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View the document A listing of agroforestry components in the landscapes of Namosi and Matainasau

A listing of agroforestry components in the landscapes of Namosi and Matainasau

A listing of agroforestry components in the landscapes of Namosi and Matainasau

The following table contains a list of important tree and tree-like species of agroforestry systems of the Namosi and Matainasau village landscapes in Fiji.

It should be noted that under "vernacular names," B refers to the common Bauan dialect, used as the Fijian lingua franca; N refers to the Namosi dialect, and M to the Matainasau dialect. The common

English or other widely used vernacular names are given with no further designation. In Fijian orthography, the "c" is pronounced like the "th" in the word "the," the "d" like the "nd" in "candy," "g" as the "ng" in the word "sing," and "q" like "ngg."

Table 5 Tree and tree-like species in the agroforestry systems of the villages of Namosi and Matainasau, Fiji

Latin name Vernacular names Notes
Acalypha wilkesiana kalabuci, kalabuci damu (N,M,B); Joseph's coat, beefsteak plant, copperleaf Common in villages, and occasional in garden areas; important planted ornamental and hedge plant; used medicinally.
Adenanthera pavonina vini (N); vaivai (M); lera (B); red-bead tree eaten. Occasional in garden areas and around villages in tree groves; timber used in house building and for firewood; seeds
Aleurites moluccana lauci (N,M,B); waiwai (N); candlenut Occasional in garden and fallow areas, in secondary forests, and around villages; seeds used to produce oil beneficial to the skin; used medicinally.
Alphitonia zizyphoides doi (N,M,B) secondary forests; timber useful; good Occasional in garden areas and in firewood; used medicinally.
Alstonia vitiensis sorua (N,M); bulei (B) Occasional in garden areas and in secondary forests; good fuel wood; sap dried for chewing gum.
Annona muricata seremaia (N,M,B); soursop Common around villages, and occasional in garden areas; ripe fruit eaten and made into drinks.
Antidesma classophylum molau (N,M,B); molau vuloa (N) Occasional in fallow areas; leaves used medicinally; good fuel wood when thoroughly dried.
Artocarpus altilis uto sori (N); uto (N,M,B); breadfruit Common around villages, in garden areas, in secondary forests, and in village tree groves; fruit cooked as an important seasonal staple; leaves used for wrapping food for cooking in the earthen oven or boiling; occasionally sold; used medicinally; various cultivars recognized.
Artocarpus heterophyllus uto ni Idia (N,M,B); jakfruit Occasional around villages in garden lands; fruit eaten and occasionally sold.
Astronidium confertiflorum sakelo (N); dava (M) Occasional in secondary forest in garden areas; used as fuel wood.
Bambusa vulgaris bitu ni Vavalagi (N,M,B); common bamboo Common in garden areas, fallow and secondary forest areas, and around villages; large stems used for housing and other construction purposes, for construction of bamboo rafts (bilibili), for ladders, and smaller sections for steaming food in the earthen oven or over open fires.
Barringtonia edulis vatu kana, vatu (N,M,B) Occasional in garden areas on alluvial flats, in tree groves, and near or in villages; seeds eaten raw as a snack food; occasionally sold.
Bischofia javanica koka (N,M,B) Abundant in garden and fallow areas, and common on alluvial flats; protected in the past when clearing garden lands, but increasingly felled by younger generations; favoured tree for house posts, good firewood, used medicinally, leaves boiled with pandanus leaves to dye them black; bark formerly used

with other ingredients to dye hair red; its presence believed to be a sign of good soil.

