| Energy Utilisation in Karnatka: Part I -An Overview |
The number of Small Scale Industries in the State is very large. Hence it is not possible to obtain data from all of them. So, data obtained from a sample were looked at. The SSIs have been coded into different groups. Even though about 140 groups were identified in the sample, many of them have a very few samples. Hence, we derived from the sample a secondary sample - we discarded all groups with a small sample. This resulted in a reduced sample of 47 groups.
Table 10 lists the SSI groups and their industrial codes. It has a variety of manufactures - bakery, food grains, furniture, garments, printing, leather chappals, polythene bags, plastics, soaps, oils, bricks, cement products, steel and structural products, agricultural tools, utensils, electroplating, machinery electrical appliances, automobile parts etc.
In order to compare the energy utilization, we calculated energy use/rupee of production for every group (this was also calculated district-wise as discussed in the next section).
Table 11 gives the specific energy consumption for the 47 groups. It gives the maximum value, minimum value, average and standard deviation for every group. The maximum value gives the maximum used by an industry in the group. Similarly the minimum is calculated. We can see that energy consumption in kilowatt hours/rupee of production has a considerable variation in each group; the variations being more than 100 times in some sectors. These wide variations show that there is a very good scope for improvement in energy use and conservation of energy. All groups exhibit strong variations.
Some sectors show a very high value of energy consumption and they deserve attention. Some examples are bricks and tiles, bakeries, tyre retread-plastic foam products, castings and agricultural implements.
In order to see the economic impact and survival of SSIs (with reference to energy use), table 12 is computed. This gives energy consumption in rupees per rupee of production. This again reveals the variations pictured in table 11. Industries in many groups use more than 30 paise for energy in a rupee of production. Two industries use more than 70 paise for energy per rupee of production. They belong to agarbathi and castings groups. Survival of many industries depends on energy conservation as revealed clearly especially in the case of those which use more than 25% of cost for energy.
Table 13 compares energy consumption with man power. In addition to the fact that there is a wide disparity in intrasector and intersector units, there is also a striking feature that the higher values of energy consumptions per person in some groups are greater than the similar figures for H.T. industries. This deserves further analysis and improvement are desirable. This also shows that all small scale units are not employment generating units.