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Soft Energy Worldwide - 1992 1993

Soft Energy Worldwide - N°6 - May 1992

Soft Energy Europe. No. 6, May 1992. Special UNCED issue on world collaboration.

NGO newsletter on renewable energy and a sustainable energy planning

ISSN 0906 9054


The New Sustainable Energy NGOs

During the last 20 years, there has been a growing understanding of the problems created by the traditional energy systems. These are the environmental problems, currently in focus, as well as resource-depletion problems, safety problems and problems of democracy of the highly centralized energy systems.

These problems are the background for the creation of a number of organizations of concerned citizens, that are working for more sustainable energy solutions.

These organizations, the sustainable energy NGOs, have not stopped the work by criticising the current systems, they have in many cases initiated development of alternatives: renewable energy and energy savings. They represent a new type of voluntary organizations: consisting of concerned citizens unhappy with the current unsustainable systems, and at the same time being in the front of technical and organizational development for new solutions. They also represent the ideas of a technological development close to the users, unlike the traditional industrial approach, where research and development is taking place in the closed circles of institutes and companies.

There have been remarkable results of the developments initiated by such organizations, the cases mentioned in this newsletter is only a few of them. In most cases the NGOs have left it to commercial companies to be producers of the technologies. They have after the initial phase of a new development concentrated on securing the organizational and economical framework for a successful large scale implementation. In these later phases the NGOs have been working with public education as well as lobbying.

If the world is going to follow a sustainable development path, there is a need for considerably strengthening of organizations working for sustainable developments in all sectors, and on all levels. And there is needed much more understanding of how to reach a sustainable development everywhere.

There is at present no international network, where the sustainable energy organizations have a voice, that can be heard from the international communities, and that can spread the ideas and knowledge of the results from these organizations. This is one of the reasons why there is very little understanding in the international communities for these ideas. And the lack of a network has also limited the exchange of ideas between the sustainable energy organizations from different parts of the world.

This is the background for our proposals of a sustainable energy network, as described in this newsletter. It is no easy task to set up a well-functioning network, able to support groups of the most different kinds, to speak up loud enough to be beard internationally, and to spread the ideas of sustainable energy development in practice.

But we feel that we have to start now !

Gunnar Boye Olesen

Soft Energy Europe/World-wide Published by:

OVE (Danish Organization for Renewable Energy)

Willemoesgade 14 2100 København Ø Denmark

Ph. +45-3142 9091 Fax +45-3142 9095

OVE has since 1975 worked for renewable energy in Denmark, and we are deeply involved in the Danish development of windpower, solar systems and other kinds of renewable energy.

The aims of our work are now further support for renewable energy and energy savings, development of energy plans for a sustainable future and to make energy questions into questions of public concern.


Ann Vikkelsø

Gunnar B. Olesen

Deadline for seventh issue: August, 1, 1992

The newsletter is published 4 times a year. Next Issue September, 1, 1992.

If you want to receive the coming Issues of this newsletter please inform OVE. The newsletter will as long as possible be free. Later a subscription pries will be set.

This issue is supported by:

PlanEnergi, Arhus, Denmark. OVE, Denmark.

Plums Økologifond, Denmark.

SIMU, Danish Collaboration Intemational Environment and Development.

SEK, Denmark.



UNCED and Energy

by Gunnar Boye Olesen, OVE

When United Nations Conference on Environment and Development starts the third of June, preparations have been underway in more than a year. At four preparation conferences, Prepcoms and special negotiations on climate change and big-diversity problems, all UNCED issues have been discussed several times. The questions of how to reach a sustainable energy development have had a rather low position in the official negotiations, being regarded as a smaller part of the climate negotiations.

From NGO-side there has been a number of proposals for sustainable energy strategies and formation of a sustainable energy agency. One of these was the presentation of the NGO energy strategy "Sustainable energy collaboration, - towards a world strategy" at the third Prepcom, August 1991. And the UN advisory committee "UN Solar Group'' has given a detailed report on all the measures, that it find necessary to realize a sustainable energy development. status of negotiations

By the end of the fourth and final Prepcom in New York, only a few words about sustainable energy development have slipped into the hundreds of pages of proposed documents for UNCED. Thus, in the section on climate change in the proposed Agenda 21 there are a few statements:

· "Changes to existing and new institutional mechanisms of technical and financial assistance may be needed at national, regional and global levels. There is particularly urgent need for work in the areas of energy efficiency and environmentally sound energy systems, especially renewable resources.";

· "....a global level institutional response will also be required.";

· "collaborating centres could be set up by relevant UN bodies,...";

· '.Review of public financial institutions" (should be done by countries).

(quotations from UNCED-document A/CONF.151/PC/WG.1/L.47 page 16)

These statements are, like much of the rest of Agenda 21, dependent on the financial side. And as there was no financial agreements reached at the final Prepcom, the whole Agenda 21 is waiting for an eventual agreement on finances at UNCED.

Besides Agenda 21, energy questions are dealt with in the proposed treaty on climate change, but the proposals here are even more vague. If UNCED reaches firm commitments of a climate treaty, this will definitely push action for a sustainable energy development. Sorrily this is not very likely in the view of the last session on climate change negotiations in New York.

With this situation before UNCED, there is still a very long way to go, before UN and the international community can be said to take care of a sustainable energy development. And there is very far from the latest scientific conclusions of larger climate changes from IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) till the political consequences that the countries will make because of this.