Bougainvillea spp. bougainvillea Common ornamental in villages.
Buchanania atrenuata kaukaro (N) Infrequent in secondary forest areas; used medicinally.
Cananga odorata makosoi (N,M,B); perfume flower, ylangylang Occasional in garden areas and around villages; leaves used medicinally; fragrant flowers used in garlands and for scenting coconut oil.
Carica papaya uto, uto maoli (N); weleti (M,B) Common in garden and fallow areas and around villages, both planted and as a volunteer; ripe fruit eaten raw; green fruit occasionally cooked or mixed with meat as a tenderizer; used medicinally.
Ceiba pentandra vauvau, vauvau ni Vavalagi Occasionally planted in garden areas and around villages; occasionally planted as living fences; fibres surrounding seeds used to stuff pillows and mattresses.
Citrus aurantium mold kula (M,B); kula (N); sour orange Occasional in garden and fallow areas and around villages; fruit used to make drinks, to squeeze on food, and occasionally sold.
Citrus grandis mold kana (N,M,B); soco vi kana (N); pomelo, shaddock Occasional in garden and fallow areas, in secondary forests, and around villages; excellent firewood; ripe fruit eaten and occasionally sold; used medicinally.
Citrus hystrix mold karokaro (N,M,B); soco ni Vavalagi (N) Common in garden and fallow areas, and occasional in secondary forests and village tree groves; juice of fruit used to marinate raw fish and to flavour foods, young leaves used to make tea; used medicinally; occasionally sold; good fuel wood.
Citrus microcarpa mold witiwiti (N); kalamantsi (Philippines) Occasional in garden areas, tree groves, and around villages; ripe fruit used to make drinks and to squeeze on food.
Citrus reticulata soco madirini (N); mold madirini (M,B); mandarin orange, tangerine Common in garden areas, fallow vegetation, around most villages, and in community tree groves, and occasional in secondary forests; ripe fruit eaten and made into drinks; sold as a major seasonal source of cash income.
Citrus sinensis soco ni Taiti (N); mold lecau (M); mold Taiti (B); orange, sweet orange Common in garden areas, fallow vegetation around villages, and in community tree groves, and occasional in secondary forests; ripe fruit eaten and made into drinks; sold as a major Seasonal source of cash income; used medicinally.
Cocos nucifera niu (N,M,B); coconut palm Occasional in garden areas, and more common on alluvial flats and surrounding villages; a minor food plant in the interior, unlike in coastal areas, where it is a major source of vegetable fat and energy in cooking and a poultry and pig feed, and is used in a great variety of ways; still an important intercrop, but more important in the past; the totem of the Natuvora descent group (mataqali) of Namosi village; used medicinally.
Commersonia bartramia sama (M) Common in garden and fallow areas, in secondary forests, and along road frontages; good fuel wood; inner bark used for string and lashings; used medicinally.
Cordyline fruticosa vasili (N,M,B); ti plant Abundant in villages, common in garden areas, and occasional as an escape in fallow areas; a wide variety of cultivars exists; bright red varieties commonly planted as 'protector" plants to ward off evil spirits and to bring good luck to gardens and as ornamentals in villages; large roots of green varieties (vasili ni

Toga) cooked in earthen oven in the past as a food, now only as a famine food; leaves of many varieties used in ceremonial skirts and other ornamental attire; used medicinally.

Cyathea spp. balabala (N,M,B); tree fern Common in fallow areas and secondary forest, and occasional in garden areas; trunk used in house construction and occasionally sold to and used by ornamental gardeners as orchid

supports; when dry, used to carry fire long distances before matches were available.

Cyathocalyx vitiensis mako (N,M,B) Occasional in garden and fallow areas, and in secondary and primary forest; important totem (i cavuta) of the high ranking Nabukebuke yavusa and mataqali descent groups of Namosi village; used for firewood; inner bark Occasionally used for string or lashing.
Cyrtandra jugalis micra (N,M) Occasional in garden and fallow areas and in secondary forests; timber used for house frames.
Dendrocnide harveyl salato (N,M,B) Infrequent in fallow areas and in secondary forests; used medicinally.
Dillenia biflora kulava (N,M,B) Occasional in garden lands and around villages, common in secondary forests; planted as living fencing, pig pens, and bathhouse walls.
Dracaenafragrans dracaena Common ornamental in villages.
Dysoxylum richii vesida (N); sasawira (M); sasauira (B) Common in secondary forests, and occasional in garden areas; timber used in construction and for firewood.
Elaeocarpus chelonimorphus kabi (N) Occasional in garden and fallow areas and in surrounding secondary forest; seeds eaten as a snack food and favoured food of fruit-bats.
Elattostachys

