforts through an IIRR partnership with PRRM is also being pursued (see below). The project is now entering into its third phase.

HIV/AIDS Education In Rural Communities: PRRM and IIRR Experiences:

The pilot model in Cavite was adopted in three more provinces - Cavite

(coastal areas), Bulacan and Zambales covering 22 villages, mostly coastal communities and indigenous groups. The project is primarily spearheaded by the Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM) with IIRR staff serving as technical consultants. Participatory action research approaches are used. Local concepts of AlDs and AlDs-related concerns and risk behaviors were identified. The results became the basis for communication planning and implementation in two provinces. Locality specific materials were developed as prototypes. In one province, testing of the existing print-media materials (published by the Department of Health and other NGOs) was conducted. Mass media messages were also reviewed. lLO Safety Series: Practical Guidelines in the Extension of Occupational

Health services to Workers in the Agricultural Sector:

IIRR was commissioned by the International Labor Organization Geneva, Switzerland to write a manual on the "Practical Guidelines in the Extension of Occupational Health Services to Workers in the Agricultural Sector". IlRR has completed the second draft of the guidelines and sent this to Geneva.

Joint Course with the National Institute of Rural Development, in Hyderabad, on Rural Environment and Sanitation

The Institute, in collaboration with the National Institute of Rural Development (NIRD) of India, conducted a course on Planning and Management of Rural Development from March 4- April 28, 1996. The eight week course had two venues:5 weeks in India and three weeks in the

Philippines Each year themes would vary. This year, the theme was rural environment and sanitation. Eighteen (18) participants, 14 Indians, one Thai , three Filipinos attended. It is the 12th course carried out by the NIRD in India The previous courses were primarily national. This is the first course which NIRD conducted with a collaborating institute outside of India and with international participants included. Most of the participants were high level officials in the administrative and civil services, from various parts of India. The course was funded by ODA.

While sanitation was a clear-cut part of this year's theme, the term rural environment included other aspects of social development which are directly concerned with the quality of life, like safe drinking water, primary health care, nutrition, child care and awareness building through literacy campaign and adult education.

International Course on Systems in Community Managed Health

This was the third year IIRR undertook to offer a course on Community Managed Health. In June 1996, there were 20 participants from eight countries (Cambodia, India, Philippines, Mongolia, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Nepal and China). The course was designed to broaden the understanding of the dynamics of community managed health systems as a means of achieving the goal of "Health for All"; and the role of development organizations in establishing and maintaining these systems.

Participants represented a range of backgrounds in community health: development managers of rural health programs with at least 5 years experience working with people's groups; members of the NGO community advocating for the integration of health into development programs; staff of government agencies who would like to orient their work in support of community health initiatives .

Support for Disadvantaged Areas In Vietnam :Vietnam-Sweden Health Programme

The Support for Disadvantaged Areas (SDA), a five year project under Vietnam Sweden Health Cooperation Programme conducted Participatory Rapid Appraisal (PRA) in its first year of operations. The PRA not only identified problems and needs but was found to be an excellent way to build confidence between the health staff and the local population. However, it became evident that a clearly defined strategy for improving PRA skills of provincial and district resource persons was required.

IIRR support was requested to discuss and assist in the development of a long term plan for PRA applications in the SDA. This initial consultancy led to three training/consultancies in Vietnam (April 30 May 18; August 16-September 4; November 6-26, 1996) plus a study program to the Philippines of selected SDA partners (March 10-31, 1996). IIRR will continue to support the Ministry of Health in Vietnam in 1 997.

Postharvest Technology Development-Vietnam

This collaborative project with VACVINA, the National Association of Gardeners in Vietnam, started in July 1996 with support of the McKnight Foundation. It aims to enable Vietnamese rural households to increase income from their gardens and farms by promoting appropriate, postharvest handling technologies. Threerovinces-Bac Three provinces-Bac Thai , Hung and Nam Ha all in the Northern part of Vietnam were selected for this project. Topical PRA focusing on postharvestrelated issues was conducted in three communes one in each province. Fifty households from each commune were selected to participate i', the project. A baseline survey was conducted in the selected communes and relevant information gathered from a total of 150 households. Based on the results of the PRA and the baseline survey a training design on postharvest handling of garden produce was developed for VACVINA field staff and participating households. A validation of the identified traditional postharvest handling practices is on-going.

International Roving Course on Household Food Security Through Home Gardening-Vietnam

Togcther with The National Home Gardeners Associations of Vietnam (VACVINA) IIRR conducted a three-week Regional Course on Household Food Security Throgh Home Gardening. The roving training course included classroom and field sessions in Nam I la and Bac Thai Provinces. People from three countries participated in the training. Participants were able to lean, from farmers and gardeners in what is one of the more intensive household food production systems in S.E. Asia. Participants reamed from field exposure and direct interaction with farmers in three different ecosystems.

Community-based Watershed Management Project Marinduque-Philippines

In January 1996 IIRR and the Philippines Rural Reconstruction Movement with support from German Agro Action initiated community-based Watershed Management Project in Marinduque, Philippines. The project covers 469 farm families on 3 133 hectares located in three micro-watersheds. The project seeks to improve agricultural production income and environmental conditions through efficient use of land and water resources and improve the capability of residents to work together for sustainable resource use and management. The project has completed Participatory Rural Appraisals in three micro-watersheds established nurseries for agroforestry and initiated community organizing activities with the residents.

Regional Watershed Management I Training for Africa |

A regional watershed management training for Africa was conducted from May 26-31 at IlRRs Africa s Regional Office (ARO) in Nairobi Kenya This was the first course on this topic was offered by IIRR in the region. The purpose of the training was to provice an opportunity for project-level planners field level staff and technicians to learn the application of the watershed approach to resource management. Thirteen participants representing 10 NGOs from Kenya Ethiopa and Somalia attended the training. The course included classroom sessions and field exercises at Londaraik Area Development Programme in Kajiado District of Kenya.

