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close this book Audio-Visual Communication Handbook
View the document Introduction
close this folder Planning instructional materials
View the document Statement of objectives
View the document Presentation strategy
View the document Selection of information
View the document Organization of information
View the document Evaluation
close this folder Using media
View the document In the classroom
View the document In the community
close this folder Presentation methods and materials
View the document Demonstrations
View the document Field trips
View the document Presentation boards
View the document Other presentation media
View the document Three-dimensional materials
View the document Projected materials
View the document Recording
close this folder Basic production Techniques
View the document Illustrations
View the document Lettering
View the document Mounting and preserving pictures
View the document Coloring
View the document Design
View the document Duplication
close this folder Writing
View the document Organizational patterns
View the document More readable writing
View the document Some rules when writing for visual-verbal media
View the document Appendix 1 - An example of the four steps in planning
View the document Appendix 2 - Evaluation procedures
View the document Appendix 3 - Communication factors in family planning
View the document Appendix 4 - Formulas
View the document Appendix 5 - Equipment construction plans
View the document Appendix 6 - Sample illustrations
View the document Appendix 7 - Lettering patterns
View the document Appendix 8 - Media comparison chart
View the document Appendix 9 - Notes on the use of audio-visual equipment
View the document Appendix 10 - Sources of information

Appendix 1 - An example of the four steps in planning


This Appendix includes example materials to illustrate the four planning steps described in the section, Planning Instructional Materials.

- Step 1. - Statement of Objectives

Knowledge-need objective: Following a group presentation showing two types of fertilizers and their uses, farmers should be able to distinguish between them and be able to explain when and how both fertilizers should be used.

- Step 2. - Presentation Strategy

A slide-tape presentation was selected for the following reasons:

1. Generally, slide-tapes are a good strategy for group presentations.

2. With people in this village, prior experience has shown projected media to be effective attention-getters and attention-holders.

3. Facilities and resources are available to make and show slide-tapes.

4. Prior experience has shown villagers willing to be photographed and assume character roles in similar presentations. Thus, good opportunity to involve them.

5. Narrated tape to accompany slides provides verbal information for those who can't read.

- Step 3. - Selection of Information

The objective calls for information about two types of fertilizers, their distinguishing characteristics, and when and how each is used. This information needs to be included in the slide-tape.

- Step 4. - Organization of Information

In the sample content outline, treatment, and storyboard-script that follow, the two types of fertilizers purposefully have been identified only as Fertilizer A and Fertilizer B.

Content Outline

I. Fertilizer A - Characteristics

A. Color - gray

B. Powdery with small lumps

II. Fertilizer B - Characteristics

A. Color - white

B. Grainy like coarse sugar

III. Using Fertilizer A

A. Before planting

1. Spread between old rows

2. Spread evenly

B. Advantages

1. Easiest to apply

2. New rows directly over fertilizer

C. After planting

1. Apply immediately after plants break soil

2. Apply around young plants

IV. Using Fertilizer B

A. Application of three-week-old plants

1. Place around plants close to roots

2. Cover fertilizer with soil

B. Application of six- to eight-week-old plants

1. Place around plants close to roots

2. Cover fertilizer with soil

V. Cautions: Fertilizer A and B

A. Always cover fertilizer

B. Weed regularly for full fertilizer benefits to crops


Prior experience has shown these villagers traditionally have been taught about village life, tilling the soil, etc. through stories. They also use the story form to teach their children. Because of this, the information in the Content Outline has been "treated" in story form.

Opening slides show Hamra walking along a dusty road and stopping to look at the fine crop of three-week-old yams his friend Ema is growing. Hamra inspects a few of the plants as he muses: What is my friend, Ema, doing to get such fine yam plants? He notices the field is free of weeds and muses once again: There are no weeds in his field. That must be what makes his yam plants so fine. If I keep the weeds from my field, perhaps I can grow fine yams, too.

In the distance we see Ema hoeing his field. Hamra notes: There is Ema working in his field now. I will stop to ask him about his fine crop.

We next see Ema greeting Hamra, followed by closer shots of the two men talking together and finally walking across the field toward Ema's house. A narrator explains that Ema is telling Hamra that his yam plants are so fine because he has put fertilizer on his field and offers to show Hamra what fertilizer is if Hamra will come to his house now to see the fertilizer.

We then see Ema and Hamra at Ema's house where he shows Hamra a bag of Fertilizer A. He also shows Hamra a leaflet which explains how to use the fertilizer.

The leaflet illustrations now become the visuals in the slides to show how to apply Fertilizer A. The narration is Ema's explanation of each of the illustrations to Hamra. But, says Ema, It is too late for you to use Fertilizer A because it must be put on your land before a crop is planted. Hamra is seen shaking his head in sadness at this information. Then Ema tells him that there is another kind of fertilizer he can use because it is the kind that is put on when plants are three weeks old. But Hamra shouldn't delay. The other fertilizer is called Fertilizer B. and the agriculture office in the village will have some. Hamra asks Ema to go to the village with him to see the agricultural officer.