falcata

isusu (N) Occasional in fallow and secondary forest areas; timber used in construction and for firewood.
Endospermum macrophyllum lekutu (N); lekuti (M); kauvula (B) Occasional in secondary forests, protected in garden lands, and common in surrounding forests; wood used in house construction, for dug-out canoes, and for fire wood; an important timber species for local milling and export.
Erythrina variegata drala (N,M,B); coral tree, dadap Common in garden areas and around villages; commonly planted as property markers, living fences, or pig pens; flowering indicates the onset of the yam planting season; used medicinally.
Euedia hortensis uci (N,M,B) Occasionally planted in garden areas and common in and around villages; flowers and leaves used to scent coconut oil, to make garlands (salusalu), and commonly worn behind the ear; leaves used medicinally.
Euodia vitiensis tokatolu (N) Infrequent in secondary forests; leaves used medicinally and taken by women after giving birth.
Euphorbia fidjiana vasa damu (N,M,B) Shrub occasionally planted as a "protec tion" or spiritual plant to protect gardens from evil spirits and to ensure good yields; used medicinally.
Fagraea berteriana bua, bua ni Viti (N,M,B); bua tokaikau (N) Occasional in garden and fallow areas, in secondary forests, and around villages; fragrant flowers used in garlands and for scenting coconut oil; the totem (i cavati) of the Nasilime mataqali, or descent group, of Namosi village; used medicinally.
Ficus barclayana losilosi (N,M,B) Occasional in garden and fallow areas, in secondary forest, and around and in villages; leaves and fruit eaten; leaves use medicinally.
Ficus fulvo-pilosa al mast (N) Occasional in garden and fallow areas and in secondary forest; leaves used as sandpaper in the past.
Ficus obliqua bake, baka ni Viti (N,M,B); strangler fig; banyan Occasional in garden areas and common in secondary forest; fruit eaten by birds and fruit-bats; used medicinally.
Ficus vitiensis lolo (N,M) Occasional in garden and fallow areas and in secondary forests; sweet fruits eaten as a snack food; used medicinally.
Gironniera

celtidifolia

sisisi (N) Infrequent in secondary forests and in fallow areas; wood good for making digging sticks.
Glochidion spp. molau (N,M,B) Common in fallow vegetation, and occasional in garden areas and secondary forests; leaves used medicinally; one of most widely used medicinal plants.
Gnetum gnemon sukau, bele sukau (N,M,B) Occasional in secondary forest and in forest areas surrounding garden areas; seeds edible, young leaves cooked as a spinach.
Graptophyllum pictum caricature plant Occasional ornamental in villages.
Heliconia indica vava (N,M,B) Occasional in garden areas, fallow areas, and secondary forests; flower bracts cooked as a famine food; leaves used to parcel food.
Hibiscus manihot vauvau (N,M); bele (B) Abundant in gardens and around villages; major leafy green vegetable, very rich in vitamins A and C, iron, and plant protein; commonly sold in markets; used medicinally.
Hibiscus tiliaceus vau (N,M,B); beach hibiscus tree Common in fallow and garden areas, and around villages; commonly planted as living fences and pig pens; wood used in walling for houses, inner bark as fibre for skirts, for straining yaqana, and for house and canoe lashings; leaves used medicinally.
Homolanthus nutans tadau (N); tadanu (B) Occasional in fallow areas and secondary vegetation; used for firewood.
Inocarpus fagifer ivi (N,M,B); Tahitian chestnut Common in poorly drained areas, along rivers, and in tree groves, and occasional in alluvial and some upland garden areas and around villages; seed cooked as a supplementary staple; leaves used to cover food in earthen oven; good fuelwood; used medicinally; sold occasionally.
Jatropha curcas banidaki (N,M); wiriwiri (B) Occasional in garden areas and around villages; planted as a living fence; used medicinally.
Leucaena leucocephala vaivai, vaivai ni Vavalagi (N,M,B); leucaena Common locally as a long-introduced inventive in garden areas, around villages, and in some areas where cattleare grazed; good source of firewood, posts for fencing and wood for general construction purposes, such as animal

pens; foliage and young pods used as fodder and occasionally eaten.