Natural Resource Management Assessment and Watershed Management Training-Ethiopia

For three weeks in December IIRR Silang staff supported Africa Regional Office and Ethiopia Country Office staff on the IIRR-PACT Ethiopian NGO

Capacity Building Project. IIRR staff conducted assessments of the natural resource management programs of nine NGOs in the Rural Development and Food Security Cluster. One of the outputs of the three week mentoring was the identification of specific mentoring activities such as the development of reaming centers, short-tern technical assistance and potential collaborative projects. Afterward, a five day training on Watershed and Natural Resource Management was conducted. Seventeen participants from 16 organizations (both NGO and GO) participated in the training course. The course began with a leveling off of the role of watershed management and natural resource management in the Ethiopian context. Principles of watershed management, sustainable agriculture and food security were then covered. Field visits were conducted to two project sites that have implemented various watershed management interventions. Participants prepared and present their own action plans that incorporated what they had reamed into to their existing work plans.

Regional Capacity Building Program on Integrated Conservation and Development (ICDP)

In 1996, IIRR began curriculum development and training support activities for this Bangkok-based regional project of the WWF-International. This project focuses on building the capacity of WWF's partner in Asia in addressing the integration of conservation -and human needs (a major issue confronting conservation organizations). IlRR continued to be represented on the Project's Core Group along with the six other members. The twenty participants selected for the project underwent two training, workshops conducted in 1996. The first focused on ICDP planning and was held in Nepal in

March. The second training workshop (the last of three) on ICDP in Action was held in Cagayan de Oro, Philippines in October. A draft ICDP training manual was produced and presented to the participants of the training workshops for their review and comment. Lessons reamed from this program were applied to the development and implementation of the first IIRR International Course on Integrated Conservation and Development held in October.

Coastal Management Training Program

IIRR staff continued to support the National Integrated Coastal Zone Management Project led by the Haribon Foundation and funded by the Rockefeller Brothers Fund. Because the role of IIRR in the project is on impact evaluation (which will take place in 1997) the IIRR input in 1996 was limited to training evaluation and the development and revision of three modules for the course . IIRR continued to serve on the Organizing Committee. The Publications Unit of IIRR formatted the modules in preparation for the courses offered by the project. IIRR Will be the venue for the Training of Trainers program in Silang, with staff providing critical training-management inputs.

The Norwegian Church Aid - Supported AIDS Programme in Thailand: An Evaluation

IIRR was invited to be part of an evaluation team to assess a 4-year AIDS programme in Thailand. The approach of the program included people-oriented HIV prevention/education, integration of HIV activities into existing development projects, networking, counseling and community-based care. Main focal groups have been persons at risk for HIV infection in the project areas. Cooperating partners in the programme include public health institutions churches and youth organizations. NCA also intends to utilize the findings in their involvement in Vietnam and Laos

Gender and Sustainable Development [raining

A training consultancy was carried out upon the request of Christian Outreach International (COR)Cambodia for their field staff in the Agricultural Business and Community Development (ABC D) Project in Prey Veng Province Cambodia. A three day training curriculum was specifically designed to enhanced the understanding of the importance of gender perspectives in development processes and its systematic integration in research project planning and implementation.

National consultation on the IFPRI | 2020 Vision

This one-day consultation organized by IIRR allowed Philippine-based NGO s the opportunity to discuss the 2020 Vision and research reports produced by the international Food Policy Research Institute Washington D. C. The Director General Per Pinstrup Anderson and Senior Research Associate David Nygaard presented an overview of the 2020 Vision and served as resource persons for the consultation.

National Consultation with the NGO committee of the consultative Group on International Agricultural Research

Members of the newly formed NGO Committee for the Consultative Group on international Agricultural Research met with Philippine-based NGOs. IIRR helped organize the meeting. The consultation was meant to provide NGOs an opportunity to provide input to the NGO Committee on issues related to the work the Intemational Agricultural Research Centers (lARCs). The NGO Committee also sought input from the NGOs as to what role the Committee would play vis-a-vis the NGOs and lARCs.

Regenerative Agriculture Kit Workshop Ecuador

The Regional Office for Latin America and IIRR Silang staff facilitated a national workshop to produce a Spanish language publication on regenerative agriculture technologies for the Andean region of Ecuador. More than 100 government and NGO extension workers farmer association members agricultural researchers and farmers participated. They presented practical field-based experiences on the development and use of natural resource management strategies to increase farm productivity in the Andean region. The publication will be widely used in Ecuador by the government extension system NGO programs and farmer training activities. Many of the experiences in the publication are also relevant to similar agroecological and socio-economic conditions found in Peru Bolivia and Colombia.

Publication on Use of Green Manures/Cover Crop & in central America

IIRRs Regional Office for Latin America and IIRR Silang in collaboration with partner organizations from Honduras (CIDDICCO COSECHA World Neighbors and COMMUNICA) and Cornell University facilitated a regional workshop to produce a Spanish-language publication on the use of green manures and cover crops based on experiences from Central America and Mexico. This workshop brought together more than 25 representatives (field extension workers, researchers and farmers) from Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Mexico. During the workshop, participants shared their practical, field-based experiences With the introduction and use of green manures/cover crops in small-scale farming scale farming systems in the region. Copies of this Spanish language publication will be widely distributed throughout the Central American region.