The next series of slides shows Hamra with Ema and the agricultural extension officer. As the officer tells and shows Hamra how to use Fertilizer B. we see illustrations in a leaflet which show the steps and the cautions of covering the fertilizer so it does not wash away and of ridding the field of weeds. At the end of the explanation, we see Hamra and Ema leaving the agricultural officer, each carrying a bag of Fertilizer B. The next series of slides shows Hamra with Ema at Hamra's field. Ema helps him apply Fertilizer B to the three-week-old yam plants. Ema then takes Hamra's hoe and tells him he must get rid of the weeds in his field because the fertilizer makes weeds grow just as well as it makes yam plants grow. Ema also reminds Hamra that he must put fertilizer on his plants again in three to four weeks, in the same way they have just done. After Ema leaves, Hamra goes to work on the weeds with his hoe.

The narrator makes a time transition to four weeks later. We see Hamra admiring his strong seven-week-old plants and putting the second application of Fertilizer B on his field. As the steps of the second application are shown, the narrator reviews the steps. The narrator also cautions again about the importance of ridding the crop of weeds.

The final sequence of slides shows Ema's and Hamra's yield of yams and Hamra's expression of gratitude to Ema for telling him about fertilizers. Hamra also tells Ema he will remember that Fertilizer A can be put on the land before yams are planted and that he intends to use it before planting the next crop. The last slide shows the families of Hamra and Ema joining in a celebration of a good harvest.


Only selected sequences of the treatment are reproduced as a sample storyboard-script. Omissions are indicated in the Slide Description column.


1. Title Frame: More Yams for Hamra

More Yams




2. Medium shot. HAMRA on path walking toward camera. On both sides are healthy, good-sized yam plants.

One day, on his way to the village, Hamra took the path through Ema's field of yams. How big Ema's plants are! he thought.

Production Note: Narration should be spoken by one who is adept at story telling. The village story teller might be the ideal.

3. Medium close shot. HAMRA bending down inspecting yam plants.

Bigger than mine. And we planted them the same day.

4. Close shot of yam plant. HAMRA's hands can be seen touching the leaves. Production Note: Hands in the scene will provide visual cue to leaf size relative to man's hands.

I wonder what he is doing to get them to grow so big and have such healthy looking leaves.

5. Medium shot down a row of yams. No weeds in rows.

There are no weeds in his field. That must be what makes his yam plants so fine.


6. Full shot of field. In background EMA is seen hoeing. HAMRA in foreground looking toward EMA.

Omitted scenes 7, 8, 9,10.

As Hamra looked across the field, he saw Ema. There's Ema now, he said to himself. I will stop to talk with him about his fine crop.

11. Full shot of Hamra and EMA with EMA's house in background. HAMRA and EMA walking along a path through the field toward the house.

Production Note: Since in this slide, the men's backs will be toward the audience, it will be important for them to have different figured or colored clothing (it the slides are in color).

On the way to Ema's, Hamra asked many questions. Ema patiently answered, but would always say: I will show you. I will show you.

12. Medium shot of the opened door of EMA's house. EMA is shown inviting HAMRA to enter.

Here we are, Hamra. Now, you will see the fertilizer and how I used it.

Production Note: Local customs should be investigated to find out where fertilizer likely would be stored. Also local customs related to a fellow farmer's making a business trip to a home. Additional slides might be necessary to allow for these customs.

13. Medium shot of EMA and HAMRA inside EMA's house. They are squatted down beside opened sack of Fertilizer A. EMA holds out handful of fertilizer to HAMRA.

Production Note: In a pre-trial of the slides with several farmers in the village, the visual jump between Slides 12 and 13 should be checked for audience understanding.

Take some in your hands, Hamra.


14. Close shot from above the fertilizer sack to show HAMRA's hands inside the open sack, fertilizer in them as if he has just scooped up a double handful.

Production Note: Shot should be close enough so the powdery with small lumps quality of the fertilizer is shown. Pre-trial of this slide with sample audience might be needed to insure the largeness of the hands in close shot would not be misinterpreted by the audience.

See its gray color and how powdery and lumpy it is. You can crush the lumps easily with your hands - just like the soft lumps in good soil.

15. Medium shot of HAMRA and EMA. Ema is now standing in back of HAMRA who is still squatting beside the Fertilizer A sack, the fertilizer still in his hands. He is looking toward EMA. EMA has a leaflet in his hand.

Now, let me explain how to use the fertilizer. See this leaflet.

16. Medium close shot over the shoulder of EMA and HAMRA, both standing. Both are looking at the leaflet.

It shows you what you must do.

17. Close shot of first illustration in the leaflet.

Production Note: The leaflet illustrations used for the next four slides could be those in the leaflet which has been distributed during the question-answer period following the visit to the experimental plots. See the check list on Page 4.

This picture shows how you spread Fertilizer A between the rows on your land before you prepare it for the next planting. See how easy it is!