| GATE - 4/84 - Site - oriented agriculture |
The Theory and Practice of Ecofarming
This book is intended as an introductory "reader" to the topic as a wvhole; the emphasis is, thus, less on he explanation of individual aspects. This collection of essays written during the past ten years attempts, rather, to offer an insight into the still youthful history of the Development and realization of ecologically oriented farming strategies.
Discussions of theoretical con:epts rub shoulders with concrete descriptions of projects and methods, which deal, in some cases, with interesting details and individual results.
During the post-war years, the emphasis was shifted from objecive-oriented farming, the early cooperatives and production techniques to rural development. In the 1960s the declared goals were economic growth and industrialization. attempts were made to pursue these targets in the agricultural sector via intensive cultivation techniques and he growing of mono cultures ("Green Revolution"). In the 1970s the overriding aim of a fairer distribution of come and the satisfaction of basic needs caused attention to be turned owards integrated rural developnent strategies. More consideration was given to low-input systems, and draditional methods were re-valued.
In our present decade the idea of autonomous cultural development reading to a cultural identity and the concept of self-reliant development require the furtherance of the self-determination and self-responsibility of the target population groups by the creation of production systems that are viable. This is where site-oriented agriculture and the utilization of biological methods come in.
Devetopment-policy targets are always closely linked to individual agricultural production methods and can thus not be considered in isolation. This results in the contributions being divided into discussions of concepts of development policy and articles that go into actual methods.
Part I (The crisis of Tropical Agriculture) provides an introduction to the problems of development aid, with a critique of the Green Revolution and an article entitled "Exploitation or Co-operation?"
In Part II (Concepts for a Re-orientation of Rural Development), several contributions present the idea of integrated rural development and suggest methods for achieving it.
Part III gives examples of ecological land-use systems in West Africa and Latin America, as well as dealing with semi-arid regions in general.
In PART IV (The Ecofarming Project), several articles deal with ecofarming, taking the "Project AgroPastoral" in Nyabisindu, Rwanda, as an example. Starting with the ecological and social situation in Rwanda, the articles show the realization strategies of an agrarian development that is becoming more comprehensive step by step. Vegetation planning, among other things, is gone into in detail (agro-forestry).
The fifth and last section consists of a contribution which deals with the problem of the industrial nations and world hunger, attempting to answer the question "What can each of us do?"
The appendix contains contact addresses of those institutes and individuals involved in ecofarming, mainly in the Federal Republic of Germany, and a list of recommended literature on this subject.
The authors include well-known scientists and practitioners. This collection gives a comprehensive insight into the concepts and methods of ecofarming and agro-forestry.
Peter Roffach (Ed.): "Okologischer Landbau in den Tropen-Ecofarming in Theorie und Praxis"
(Ecofarming in the tropics - The Theory and Practice of Ecofarming). No. 47 of the series: Altemative Concepts, published by C. F. M ller, Karlsrube (1984); German, 305 pp. paperback, printed on recycled paper, price DM 16.80.
Fish Culture for Small-scale Farmers
The fish culture manual is based in part on experience gained in teaching rice farmers in Thailand how to cultivate fish in family-scale ponds in conjunction with raising livestock.
In contrast to most fish 'farming guides, the manual has been written in Thai as well as in English so as to be more readily accessible to local farmers. The style of writing is as simple as possible and the text is profusely illustrated by line drawings. The manual has been kept small to avoid the pitfall of ending up as a textbook.
Since small-scale farmers are poor, the Thai language version is being distributed in the country at 20 Baht a copy, which is just sufficient to cover the costs of printing and local postage. The more expensive English language version, at US $ 3.00 per copy, for extension workers and professionals, is subsidizing in part the actual production costs of both language editions. The price include air-mailing costs. Bulk orders for cheaper editions for distribution to farmers in other Asian languages would we welcomed by ENSIC.
According to a Chinese proverb, "give a man a fish and he can fish once, teach a man how to raise fish and he can eat fish for the rest of his life." The local price of the Thai version manual is less than the market price of a kilogram of fish.