Book from the Farmer-led Extension Workshop

In 1995, IIRR ODI and World Neighbors coordinated an international workshop on farmer-led extension methodologies. More than 70 participants from Asia, Africa, Latin America, Europe and North America participated in the workshop and contributed more than 40 case studies of field-based experiences on farmer-led extension. A book planned for publication aims to present an edited compilation of the case experiences and some of the outputs of the workshop. With the assistance of IIRR staff, manuscript were brought to the final stages in 1996 and is currently being considered for publication by IT Press in the UK. The book is scheduled to come out. as a joint IlRR/ODI/World Neighbors publication.

Paraveterinary Medicine: An Info-kit I on Low Cost Health Care Practices

These manuals (four in all) have been written with the simplest language possible for the convenience of the intended user-the animal health practitioners or "para vets" working in isolated rural communities. It is not designed to be a complete veterinary medicine reference material.

The manuals are based upon experiences documented through a series of intensive field work activities over a one-year period with a group of livestock smallholders living and working in Cavite province of the Philippines. The manuals were first produced in a draft from in early 1994. The manuals were then pretested by a group of small-scale animal producers in June of that year. The field activities and printing were completed in 1996 with support from the Canada-Fund Philippines.

Environmentally Sound Technologies for Women in Agriculture

The International Federation for Women in Agriculture (IFWA), New Delhi and the International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR) Silang, Cavite, Philippines jointly produced these simple, science-based resource materials which could be used by female and male extension workers. The result is a manual of 60 simple environmentally sound technologies which will help reduce drudgery and increase efficiency while helping to maintain a clean end healthy environment.

The manual was produced using a modified version of an approach developed by IIRR to prepare information and training materials quickly and efficiently. Topics were solicited from auto experts all over India. They represent national institutes such as the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi; the National Dairy Research Institute, Kamal; the Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Bombay; Haryana Agricultural University, Delhi University and several other agencies. A number of manuscripts were also contributed by respected NGOs Still others were gleaned from published works. The raw manuscripts were presented, critiqued and revised in a six-day editorial and illustration workshop in New Delhi in June 1995. The revised manuscripts were taken to lIRRs headquarter in the Philippines where they were edited laid out and scrutinized again by IFWA and IIRR specialists. The camera-ready product was then sent to India for printing in 1996. This activity was funded by lDRC and Citibank . The materials are currently in use in almost every state in India. A Hindi version is being considered.

Other Publications

Other publications which saw print in 1996 were: Amlig (magazine for the Northem Negros Forest Reserve Project), SEASAN Newsletters and the Uplands Update (A CFTU newsletter)

Two publication were carmera ready, awaiting printing . These are Recording and Using Indigenous Knowledge and the International Sharing, our alumni newsletter.

The production of Manual de Practical Agroecologicas de los Andes Ecuatorianos (Ecuadorian Andes Manual) was coordinated in Ecuador.

The rest of the year was devoted to coordinating the preparations for the production of the following kits for 1997: South Asia Dryland Agriculture Kit, Participatory Methods for Community-Based Coastal Resources Management , Livelihood Options for Coastal CommunitiesComn7unih'es- Volume 11, Bangladesh Aquaculture kit, Indigenous Mother and Child Health Care Practices in Asia, Environmental Health: Resource Book for Community Health Workers.

Learning Resource Center

A total listing of 7,000 periodical articles and 2,600 books/videos titles were encoded and stored in the computer for fast and easy accessing by the staff. New materials were also acquired as well. A total of 150 books, 225 monographs, 700 journal issues and 18 video tapes were added to the library collections.

A special section on participatory reaming and indigenous knowledge materials was also set-up . Bibliographic listings on participatory rural development and agriculture were also prepared. This listings are given to international training participants as references. A special collection of videos provides walk-in visitor opportunities for self reaming IlRRs Larding. Centre is now affiliated to the IIED (UK). Global program on Participatory learning.

General Profile of the Institutes Global

Education and Training Activities

Of the 58 training activities undertaken by the Institute in 1996, in the regions, 22 were held in Asia, 13 were held in Africa, 7 in Latin America and 16 in the headquarters. We had an aggregate of 989 participants, 757 male and 232 female. These courses were conducted in 10 countries. There were 8 international training courses, 8 regional training courses, 17 customized courses, 6 study tours, 2 kit production workshops, 12 local training courses.

The following content areas were covered (figures in brackets indicates the number of courses):

a) Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security


b) Rural Development Management


c) Strategic Planning


d) Training Management


e) Environmental Management


f) PRA


g) Participatory Monitoring an Evaluation


h) Health


i) Others (CRM, DevCom, Gender and IK)


A substantial expansion in IIRRs Regional training activities were noted in 1996

| Bangladesh: Improving Training l | Capacities l

IIRR worked with its alumni networks in Bangaldesh (BARRA) in a number of training-capacity building or improvement efforts. Training experts from IIRR assisted in the following

1) The development of the Curriculum for Training of Trainers in Sustainable Agriculture (funded by ICCO).

2) A workshop on Participatory Training Methodology for Sustainable Agriculture (funded by ICCO).

3) An evaluation of Training Courses on Sustainable Agriculture (funded by PRIP).


LAOS: Reorienting an agricultural school

IIRR staff conducted two technical missions in Savanakhet in 1996. The first was a feasibility study followed by a planning mission to help develop a proposal to convert a Secondary Agricultural School into a Regional Training Center for rural development. The proposal was developed through participatory workshops with the stakeholders. The IIRR staff visited Laos twice for this purpose. IIRR has been requested to play a key role in sourcing the funds and implementing this three-year project.

