Cover Image
close this book Locust handbook
View the document Acknowledgements
View the document Introduction
close this folder 1. What are locusts?
View the document Locust and grasshopper distribution
View the document Damage and losses caused by locusts
close this folder 2. Desert Locust-Schistocerca gregaria
View the document Anatomy of a locust
View the document Life cycle
View the document Behaviour in relation to habitat
View the document Seasonal movements and breeding areas of desert locust during plagues and recessions
View the document Recession periods, outbreaks and the origin of plagues
close this folder 3. Other African locusts
View the document African migratory locust-Locusts migratoria migratorioides
View the document Other subspecies of Locusta migratoria
View the document Red locust-Nomadacris septemfasciata
View the document Brown locust-Locustana pardalina
View the document Tree locusts-Anacridium melanorhodon melanorhodon, Anacridium melanorhodon arabafrum, Anacridium wernerellum, Anacridium aegyptium
close this folder 4. Sahelian grasshoppers
View the document Senegalese grasshopper-Oedaleus senegalensis
View the document Sudan plague locust-Aiolopus simulatrix
View the document Rice grasshopper-Hieroglyphus daganensis
View the document Diabolocatantops axillabis
View the document Kraussaria angulifera
View the document Cataloipus cymbiferus and cataloipus fuscocoeruleipes
View the document Variegated grasshopper-Zonocerus variegates
View the document Kraussella amabile and ornithacris cavroisi
close this folder 5. Southeast Asian locusts
View the document Oriental migratory locust-Locusta migratoria manilensis
View the document Javanese grasshopper-Valanga nigricornis
View the document Bombay locust-Nomadacris succincta (formerly Patanga succincta)
close this folder 6. Locust reporting
View the document The aims of a reporting system
close this folder 7. Controlling locusts
View the document Control strategies
View the document Chemical control
View the document Safety in insecticide application and storage
View the document Environmental concerns and locust control
close this folder 8. Natural control
View the document Weather factors
View the document Natural enemies of the desert locust
View the document Biological control
close this folder Appendix
View the document Campaign report
View the document Latitude and longitude
View the document Collecting, preserving and packing specimens
View the document Sprayers suitable for locust control operations
View the document Conversion tables
View the document Bibliography

Other subspecies of Locusta migratoria

Figure 108 shows the widespread distribution of this species. Nine subspecies have so far been distinguished. The Locusta found in Arabia and India is very similar to the African subspecies but forms swarms much less frequently and except for India is a relatively minor pest. In Madagascar Locusta is regarded as the most important agricultural pest, especially of rice and sugarcane. There can be four generations in a year: one in the dry season and three in the rainy season. Development is continuous so that all stages can be found at the same time. Plagues last 1-3 years (last plague was 1960-1961) and follow periods of above average rainfall. Recession periods are much longer. The main outbreak area is in the southwest corner of the island where Locusta is concentrated by the North East Trade Winds into marshy areas suitable for breeding.

Locusta m. manilensis is described in Chapter 5 and the other subspecies are outside the area covered by the handbook.

 


Fig. 108. Distribution of the subspecies of the Migratory Locust.