Macaranga graeffeana mavu (N,M); davo (B) Common in garden and fallow areas, and as a pioneer species in secondary forests; wood used for construction and for firewood; used medicinally.
Macaranga harveyana gadoa (N,M) Common in fallow areas and secondary forest, and occasional in garden areas; wood used in construction and for firewood; used medicinally.
Mangifera indica maqo (N,M,B); mango Occasional in garden areas and surrounding and in villages; ripe fruit eaten; fruit rarely sets at wet higher elevations.
Melochia mollipila samaloa (N) Occasional in fallow areas and secondary forests; good firewood; used medicinally.
Metroxylon

vitiense

soya (N,M,B); sage palm Occasionally planted along rivers or around villages and gardens; fronds used for thatching houses; maristem sometimes sold to Indians for use in curries; leaf ribs used for brooms.
Morinda citrifolia kura (N,M,B) Occasional in garden and fallow areas, in secondary forest, and around villages; used medicinally; pungent fruit eaten in the past.
Musa AAA Group jaina(N,M,B); banana, Cavendish banana Common intercrop in garden areas especially on alluvial flats; important cash crop for local sale and eaten green as a supplementary staple and ripe as a fruit; leaves used to wrap food for cooking and for general food parcelization.
Musa AAB Group liga ni marama (N,M,B); lady's-finger banana Occasional in garden areas and around villages; ripe fruit eaten, very minor cash crop for local sale; leaves used to wrap food.
Musa AAB triploid vadi (N,M,B); plantain Abundant in garden areas, in both alluvial flats and on hill slopes; common intercrop in almost all gardens; green fruit an important staple, ripe fruit occasionally cooked as a dessert (vakasoso); leaves used to wrap food for cooking in the earthen oven and for general food parcelization; important supplemental cash crop for local sale.
Musa ABB Group bata (N,M,B) ; blue plantain Occasional in garden areas; green fruit cooked as a Java supplementary staple and eaten ripe occasionally; leaves favoured for parcelization of foods for earth oven.
Mussaenda

raiateensis

Hobo (N,M); bovu (B) Common in fallow areas and in secondary forest; bark and leaves used medicinally.
Musa cultivar viavia levu (M); qamure (B); plantain Uncommon banana or plantain cultivar in garden areas; green fruit cooked as a staple.
Musa fehi sowaqa (N,M,B); fe'i banana, mountain banana Occasional in secondary forest as a reict

of former cultivation, occasional in garden areas; fruit cooked as a staple and occasionally sold at the SuvaMarket.

Neonauclea

forsteri

bo (N,M) Occasional in garden areas and secondary forests; wood used in construction.
Neubergia

corynocarpa

bo nokonoko (N); boloa (N,M) Occasional in garden and fallow areas and in secondary forests; timber used in house construction.
Pandanus spp vadra, voivoi (N,M,B); pandanus, screw pine Commonly planted in garden areas and in and around villages, often along fence lines or garden boundaries; leaves treated and dyed for use in a wide range of plaited ware including ceremonial and rough mats, baskets, hats, and lashings; used as a fuel; prop roots usedmedicinally; fruit and fibre used in garlands.
Parinari

glaberrima

makita (N,M,B) Occasional in garden and fallow areas, in secondary forest, and around villages; timber used for construction and small straight rods used for spears; seed used for dyeing hair and scenting coconut oil; leaves used for thatching houses.
Parinari insularum sa (N,M,B) Occasional in garden and fallow areas and

in open forest stands; excellent firewood.

Persea americana pea (N,M,B); avocado Occasionally planted in garden areas and around villages; ripe fruit eaten, commonly as a butter substitute; does not bear fruit as well at wet higher elevations.
Piper aduncum onolulu (N), qaneqona (M), yaqona ni Onolulu (B) Common in fallow areas and protected in garden areas; coppiced as a very accessible and renewable firewood source; used as a shade tree in active garden areas.
Piper methysticum yaqona (N,M,B); kava Very abundant; most important cash crop in both Namosi and Matainasau; important alkaloid-rich social beverage made from the roots and lower stems; commonly intercropped with taro on rich slope soils; used medicinally.
Plumeria spp. bua ni Vavalagi (N,M,B); frangipani, plumeria, coconut oil Common in villages, and occasional in nearby gardens; fragrant flowers used in garlands and to scent.
Polyscias spp. danidani (N,M,B) Common in villages, and occasional in garden areas; planted as live fencing, hedges, pig pens, and ornamentally in villages; leaves used in preparation of attire for traditional dances; used medicinally.
Pometia pinnata dawa (N,M,B); Pacific Iychee Common in garden areas, fallow areas, and secondary forest; usually Protected when clearing garden lands; ripefru. eaten; leaves and bark used medicinally; good firewood and good timber.
Premna serratifolia yaro (N,M,B) Common in garden and fallow areas, in Secondary forest, and around villages;commonly planted as living fencing; leaves and bark used medicinally.
Pritchardia pacifica sakiki (N,M); masei (B); Fiji fan palm In&equently planted around villages and garden lands; seeds eaten; leaves once used for fans.
Pseuderanthemum