Vietnam Growing IIRR contributions

a) Three training courses on the use of PRA in health were conducted for the staff of a bilateral health project in disadvantaged areas. A manual (draft) on PRA training in health was developed as a result of the courses (described elsewhere).

b) Another training, on participatory project management, was facilitated in Hue for an NGO.

c) IIRR helped organize regional and national workshops on Social Forestry. Three staff were involved, one for three months at a stretch, and other two for month and a half. These activities included documentation of the workshops.

d) ClDSE-Vietnam was assisted in its program review . The exercise took two week and entailed visits to project sites.

e) At the request of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, two staff facilitated a workshop each at the provincial and district level. The workshop aimed at helping provincial and district extensions on their strategic directions.

f) A study program was conducted in the Philippines for officials from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development).

Ethiopian NGO Sector Enhancement Project

IIRR has been a partner with PACT/E in the implementation of the project. That relationship was formalized in their Partnership Agreement signed on October 20, 1995 for the period from July 31, 1995 through December 31, 1997.

In recognition of IIRRs substantial Ethiopian experience since the early '90's and rural development management and food security expertise. PACT partnered with IIRR to design and deliver a series of training programs and technical assistance missions to NGOs involved in the rural development /food security. IIRR currently has 12 NGOs which are participating in a variety of different training and assistance programs. In additions to conducting Organizational Capacity Assesment (OCA) of each of the participating NGOs, IIRR followed up with a mentoring and training program to address the identified needs. lIRR also provided technical and mentoring and training inputs on gender, watershed management and food security issues. PACT will provide small, direct assistance grants to assist these NGOs in implementing the findings/recommendations in the agency specific OCA's (or for project ideas emanating from the trainings).

Ethonoveterinary Medicine in Kenya

This book was compiled through an intensive, participatory workshop in July 1996. Overall administrative and technical management of the project was performed by a committee composed of staff from IIRR, Intermediate Tecimology Kenya (IT), the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) and the Kenya Resource Center for Indigenous Knowledge (KENRIK) of the National Museums of Kenya.

This workshop involved 40 veterinary, medical researchers, educators, development workers, field practitioners and traditional animal healers (14 ethnic groups were presented). Some came with topic papers already prepared, while others brought reference documents, herbal remedy samples and other materials. The workshop staff consisted of coordinators, 3 editors, 4 artists and computer operators.

Participatory Planning Skills for Local Governments

IIRR has been engaged in a nine month effort to provide technical assistance on the Training -of- facilitators in Participatory Planning for officials and staff of local governments of Nueva Ecija in the Philipines. This was developed upon the request of the Philippine Rural Institutional Strengthening Program (PRISP) for the European Union. The training program started July 1996 and will end in April 1997. Representatives from PRISP-Nueva Ecija, the Central Luzon University and IIRR met on several occasions to discuss and design this training program. It is designed for the Municipal Planning and Development Coordinators, Heads and staff of line agencies at the municipal level, representatives of the Sangguniang Bayan and the Barangay Captains of pilot barangays in the municipalities of Gabaldon Cuyapo and Karangalan.

The purpose of the series of training of activities was to foster an attitude for participatory work and broaden the technical knowledge and skills of participants in participatory planning. At the end of training program it is expected that participants would have gained and demonstrated skills in facilitating the formulation of a barangay strategic development plan following the participatory planning process. It is also expected that participants would have identified the steps and the process upon which the plans will be applied at the municipal level.

Besides assisting in the overall training design lIRR also assisted in training management and the provision of on-site follow-up technical assistance in the three pilot villages in each of the three municipalities. Participants were also exposed to llRRs previous work in Cavite and Negros. Training materials were packaged for future use.

IIRR had programmatic agenda in partnering with PRISP. First working with PRISP gave IIRR the opportunity to share lessons it gained in working with communities and local governments in Cavite Bicol and Negros Occidental. Second it allowed llRR to contribute to developing a cadre of development workers who will enable people to actively participate in planning for their development. Third it contributed to IIRR learning on the practice of people's participation in a scale beyond the village and in the context of government. Fourth lessons that IIRR will gain from PRISP have relevance and possibly immediate application in other countries it works with This includes Vietnam and the People's Republic of China where the governments are in search for participatory approaches for local government planning

IIRR transfers assets and operations to a local interlining cooperative federation (PAMANA)

IIRR and PAMANA signed a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for the complete transfer of operations and assets to PAMANA a Cavite-based cooperative federation. This took place last December 20 1996.

Prior to the signing of the MOA, PAMANA and IIRR were engaged in several meetings and activities to ensure a smooth transition and to provide focused technical support in specific areas (organizational assessment financial management etc.).

PAMANA enjoyed a tremendous improvement in financial performance following their restructuring implementation of their new strategic plan. PAMANA's return on performing assets and portfolio yield increased steadily over the reporting year.

The 1996 estimate suggest that PAMANA achieved a net income of 304 000 which 90% of the target and represented a 450% increase over 1995 income. This was particularly impressive considering that PAMANA incurred 36% increase in operating expenses following its re-structuring.

For its credit extension and collection PAMANA showed improved performance in both aspects. There was a 500% increase in the number of loans and with a collection over 40% higher in 1996 than in 1995. This in spite of the continued poor re-payments by the cooperatives whose loans account for 15% of the total loan portfolio.

With the acceptance of the non cooperative member applications and its other new credit policies, PAMANA reached more end borrowers especially those considered as coming from the very poor. There was a notable 200% increase in the amount of loans received by the very poor which represented 15% of the total loan releases for the 1996 against the 6% in 1995. Also, 55% of PAMANA's short tern, saving was noted as comma for the group borrowers coming from the very poor.

While PAMANA has moved towards greater levels of financial sustainability and operational efficiency, it cannot remain complacent. There are at least three major challenges: (1) the internal tension between its credit and social development: (2) the increasing competition from other lenders of the provinces: and (3) sustaining its positive performance in 1996 particularly in recovering loans from cooperative.

