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close this book Audio-Visual Communication Handbook
View the document Introduction
Open this folder and view contents Planning instructional materials
Open this folder and view contents Using media
Open this folder and view contents Presentation methods and materials
Open this folder and view contents Basic production Techniques
Open this folder and view contents Writing
View the document Appendix 1 - An example of the four steps in planning
View the document Appendix 2 - Evaluation procedures
View the document Appendix 3 - Communication factors in family planning
View the document Appendix 4 - Formulas
View the document Appendix 5 - Equipment construction plans
View the document Appendix 6 - Sample illustrations
View the document Appendix 7 - Lettering patterns
View the document Appendix 8 - Media comparison chart
View the document Appendix 9 - Notes on the use of audio-visual equipment
View the document Appendix 10 - Sources of information

Appendix 3 - Communication factors in family planning


The following tables are a simplified, adapted version of a mimeographed publication by Dr. Gerald Winfield that gives detailed suggestions on specific uses of media in a national family planning program. Although this is not a complete tabulation of all media possibilities (flannel boards, for example, are not mentioned), there are many worthwhile suggestions for the use of a variety of materials for several different kinds of audiences. A study of the ideas suggested here for use in communicating family planning information can be adapted by the Peace Corps volunteer for communicating information relating to family planning, health, agriculture production and distribution, or community development. The tables are divided into major areas where media might be used as follows:

- Mass media

- Home visits

- Small group instruction

- Large group instruction

- Family planning center, health center, hospitals

It should also be remembered that a correlation between such communication efforts and what is being taught in schools can help to increase communication effectiveness.

Mass Media





Postal System

Distribution of printed materials by mail can be an effective and economic means of reaching potential family planning users

Most effective when large percent of audience is literate . . . however, illiterate will probably find ways of having mail read to him

Should be tried experimentally for various kinds of family planning information


Important medium for reaching leaders and a widening segment of the population . . . good for building public support

Most effective with literates. . . not suitable for discussion of specific birth control methods

All family planning programs should have continuing publicity through the press . . . this can be carried out by volunteers, by professional newsmen, or by government information officers


Good for in-depth studies of family planning problems. . . periodicals reach many specialized audiences

Sometimes difficult to get articles into print . . . audiences are limited

Should study periodicals to determine who can be reached with what kind of messages . . . There should be a long-term program to get family planning information into periodicals

Commercial Films

Millions of people attend movie theaters . . . news reels and short subjects can carry family planning information

Subject matter must conform to accepted tastes and standards . . . expensive to produce unless done by government film units

A study should be made of commercial film situations to seek possibilities of using newsreels or short subjects

Educational Films

16-mm films can be produced and shown widely. . . mobile units reach many rural areas. . films can show family planning information in dramatic form

Require specialized skills and equipment to produce and show

Should keep film in mind as an effective medium to promote family planning programs


Can be programmed in a variety of forms such as news and dramatic shows . . . reaches people almost every where . . . serves to inform and develop support for family planning

Probably limited to awareness and early adoption stage

Should have high priority in any program


Reaches an increasingly large segment of population, especially leaders

Expensive and require large organizational support

Will become an increasingly important communication medium and should have continuing attention

Home Visits

Flip books

10 x 12 book good with 5 to 10 people . . . useful to the home visitor in presenting general family planning information and specific methods .

Production requires skill and effort . . . difficult to carry and protect from weather. . . then serve to motivate and to guide the visitor on points to cover

Suitable flip books covering a number of subjects should be provided to home visitors

Flash cards

Useful with 2 to 3 people for presentations . . . small, easy to carry

Easy to get out of sequence. . . cannot carry as much information as flip books

Useful when made by a person to meet specific needs


Very effective teaching media

Large demonstration devices cannot be easily moved for home visits

Home visitors should be equipped with a set of appropriate family planning devices and trained in how to show and explain them


Serve as a reminder of the why and how of family planning . . . well-designed sequenced picture stories can be understood by illiterates

Vocabulary must be matched to audience . . . can be costly if not carefully designed and fully pre-tested

Home visitors should distribute pamphlets designed to match the stages of adoption

Flip books

Large flip books (20 x 30 inches) are effective presentation devices with groups up to 50 people . . . serve as a guide and support to the instructor

Expensive to produce . . . must be protected from moisture and rough handling

Can be used effectively in place of projected materials. . . instructors should have flip books available and be trained in their use

Flash cards

Large flash cards are similar to flip books but the order can be changed

More difficult to handle than a flip book and the order can be confused easily

Useful to meet specific needs

Slide sets

Attract attention and teach extremely effectively . . . can be sequenced to meet specific objectives

Projectors require electric power (some battery models are satisfactory with small groups) . . . require darkened room or night showing . . . sequence can easily be mixed up . . . require careful design and production

Recommended for training technical personnel and family planning personnel, useful with the public when power is available


Similar to slides except sequence is fixed

Require equipment power and darkening . . . require careful design and special production techniques

National family planning should develop the capability of designing filmstrips and a plan to utilize them effectively


Useful to teach sex anatomy and the birth process

Costly and difficult to transport

Use in the instructional pro grams at family planning centers and with the public as opportunities arise

Pamphlets and Demonstrations

Can be used with small groups the same as with home visits


Can play a useful role in generating public support and understanding of a family planning program

Not generally useful for presenting specifics of birth control

Family planning should make use of lectures covering population problem, economics of family planning, public policy, etc.

Illustrated Lectures

Good for transmitting technical information to specialized audiences

What is illustrated and how it is illustrated must be carefully considered

Should be developed for specialized audiences as part of any overall program

Panel Discussions

Good with conference groups to promote audience and community participation

Require skilled discussion leaders

Use when suited to a specific purpose


Excellent with large groups. . . when synchronized with tape recording can be staged by personnel who could not duplicate as a live performance

Require equipment, darkening and power. . . as well as careful design and production . . . expensive to produce, but can be duplicated in quantity at low cost

Large family planning programs should consider filmstrips for telling their story and explaining the importance of family planning to large audiences


16-mm films are extremely effective with large audiences. . . attract attention in almost all situations . . . some films are available

Expensive to produce and require specialized skills and equipment to produce and show - (mobile units are often available from departments of extension, health or information)

Should be kept in mind for use as budget permits

Instruction using real things and bodies

Personal, individual and, when properly done, highly effective

People must be motivated to come to the centers

Should be an important part of the entire family planning effort

Pictures and charts

Good pictures and charts can clarify many things that can- not be easily shown with real things and bodies

Visuals must be simple as many clients cannot under- stand complicated techniques such as cross-sectional drawings or exploded views

Should be used in every family planning center to help teach specific objectives


Range from simple anatomical models that show significant organs and their relationships to elaborate models that show all major events of a menstrual cycle. . . more easily understood by people than two-dimensional materials

Expensive and need careful maintenance to keep in good condition

Useful supplementary materials when budget permits


Effective as take home pieces to remind clients why and how to practice family planning

Illiteracy is the biggest barrier to the use of pamphlets . . . this can be overcome to a large extent by using picture-dominated materials

Family planning centers should have several pamphlets designed to match the stages of adoption