| Ethnoveterinary medicine in Asia |
- Animal has difficulty defecating.
- Feces are hard, dry, brittle and occasionally streaked with fresh blood.
- Lack of appetite.
- Diet contains either no fiber or too much fiber.
- Lack of exercise.
- Pain in the anus
- Excessive calcium in the diet (too much bone meal, eggshells, limestone, shells, etc., in the feed).
- Injury or fracture in the pelvis or hindquarters.
- Provide drinking water at all times, especially during the hot season.
- Provide sufficient space for animal to exercise.
- Provide fresh, green vegetables daily.
- Avoid stress to the animal
For simple constipation, any of the following treatments may be used.
- Split a ripe tamarind (Tamarindus indica) pod in half. Remove the pulp and seeds. Roll up the pod and insert into the anus as a suppository (part will stick out of the anus). Repeat every 6 hours for 2-3 days or until the animal becomes unconstipated.(Cambodia, Thailand. 1, 2, 3, 4)
- Feed 2-3 small bundles of fresh leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) or Amaranthus gracilis or Amaranthus spinosus or swamp cabbage (Ipomoca aquatica) 2-3 times a day for 3 days.(Cambodia, Philippines, Thailand. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
- Drench I tablespoon of castor oil (Ricinus communis) 2 times a day for 1-3 days. Drench 1 cup of water after the castor oil drench. Also, soybean oil or sesame oil can be used. (Cambodia, Thailand. 1, 2, 3, 4)
- Prepare a decoction of one ripe papaya (Carica papaya) fruit and 1 liter of water. Drench 2 times a day until the pig recovers. (Cambodia. 1, 2, 3, 4)
- Shape a small piece of mild bar soap into a small suppository. Dip it into water and insert into the anus. Repeat treatment 12 hours later, if necessary.(Cambodia. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)