IIRR was instrumental in establishing PAMANA (with the support from German Agro Action) and in providing technical and financial assistance for over a decade.

Consultancies: Providing Strategic Support

IIRR provided technical support to over 20 organizations in 1996 in Cambodia, Bangladesh, Laos, Thailand, Nepal, Vietnam, Philippines, Laos, Thailand, Nepal, Vietnam, Philippines, Ethiopia, Ecuador and Kenya. Over 25 consultancies were conducted which allowed IIRR an opportunity to provide strategic support and also resulted in additional revenues in 1996,


IIRR Major Activities for 1997 International institute of Rural Reconstruction

Y.C. James Yen Center, Silang, Cavite,



This document provides an overview of some of IlRR's planned activities in Africa, Latin America, and Asia In 1997. An effort has been made to provide the reader with information on the nature, range and scope of IIRR's global program. As such, only a selection of IIRR's activities in 1997 are presented in this document.

Reproductive health and communication: en Afro-Asia exchange in Ethiopia

IIRR is organizing an international conference entitled

Reproductive Health and Communication at the Grassroots: African and Asian Experiences, 12-16th May 1997 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The conference, organized in collaboration with the Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia, will bring together 50 participants from Ash and Africa to share and enrich each others' experiences. A resource manual will be produced featuring successful strategies and lessons on reproductive health and communication. The activity is supported by DGIS (the Netherlands) DANIDA and Lutheran World Relief

Integrated Waterthed Managements roving workshop in India

India has some of the most valuable experiences on watershed management in the developing world. These efforts involve NGOs, governments and universities actively involved in field level implementation of integrated approaches to conserve water and soil, restore vegetative cover and regenerate the productivity of small farms and common property resources. There are regions of the world like Indo China and Africa which could benefit from India's experience. IIRR and OUTREACH, Bangalore, India, have teamed up to promote South-South learning. They will offer a course on watershed management in 1998. Preparatory activities in 1997 will include visits to many field projects in different parts of India. Water is becoming a critical issue and, crop and livestock productivity is expected to be adversely affected in years to come in South Asia, Indo China and Sub Saharan Africa. Thus, this course is considered timely. IIRR continues to respond to changing situations and needs by offering new courses and innovative methodologies.


IIRR South Asia office established in Nepal

IIRR has established a now office m Kathmandu, Nepal to be responsible for the South Asia region. The initial focus of the office will be on Nepal-specific collaborative field projects and training activities. IIRR will work with the Bangladesh Rural Reconstruction Alumni Association, BARRA, m sustainable agriculture and ICIMOD in mountain agriculture. One of the regional office's initial activities was a Training of Trainers. Later this year, IIRR health staff will visit Nepal to desing and seek funding support for a collaborative project with Rural Reconstruction Nepal This will be an ecosystems based health project in the Terai, Mid Hills and Mountain regions.

Training of Trainers

IIRR has been organizing and conducting training courses at its headquarters in the Philippines for nearly 30 years. Participants from over 75 countries have benefited from these courses in the 1990-1996 period alone. The International Course on Rural Development Management (ICRDM) is now being offered twice a year to respond to growing demand. This course evolved from the Regional Leadership Training Course that was offered in the fifties. Other new courses are more content-specific and respond to current interests. They too, concentrate on participatory and people-centered approaches. Recently, IIRR has towards greater emphasis on methodologies. The Training of Trainers in Sustainable Agriculture which IIRR hopes to conduct for the- first time in 199? will reflect this shift. The course will be conducted with the support of the Dutch government.

IIRR staff will work with the Institute of Development Studies in Sussex and the Philippine PRA network m designing a Training of Trainers PRA course to take place in 1998.

During 1997, IIRR will work to design and develop a course examining different enterprise development approaches. This will be offered in 1998.

Finally, in 1999, IIRR hopes to offer an International Course on Training of Trainers which will focus on tested approaches and recent innovations in training strategy, participatory methodology and evaluation. Work towards developing all these courses will be undertaken m 1997. en m 1997.


Farmer Participatory Research

IIRR is providing on-going technical assistance to several NGOs and firmer organizations in their efforts to adopt farmer participatory research in their work with communities. The aim is that, through participatory research, farmers will improve agricultural production to ensure food security, improved health, and sustainable management of natural resources.

Process Documentation Research in

Coastal Resources Management


IIRR was invited by the Asia Foundation (AF) assist in Process Documentation Research (PDR) that focused on community-based coastal resources management. This involved working with Tambuyog and Phildhrra, two of Ad's partners in the Philippines. The results of the study were presented to the main partner agencies and IIRR staff earlier in 1997. While there were the usual concerns that the PDR would be used primarily to rate staff and measure project performance, its value as a learning tool was also highlighted. The maintenance of partnerships by capitalizing on the particular strengths of each partner was emphasized. The final report of the PDR is now with the two implementing agencies and will be used in planning future initiatives.

Workshop to produce a kit on the Resource Management in the Rainfed Drylands in India

IIRR recently organized, a major workshop in Bangalore to compile experiences on resource management in the rain fed dryland in India. This was in collaboration with MYRADA, an Indian NGO. The two-week workshop held in January, brought together representatives from Indian universities, research stations and NGOs. Desktop publishing staff and editors were provided during the workshop to allow participants to revise their papers based on critical reviews and comments from their peers. The workshop was funded by the Swiss Development Cooperation and ODA (UK). Activities preparatory to the workshop were supported by The Ford Foundation as part of another joint project with MYRADA .The kit which is in the final production stage, features field tested practices. It is expected to respond to current information needs of India where many cultivated lands are in various stages of degradation.