curruthersii

false eranthemum Occasional ornamental in villages.
Psidium guajava quwawa (N,M,B); guava Common in cattle paddocks, and occasional in garden areas and around villages; leaves used as a treatment for diarrhoea, fruit a favoured, vitamin-C rich snack food; good firewood.
Saccharum eduk duraka (N,M,B); Fiji asparagus Common crop in garden and fallow areas,

especially in moist alluvial soils; plantedand protected in a somewhat naturalized state; internal inflorescence an important seasonal food and cash crop.

Saccharum officinarum dovu (N,M,B); sugar cane Common intercrop in garden areas and around villages; stems an importantsnack food; used medicinally, leaves of some varieties occasionally used for thatching.
Samanea saman vaivai, vavai ni Vavalagi (N,M,B); vu ni kau ni Vavalagi (M); rain tree, monkey-pod Commonly planted or protected in garden and grazing areas on the alluvial flats and near villages; excellent shade trees, wood favoured for wood carving and firewood.
Santalum yasi yasi (M) Uncommon in secondary forests; harvested commercially in some areas of Fiji.
Schizostachyam glaucifolium bitu, dina (N,M,B); bamboo Common in garden areas and in open secondary forest in hilly areas; largestems used for general construction purposes, in the construction of light rafts (bilibili), for piping, and for cooking food, especially freshwater prawns in the earthen oven or over an open fire; the totem (i cavati) of the Soloira mataqali, or descent group, of Namosi village; used medicinally.
Spathodea campanulata tulip (M); African tulip tree Occasional ornamental and living fence around villages, occasional as a naturalized escape in garden areas.
Spondias dulcis wi (N,M,B); Polynesian vi- apple, hog plum Commonly planted or protected in garden areas, around villages, and in village tree groves; ripe and green fruit eaten and occasionally sold at markets; leaves boiled with fatty food, particularly pork.
Sterculia vitiensis waciwaci (N) Infrequent in garden areas and in secondary forests, and occasionally planted around villages; seeds eaten roasted or fried in the past.
Syzygium malaccense kavika (N,M,B); Malay apple, mountain apple Commonly planted or protected in garden areas, around villages, and in village tree groves; leaves and bark used medicinally; fruit eaten green and ripe, leaves cooked in the past.
Syzygium seemannianum yasi ni wai (N) Common along streams and river banks; leaves used medicinally.
Terminalia catappa tavola (N,M,B); beach Indian almond Occasional in garden areas and around villages; ripe seeds eaten; young leaves and bark used medicinally; the totem (i cavuti) of the Navatusila mataqali, or descent group, in Namosi village.
Theabroma cacao koko (N,M,B); cocoa, cacao Occasionally planted in old garden areas; fruit eaten and occasionally harvested to make cocoa; increasingly important cash crop in some nearby areas in the wet zone.
Timonius affinis tirivanua (N) Occasional in fallow areas; used medicinally by women.
Trema orientalis drou (N,M,B) Common pioneer species in fallow areas, secondary vegetation, and disturbed ruderal sites, particularly along road cuts.
Veitchia joannis saqiwa (N,M); niusawa (B) Infrequent in secondary forests and around villages; planted more in the past; immature seeds eaten as a snack food; the totem (i cavuti) of the Naqelekautia mataqali of Namosi

village.

Sources: Field surveys by R.R. Thaman from 1979 to 1988; Weiner 1982 for some medicinal usages.