Peter Edwards and Kamtom Kawepaitoon: "Fish Culture for Small-scale Farmers." ISBN 9748200- 19- 1 (Thai version), ISBN 9748200-09-4 (English version), 44 pp. 1984. Published by the Environmental Sanitation Information Centre (ENSIC), Asian Institute of Technology, P. O. Box 2754, Bangkok 10501, Thailand. B
Biogas Installations in Cameroon
The subtitle of this book, now published as No. 141 in the GTZ series, is: "Results and experience gleaned from four year's work on the project".
The author, Rainer Wesenberg, gives a brief introduction to the technology of biogas production and follows this with a presentation of the various types of biogas installations suitable for Third World countries. The greater part of the book, however, is reserved for the experience gained by the author in working with various biogas installations in Cameroon. The construction of the various installations is gone into in considerable detail, as are their cost or cost structure. The basic materials for biogas production, i.e. the various kinds of dung, and various possible applications are also examined in full.
All in all, a book offering quite detailed material for those intensively involved in biogas. The text material is supported by clearly presented tables, and numerous color photos provide an interesting supplement. This 1 58-p ge book is, however, only available in German.
"Biogasanlagen in Kamerun" by Rainer Wesenberg. 1984, ISBN 388085-225-1, 158 pp, German, DM 58.-. Available from: TZ-VerlagsgesellschaR mbH, Postfach 29, D-6101 Rossdorf 1, FRG.
Cleaning of Biogas
Methods of removing hydrogen sulphide from biogas by the simplest possible means.
Now in French language.
H. Muche and H. Zimmemmann: "Epuration du Biogaz", 1984, 50 pp., DM 9,80. ISBN 3-528-02011-3. H
This book shows simple methods of water purification, gives tips for selection of equipment and shows how to use it.
The book is only available in German.
Gabriele Heber: "Einfache Methoden f r die Autbereitung von Trinkwasser" (Simple methods for water purification), 1984, 81 pp., DD 19,80. ISBN 3-528-02008-3.
The two above mentioned books are free of charge for orderers from developing countries (availeble from gate ). Orderers from Industrialized countries can buy them in bookstores
for orders directly from : Friedr. Wieweg Sohn, Verlagsgsellschaft mbh Postbox 300 620,D-5090
Diarrhoea Dialogue (DD) is a free quarterly newsletter concerned witl all aspects of prevention and contrc of diarrhoeal disease. It is publishe' by the Appropriate Health Resource and Technologies Action Group Lt' (AHRTAG).
The publisher is now able to sup ply bulk copies of English DD as we as French, Spanish, Portuguese ant Arabic editions. If you would like an' of these, please write to AHRTAG.
Funds are also available to fuel' set up local translations of DD.
"Diarrhoea Dialogue" published b, AHRTAG, 85 Marylebone Higl Street, London W1M3DE, UK 7
How to Choose and Make a Cold Box
A successor to How to look after refrigerator and How to look after, health centre store, this new manua contains 78 pages of clearly pre sensed text and illustrations to helF programme managers, technicians and others working in immunizatior programmes to choose and make the most appropriate cold boxes for vac cine transport in their area. The price for the manual is œ 3.00 plus postage and packing.
For air-speeded post, please add 50% of the price of the book, for surface mail and second class U.K. add on 30% of the cost of the book. PIease pay with order or against pronorma invoice. Overseas payments must be by International Money order, National Giro, UK Postal order, Sterling (œ) cheque drawn on UK bank or US $ cheque drawn on US bank using the current rate of xchange (please add further $ 1.00 your payment to cover bank charges).
AII orders to: Teaching Aids at Low cost(TALC), P.P.Box49, St.Albans, erts ALI 4AX, U. K. n
The harnessing of raught animals
This study concentrates specially draught harnesses for bovines ad equines. It is intended to compleent the many publications available other aspects of draught animal power and to
increase awareness of the dole of harnesses in the effective use of anial-drawn implements and the pontential for the use of improved harasses; and
provide "state of the art" information on available harness technologies that might be applied in developing countries.In Barwell and Michael Ayre: "The arnessing of draught animals': 1982, 92 pp., English. Available from: intermediate Technology Publications- Ltd., 9 King Street, London 'C2EBHN, England.
Transportation Needs of the Rural Population in developing Countries
This is the title of a book dealing with improved transportation planning as illustrated by two villages in Kirinyaga District, Kenya. For transport issues are prominent topics among the problem specifications of many developing countries. Attempts to improve the economic foundation as well as the living conditions of large population segments depend in many cases on the availability of transport connections and the affordability of transport means. Therefore, within the framework of infrastructure policy, the extension of transport systems received strong attention from the very beginning of development planning.