Small-scale aquaculture: earning from farmers in Thailand and Vietnam

Small-scale aquaculture as an intervention to augment income and improve family nutrition, has not received adequate attention from the development agencies and NGOs in particular. Food security, income generation and environmental conservation can be addressed through appropriate integrated systems. Some of the best experiences are found in Thailand and Vietnam To promote such approaches more widely, IIRR collaborated with the Asian Institute of Technology in Thailand to organize a roving workshop on small-cede acquaculture scheduled by mid 1997.

Asia wide workshop on Occupational Health and Safety

Much has been achieved in the area of industrial safety and the improvement of health conditions of industrial workers. But the rural sector remains grossly neglected.- The problems are of concern to those- involved-in agriculture, environment and health sectors. Despite the fact that environmental health problems continues to plague thousands in most developing countries, it has received little support from the donor community. IIRR has identified a sub program sector that focuses on this aspect. IIRR hopes to organize a 5 day workshop focusing on the problems of agricultural workers, plantation workers, fisherfolk and other unorganized sectors. IIRR will partner with Participatory Research in Asia, (PRIA), and other local institutions for this activity to be held in India.The workshop will involve government, NGOs, research "d academic institutions. IIRR has already assembled a list of interested participants from six countries while funding is still being in sought.

Micro credit project

In 1996, IIRR and ACT, together implemented the second year of the micro credit project to test and refine the ACT methodology implemented in Guatemala. The second year of the operation contributed to the further refinement of the ACT methodology, especially in' its legal structure. Major changes should improve legal components of the project which will continue during 1997 in five rural towns in Ecuador.

Aquaculture for food security and income generation: new project in Mindoro, Philippines

IIRR continues its efforts to develop and test alternative filed level approaches and technologies for rural development m the Philippines. The Institute plans to start a new small scale aquaculture project in Mindoro. The project demonstrates and promotes a wide range of aquaculture options relevant to different ecosystems. IIRR has promoted aquaculture for many years, as part of its work on rice-based production systems in Cavite and - in Negros. This new project will be one of IIRR's larger and more systematic efforts in the field of small-scale aquaculture.

Confirmation of GAA's support is expected in 1997.

Farmer led extension: IIRR,world

Neighbors and Cornell to collaborate on a new international course

Conventional extension systems have focused on the technology transfer model and have tended to be technician-centered. These systems have often neglected environmental and gender concerns and have not been particularly effective in risk-prone, diverse and resource-poor areas. Emerging alternatives that focus on the role that fanners can play have gained wide attention. In 1995, IIRR, ODI and WN, organized a major international workshop as a venue to share and exchange successes and problems. A publication is expected sometime in 1997. The Knowledge shared in the 1995 workshop will be combined with IlRR's own experience in using the farmer scholar approach for the International Course on Farmer-led Extension to be offered in 1997. The course content is being designed with the full participation of Carnell University faculty and World Neighbors, "other institution with a long history of promoting people" centered approaches. The course will take place at IlRR's Silang campus from October 20 to November 7.

Participatory Research With Farmers

In 1996, the IPRA project was continued in collaboration with FIASCO, with financial and technical assistance from CIAT (International

Center for Tropical Agriculture). CIAT is an international research center member of the CGIAR system. The project consists of training and follow-up activities to various local organizations in participatory research with farmers. The various components of the project allow extension workers to learn with farmers. The extension workers will learn how to facilitate the farmers' identification of production or natural resource management problems in the community. They will train farmers to conduct applied research to solve the problems that they identify. Six groups of farmers are conducting participatory research with the support of IlRR's partners in Ecuadorian highlands.


Farmer-to-Farmer Training Program in Andean Agroecology

This program consists of the implementation of several courses on sustainable agriculture by indigenous farmers themselves. JIM's role is to coordinate the program, allowing several communities and farmer organizations to contact and visit each others' successful experiences. 70 courses are planned to be organized and offered by farmers themselves as a way to promote food security and the conservation of natural resources.

A new environmental management course

Conserving biodiversity and promoting social and economic development at the same place and time is not easy and yet this is the goal of an increasing number of integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs). For the second consecutive year, IIRR will offer a four week course on planning and implementing ICDP projects in and around protected areas. In the conduct of courses, IIRR will capitalize on its own staff resources and those of numerous institutions based in the Philippines which are engaged in ICDP work model. The course will feature issues related to integrated conservation development, conservation-oriented livelihood options and participatory approaches for planning, monitoring and evaluation of ICDPs.

IIRR is engaged in another (three-year) project led by World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) to strengthen integrated conservation and development program in the Asia Pacific region and the lessons from this project will also be incorporated in the international course.

Systems in Community Managed Health

This course is already in its fourth year. Participants represent a range of experiences in community health. They are development managers of rural health programs with at least 5 years experience working with people's groups; members of the NGO community advocating for the integration of health Into development programs; staff of government agencies who would like their efforts to become more supportive of community health initiatives; and others whose interest and concerns focus on community managed health. The course is designed to broaden the understanding of (i) the dynamics of community managed health systems as a means of achieving the goal of "Health for All" and (ii) the role: development organizations play in establishing and maintaining these systems.

Pan-American Health Organization(PAHO)

IIRR is providing consultancy services to PAHO for the participatory design and implementation of the pilot phase of a national rural : environmental sanitation program IIRR staff provides training and: follow-up to PAHO staff and partners in the use of participatory tools for the identification and selection of interested communities, program planning and implementation. The pilot phase will be conducted in five communities in the Azuay province. The resulting set of participatory methodologies will I be used to implement the rational level project.

