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close this book Audio-Visual Communication Handbook
View the document Introduction
close this folder Planning instructional materials
View the document Statement of objectives
View the document Presentation strategy
View the document Selection of information
View the document Organization of information
View the document Evaluation
close this folder Using media
View the document In the classroom
View the document In the community
close this folder Presentation methods and materials
View the document Demonstrations
View the document Field trips
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View the document Three-dimensional materials
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View the document Recording
close this folder Basic production Techniques
View the document Illustrations
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View the document Organizational patterns
View the document More readable writing
View the document Some rules when writing for visual-verbal media
View the document Appendix 1 - An example of the four steps in planning
View the document Appendix 2 - Evaluation procedures
View the document Appendix 3 - Communication factors in family planning
View the document Appendix 4 - Formulas
View the document Appendix 5 - Equipment construction plans
View the document Appendix 6 - Sample illustrations
View the document Appendix 7 - Lettering patterns
View the document Appendix 8 - Media comparison chart
View the document Appendix 9 - Notes on the use of audio-visual equipment
View the document Appendix 10 - Sources of information

Appendix 2 - Evaluation procedures


The purpose of this Appendix is to show some simple techniques you can employ to analyze an audience, test message materials, and evaluate the results of communication efforts.

These will be explained under three headings: questionnaires, sampling techniques, and interview procedures.


The simplest kinds of questions you can ask are those to which favor-oppose, can-cannot, yes-no type answers can be given. Fortunately, almost any problem can be broken down into such binary-type alternatives. As you ask questions, keep a record of the audience responses.

The following are some examples of binary-type alternatives:

Did you attend the farm fair?



Do you favor or oppose another farm fair this year?



Who is your local agricultural officer?



Did you listen to last week's farm radio program?


didn't .

Do you alternate a cover crop with your maize?



Do you think you could sell more maize if you could grow it?



Did you have an opportunity to meet your agriculture officer?



Do you remember his name?



Some people like one color better than another for certain things. What color would you consider appropriate for a fertilizer sack - flour sack - family planning poster etc.?

















After showing a filmstrip which treats the proper method of lifting ground nuts, ask the test subject to show you how it is done.

Does he break soil properly?



Lift roots properly?



Shake loose dirt carefully?



What exhibits were of interest to you at this year's farm fair?

groundnut lifting demonstration?



fertilizer demonstration?



sheep shearing demonstration?



home canning?



Do you plan to use type X fertilizer this year?



If yes, where will you obtain it?



Another type of questionnaire is a checklist of questions that should be asked when producing materials. The following example lists ten major questions with some sub-points that relate to the production of a leaflet or booklet.

- What is the objective?

Stated specifically

Stated in measurable terms

Related to reader wants and needs

- Who is the reader?




Cultural background

Social status

- What does the reader think?

Knowledge of subject

Attitudes toward subject

Attitudes toward change

- Are the facts adequate?



Conflict with program or with audience


- Will the reader understand?



- Are the ideas presented workable?

Physically possible

Resources available

Culturally acceptable

- How will the material be reproduced?

Methods available




- How will the leaflet or booklet look ?

First impression

Interesting layout

- How will the material be distributed ?



Publicity or advertisement


- Will the reader react as planned?




Sampling Techniques

To obtain a perfect picture of your audience with respect to any yes-no item of information, you would have to record accurate data for every member in it. Alternately, should you interview only two or three individuals, the certainty of obtaining answers which portray the larger group accurately will be extremely low. Two factors bear on the confidence you can place in findings from any sample: (1 ) representativeness, and (2) size.

Any sample is representative only to the extent that every person in the population from which it is drawn has an equal opportunity of being included in it. The following are methods used to attempt to obtain representative or random samples.

Systematic sampling. If it is possible to find prepared lists of the names of members of the population which you wish to investigate, you can simply divide the total number of names by the number required in your sample and draw every nth number. For example, if there are 5,000 names on a list and you want a sample of 100, you simply take every 50th name.

This method is fraught with possibilities for error, however. Printed lists may not be representative of the population you wish to investigate for various reasons. Telephone books may include only the wealthy; church attendance lists may contain only the more socially active; school lists contain only those with school-age children, etc.

Simple randomization. From a complete list of all names of individuals in a village, of all numbered houses or squares in a village, of all villages in a province, of all attendants at a farm fair, etc., you can obtain a random sample by (1) numbering all entries, (2) placing all numbers in a box, (3) shaking the box thoroughly and (4) drawing numbers. After each number is recorded, it must be replaced and the box re-shaken before drawing again. If you can obtain a table of random numbers, this process can be simplified.

Stratified random sampling. Sometimes it is desirable to break large populations into subgroups, each of which has particular characteristics, and then randomize proportionate samples from each of the subgroups. For example, you may wish to be certain that your sample includes high and low income groups, urban and rural families, different religious faiths, etc., in proportion to their numbers in the total population. To obtain a stratified random sample, you will use separate boxes for each group and draw numbers from each box in proportion to the group's percentage of the total.

Though different sub-groups differ in their responses to the questions you ask, your combined sample may better represent the total population than would a random drawing from all members at large.

Assuming a representative sample of the audience has been questioned, the size of the sample selected will determine the level of confidence that you can have in the findings. Statistical techniques can be used to determine appropriate sample sizes. However, in most situations a small sample will provide the information necessary to improve the effectiveness of your instructional materials.

Interviewing Procedures

It is not always easy to obtain valid responses to your questions. Sometimes questions are misunderstood. Sometimes, in order to be polite, respondents will give answers they think the interviewer may prefer to hear. Sometimes they may avoid being asked questions when alone, and when accompanied by a friend may tend to report what they think their friend would prefer to hear. Sometimes they may not trust the interviewer, or may question his motives and attempt to trick him. The following practices may help to alleviate some of these difficulties.

- Select your interviewers from among the groups to be questioned. Farmers respond best to farmers, women to women, church folk to church folk, etc.

- Word your interview questionnaire in the vernacular of your audience. Foreign words or alien modes of expression may be offensive or misunderstood. When interviewers have a share in phrasing the questions, they may tend to enter more wholeheartedly and sympathetically into their tasks.

- Carefully train your interviewers to (a) identify the agency sponsoring the study, (b) explain the purpose of the questioning, (c) tell why and how their respondents were selected, and (d) assure their respondents that their answers will be kept confidential.