With scientific attention to detail, the transportation habits of the farmers in the area under investigation and the circumstances which influence these habits are described. But the author does not restrict himself to descriptions - he uses his observations and findings to draw conclusions for other developing countries confronted by similar conditions in rural areas.
The 141-page investigation, complete with the necessary tables and sketches, is followed by an appendix giving an idea of the kind of questionnaires used by the author.
Charles K. Kaira: "Transportation needs of the rural population in developing countries' 172 pp, DM 18, 19B3.EnglishandGerman.Available from: Institut f r Regionalwissenschaft der Universit„t Karlsrube, D-7500Karlsrube 1.
The Heat Generator
This publication deals with an immensely interesting device to use hydro power sources for the generation of process heat. With a thermal energy output ranging from 5 kW to 20 kW, the simple energy converter is suitable for small scale processes which require heat at a temperature level from 60 to 150Ã¸C.
The Heat Generator was specially developed for use in Nepal, where it was tested and where it is being disseminated at present. Because of its simplicity and low cost, the potential for its adaptation and use in other countries is considerable.
The book describes the working principle and the design of the device and its manufacture and assembly, it also looks at the economics in comparison to other technologies, and describes potential applications. Product specific processes are described in the areas of drying, boiling and distilling. Among the subjects discussed in the book are: heat requirements in rural Nepal, alternatives to firewood as heat source for cottage industry, description of the heat generator, the manufacturing process, possible future developments and a bibliography.
Reinhold Metzler: "The heat generator - A device to convert mechanical power into process heat". SKAT-publication. 1st edition 1983. 67 pages. 14 illustrations, diagrammes, tables and photographs. 37 workshop and assembly scale drawings. 21 ems. x 29,6 ems. SFr. 22.-.
By the way, you'll find a detailed report on that subject in "gate " 3/B4.
In our last issue, "gate" 3/84, the printer's gremlin played a trick on us. On page 28, in the article by Reinhold Metzler The Heat Generator and Small Water Turbines for Generating Process Heat. The price of the generator is given as $ 800,000; this is of course too high: the heat generator in fact costs $ 800.
German Appropriate Technology Exchange
Centro Alem n pare Tecoologias Apropiadas
Centre allemand d'inter-technologie appropri‚e
Deutsches Zentrum f r Entwicklungstechnologien
GATE is not only the name of this quarterly. It also stands for German Appropriate Technology Exchange, founded in 1978 as a special division (Division 21) of the government-owned Deutsche Gesellschaft f r Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH (German Agency for Technical Cooperation).
GATEisacentreforthedisseminationandpromotionofappropriatetechnologies for developing countries.
GATE defines "appropriate technologies" as those which appear particularly apposite in the light of economic , social and cultural criteria.They should contribute to socio-economic development whilst ensuring optimal utilization of resources and minimal detriment to the environment. Depending on the case at hand a traditional, intermediate or highly-developed technology can be the "appropriate" one.
GATE focusses its work on three key areas:
- Technology exchange (Section 211): Collecting, processing and disseminating information on technologies appropriate to the needs of the developing countries;ascertainingthetechnologicalrequirementsofThirdWorldcountries; support in the form of personnel, material and equipment to promote the development and adaptation of technologies for developing countries.
- Research and development (Section 212): Conducting and/or promoting research and development work in appropriate technologies.
- Cooperation in technological development (Section 213): Cooperation in the form of joint projects with relevant institutions in developing countries and in the Federai Republic of Germany.
For several years GATE has been an active supporter of the SATIS network (Socially Appropriate Technology International Information Service) and has entered into cooperation agreements with a number of technology centres in Third World countries. In addition, GATE participates regularly in exhibitions and trade fairs both in the Federal Republic of Germany and abroad.
GATE offers a free information service on appropriate technologies for all public and private development institutions in developing countries, dealing with the development, adaptation, application and introduction of technologies.
N.B.: The more precise your query,, the better the answer GATE can give you. At the same time you help us cut down costs. Thank you!
Deutsches Zentrum fur Entwicklungstechnologien
D-6236 Eschborn 1
Federal Republic of Germany