Catholic Relief Services (CRS)

IIRR will continue supporting the systematization process of A CRS integrated maternal/child health and community banks in 10 communities of the Latacunga region. The project's main objectives are to improve mothers; and children's, health and nutrition. The establishment of' community banks is to encourage the sustainability of the project. IIRR supports- CRS staff by facilitating systematic reflection and learning processes of the project. Lessons learned are fed back into the Project in an on-going basis to improve performance.

Ecuadorian National Research Organization (INIAP)

IIRR is leading the process of documenting and publishing two major sustainable agriculture technologies developed by INIAP in the last eight years, which l diminish losses of potato production, the main staple crop in Ecuador.

Training of Trainers for the

Coastal Resource


Training Project

For two years DOW, IIRR in collaboration with the Haribon Foundation and other Philippine-based organizations, has been part of the project team for a Coastal Resource Management Training Project. IIRR's role is to develop evaluation instruments and put together the resource materials for a series of training courses for coastal management practitioners in the Philippines. After having assessed three conducted courses, the project team concluded that there is a need to enhance the skills of its trainers toward more participatory methods of training. The Haribon Foundation has requested IIRR to design a Training of Trainers of CRMTP in May 1997. CRMTP is funded by the Rockefeller Brothers Fund.

Joint UNEP-IIRR and DENR Environmental Management Seminar Southeast Asia 1997

This seminar undertaken at the request of UNEP, is one of a number attempts to raise the awareness and capabilities of environmental managers in Southeast Asia. Twenty senior environmental decision makers from both government and non-government organizations are invited to attend from each of the ASEAN nations. The seminar seeks to present cutting edge thinking, technologies and solutions which allow environmental managers to address their needs. It will promote an ecosystems approach to environmental management as presented by the actual managers of successful regional initiatives. It will also further regional and national cooperation toward implementation of action plans produced by each participant. The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) has previously sponsored such Environmental Management Seminars in Africa and South Asia.

Promotion of Sustainable Agriculture in the Secondary Agricultural School' in Laos

CIDSE Laos requested IIRR's technical assistance in implementing this project. IIRR's focus is curriculum improvement and the enhancement of secondary agricultural school teachers' skills m teaching sustainable agriculture. The initial visit made last March focused on preparing the operational plan of the project and assessing the existing capacities related to teaching sustainable agriculture. It also provided an opportunity to understand the project better and for the project partners: Champassak Agricultural School and Luangprabhang Agricultural School to identify specific activities that they will have to undertake to achieve the project objectives within three years.

Training of Trainers in Nepal: Participatory Facilitation, presentation and delivery skills

In March 1997, IIRR conducted a Training of Trainers for development workers in Nepal. The two week course focused on facilitation and delivery skills. It was attended by 16 participants. This course was conducted in collaboration with Rural Reconstruction Nepal (RRN) and Nepal Rural Reconstruction Alumni (NERRA). Due to the success of the course, the participants expressed an intention to join the next TOT course in 1998 which will focus on Training Program Development.

Indigenous Maternal Health Care

Practices: A Resource Book

IIRR plans to conduct a workshop in November 1997 to produce an information kit on Indigenous Maternal Health Care Practices. The information kit will feature experiences of health practitioners from East Asia. It is partially supported by UNICEF which will distribute the publication through its own network. The focus is on Maternal Health Care which has been has not received as much attention as Child

Health Care Suggestions for participants, additional funding are currently being sought.

In spite of the growing interest and need, there are still few clear practical guidelines on how to design, follow up and evaluate development processes m a participatory way. The participation of beneficiaries is rarely achieved and the emphasis is often on the measurement of results A more dynamic and comprehensive understanding of processes is also needed. IIRR's regional office m Latin' America has led an effort to test and document this approach- over the last three years. Two workbooks on Participatory Systematization, one m English and another in Spanish, are available directly from IIRR's office in Quito. They outline the process in considerable detail

De Campesino a Campesino: a new publication on farmer to farmer extension approaches

This Spanish language publication was produced as a result of two workshops: one in Honduras and another in Ecuador. Farmer promoters were invited to the workshop to learn from ongoing community or local extension approaches in which the farmers play the central role. A wide end comprehensive range of topics are covered in the publication including definitions of promoters, selection, volunteerism, training, relationships between technicians and farmer promoters, gender issues, etc. A number of case studies are also provided. An English translation of this publication is awaiting print.

Food security in Africa: a multi

Country proposal demonstrate end bring to scale field-based alternatives

With most forecasts and projections for the next two decades painting a bleak, overall food security situation for sub Saharan Africa, IIRR's Africa Regional Office, is preparing a proposal focusing on area-based approaches to sustainable food production in East African countries. AD initial round of discussions m Kenya and Ethiopia generated a strong interest towards approaches that demonstrate low-cost strategies that can be brought to scale in a limited time. IIRR will develop a proposal in 1997 and will identify donors. The overall approach will be to use available experiences and resource institutions in each of the countries. The workshop described in the next section will be one activity.

The projects will be implemented by IIRR's partners in the different countries rather than by IIRR itself Special emphasis will be placed on food and nutrition security, environmental soundness and gender considerations in the design of the approaches. Farmer to farmer approaches will be featured because they have proved effective in racing resource poor farmers and there is dwindling government funding for technicians and logistical support. In the third year of the intervention, IIRR will seek to influence policy makers and government to use the lessons and experiences generated in the different countries.

Sustainable Agriculture kit: best practices in the Greater Lakes region

IIRR has just received confirmation of a grant from The Ford Foundation covering half the costs of a regional workshop aimed at retrieving and validating best practices in sustainable agriculture in the Greater Lakes region. This workshop is expected to take place later this year when funding is completed. The primary purpose of the workshop is to bring together a wide range of institutions and individuals, especially small holders, who have developed and/or tested practices that are environmentally sound and can address local food production needs. Much information that merits wider sharing and promotion is available. It can be said that the solutions to Africa's problems are already within the continent itself. IIRR will partner with regional institutions to produce this best practices publication.

Cover Crops and Green Manures Kit

This kit was produced through an inter-institutional project including llRR, ClDDICO, COSECHA, Cornell University and World Neighbors. The book documents more than 20 sustainable agriculture technologies to recover soil fertility through the use of different plants and crop management approaches. Experiences from Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras and Guatemala are featured.

Conservation-oriented livelihood options for communities in the

Northern Negros Forest Reserve

IIRR has returned to Negros Occidental in the Southern part of the Philippines to implement a three year project working with communities in 22 villages. With support from GAA, the project aims to improve the economic status of the people and divert them from activities detrimental to the Northern Negros Forest Reserve, one of the few protected areas in the Philippines which still has rich biological resources. IIRR had previously worked in this area covering five municipalities with 506 stewardship contract holders in the buffer zone. At present, over 150 hectares have been protected as a result of soil and water conservation schemes. This effort to work directly with local communities is part of the basic philosophy of IIRR, -to link its training and advocacy to community-level work.

Participatory Tools in Coastal Resources Management

Coastal and fishing communities are some of the poorest communities in the developing world. This has recently gained recognition because of the environmental concerns threatening the traditional livelihoods of these very poor communities. Community-based participatory work is being emphasized and it is towards this end that IIRR and IDRC first came up with the idea of a source book on participatory methods. In July 1997, IIRR, IDRC and other partners: ICLARM, SEARCA and SMISLE will organize a workshop in the

Philippines aimed at bringing about an exchange of experiences on participatory methods used in community based coastal resources management. Most of the participants will come from the Philippines though representation from India Vietnam and Indonesia is also expected. Forty four topics and forty resource persons hive been identified and full funding is now in place. A source book will be generated out of the workshop and will be made widely available to organizations working with fishing communities. ibid. activity is being supported primarily by the Canadian Embassy in Manila, IDRC, Dutch Embassy m Manila; SMISLE and WESAMAR.

Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation :An International Workshop

In collaboration with IDS Sussex, World Neighbors, IIED UK, UPWARD and MASAI m the Philippines, IIRR will host a major gathering of practitioners of Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation Approaches This activity is scheduled in the Philippines on November 1997. Prior to the workshop State of the Art studies for each of the three regions will be conducted. That effort is led by IIEDUK. The studies will serve as some of the inputs into the workshop. Participants will be drawn from poverty focused projects, not only from the South, but also from the North,--often referred to as the North's South. During the workshop, a special session will be organized to discuss follow up participatory action research possibilities. A resource book will be produced from the workshop. IIRR is still awaiting confirmation of full finding.

Program Development and Management Seminar for CRS in Southeast Asia

The Catholic Relief Services (CRS) is an international development organization established to serve and assist the poor and disadvantaged. In Southeast Asia, an established peer review system ensures that the CRS mandate is carried through. The Southeast Asia Forum (SEAFOR) is a decentralized sub-regional body of CRS tasked to develop quality programs and projects and to efficiently and effectively manage their resources. From May 16 - 2l, 1997 IIRR will facilitate a seminar workshop on program development management for SEAFOR as part of the continuing program and staff development efforts of CRS. Participants are program managers from CRS offices in the countries of the Philippines, Indonesia, Vietnam, Cambodia and Russia. The forum hopes to review and refine project proposals of the various countries to reflect both sectoral and country specific concerns consistent with over-all CRS mission at regional and international levels. It also focus on enhancing the SEAFOR peer review system with a clearer definition of process and indicators.

Workshop on Participatory Rural

The workshop on PRA, Participatory Rural Appraisal was an eight day training activity from 8-15 May 1997 sponsored by Christian Aid, (CA). Twenty four of CA's partner organizations in the Philippines attended the workshop which focused on: (a)concepts and features of participatory tools and techniques in data collection, analysis and utilization and (b)field application.

Lessons derived from the workshop activities enhanced participants understanding of the contribution of PRA as development process.

Participatory Methodologies for

Health Professionals

IIRR has been invited by the Medical Committee Netherlands Vietnam and the Netherlands Red Cross Society to assist in a Training of Trainers course. This course will be for health professionals involved in community-based primary health care work in Quang Tri province of Vietnam. This activity is planned for the second half of 1997 and is expected to involve 30 professionals from two countries.

Participatory Planning Skills for Local Governments

In May 1997, IIRR will complete a nine month effort to provide technical assistance on the Training -of facilitators in Participatory Planning for officials and staff of local governments of Nueva Ecija in the Philippines. This was developed upon the request of the Philippine Rural Institutional Strengthening Program (PRISP) for the European Union. The lessons gained from this partnership have relevance and application for IIRR's work in Vietnam and the People's Republic of China where the governments are in search for participatory approaches for local government planning.

IIRR will also use this experience as an input into the International Course on Rural Development for Government planned for 1998.

Participation in Evaluation of Care-Philippines AGRO-DEV Evaluation

In early 1997, IIRR was invited to take part in the evaluation of the AGRO-DEV program of Care-Philippines. This program aims to help poor farmers help themselves through the strengthening of leadership and management capabilities. It also help them access technical and credit assistance.

The Mid Term Evaluation was to measure accomplishment s and progress in order to make recommendations for the remaining project term The data gathering methodologies included recognized PRA techniques. IIRR's participation in this activity will be useful experience for the GAA supported evaluation of several IIRR organized, community managed service centers planned later in 1997.