NGO Network on Sustainable Energy

by Gunnar Boye Olesen, OVE

A worldwide collaboration of NGOs working for a sustainable energy development is now under way. A network is planned to be formed at June, 4, 1992.

When the leaders of the world are gathered to discuss environment and development i Rio de Janeiro, there will also be room for discussions among independent organizations about how we, the NGOs, can strengthen our work for a sustainable development. For those of us working with energy, it is obvious that one of the drawbacks is the lack of an international network working for a sustainable energy development. In a number of countries, there are independent nation-wide organizations working for a sustainable energy development, in Europe there is even a regional network European Federation for Renewable Energy. But a worldwide energy NGO network Is lacking. Thus, there Is only little pressure on UN and other international organizations to follow a sustainable development when dealing with energy questions.

One of the occasions to discuss an NGO energy network is the workshop on sustainable energy development organized by OVE and others as a parallel activity to UNCED at June, 4 in Rio de Janeiro. As the activities around UNCED involve more NGO- representatives from ail continents than ever before, it is a unique possibility to discuss worldwide collaboration and formation of a network. The following proposal will be the basis for discussion about the network at the workshop.

Proposal for a network

The basis of the network could be an agreement about a common platform. As the NGO energy strategy "Sustainabie energy collaboration, - towards a world strategy" is now supported by more than 50 organizations, this strategy could be a natural initial platform for the network. This strategy have to be followed by regional strategies, as a worldwide strategy can not deal with regional problems with the necessary details.

As the member-organizations of the network have very different economical situations, it will be preferable ifthe network does not have a membership fee, but rely totally on voluntary contributions. The core expenses of the network have to be kept at a minimum, not to make the network dependent of larger contributions or external funding. More expensive activities can be made as projects with external funding/sponsors.

Specific tasks of the network should include:

· Exchange of experiences and networking among NGOs.

· Public education and awareness creation.

· Establishment and support of focal points that will lobby national governments, international bodies, and donor agencies.

· Implementation of a mechanism for soliciting and channeling support to grassroots, local, national, regional and international NGOs.

· Liaising with concerned multilateral agencies such as UNCED and the proposed Renewable Energy and Efficiency Agency and with NGOs as International Solar Energy Society.

· Formulating and supporting the implementation of a global sustainable energy strategy based on local, national and regional energy strategies.


The network should have a simple core organization, and the possibility to run projects. The core-organizatlon could be:

· two coordinators from each world region;

· regional assemblies, that elect the coordinators

· a secretariat;

· a newsletter;

· contact-points close to all international bodies, that the network will collaborate with.

As projects, the network can make seminars, strategies, research, implement support of NGOs as well as many other activities. Out of the 56 organizations supporting the NGO energy strategy, more than 35 are interested In joining an NGO energy network. Thus there is a broad basis from the beginning for such an initiative.



Sustainable Energy Agency

by Gunnar Boye Olesen, OVE

As one of the results of UNCED, there ought to be established better international organizations dealing with the sustainable energy development.


Most people working for a sustainable development agree that there is a lack of international institutions promoting a sustainable energy development. The question has been raised by a number of NGOs: the organizations behind the strategy "Sustainable energy collaboration, - towards a world strategy", Greenpeace, Eurosolar and others. Now also the UN advisory committee on renewable energy "UN Solar Group" has recommended a new international agency dealing with renewable energy.

To realize the establishment of better institutions, it is now up to the countries to promote the proposals. Hopefully one of the results of UNCED will be a recommendation to the UN General Assembly to set up a UN Sustainable energy organization, and the formation of an open preparation committee to make the more detailed proposal.


In many discussions among countries, institutional matters seem to overshadow the issues, that the institutions are dealing with. It is important to stress that it is much more important what issues, the sustainable energy organization is dealing with than whether itis a new agency, a strong coordinating unit or something else with sufficient resources.

The main issues concerning sustainable energy development, that need new international collaboration is:

· easily accessible information systems;

· support of capacity-building for development and implementation of sustainable energy technologies in developing and Eastern European countries;

· support formulation of sustainable energy strategies in all countries;

· assess the development of the energy sector in all countries;

· supporting establishment of minimum efficiency standards

· transfer of environmentally benign technology

· prevention of "eco-dumping". where old wasteful technologies are exported from more developed to less developed countries

· provide funds for investments in sustainable energy technologies

· restructuring energy funding policies to give highest priority to sustainable energy technologies.



Sustainable Energy Development towards a world strategy

by Gunnar Boye Olesen, OVE

In 1991 a group of NGOs finalized an NGO-strategy for energy, called "Sustainable energy development, - towards a world strategy". In this work they used the main NGO-positions on energy, and described how they could be implemented in the energy systems of the world.

Now this strategy is supported by 56 non-governmental organizations worldwide.

The strategy calls for:

· restructuring of the energy sectors of the industrialized countries to allow energy savings and renewable energies to reach their potential of meeting energy needs, thereby realizing the necessary reductions of C02 and other pollutants, and without using nuclear power;

· change till sustainable lifestyles;

· for all countries to define and follow sustainable energy strategies.

For industrialized countries the strategy calls for a restructuring of the present systems, that favour fossil fuels and nuclear power over the cleaner options. The different supply and efficiency solutions should have equal access to the markets, and to financing. Environmental costs should be included in the evaluation of the alternatives.

The transport sector has the fastest growing energy consumption, and special measures have to be taken to favour trains and busses over cars and planes, and to reduce transport.

For developing countries, where 75% of the worlds population use 25% of the worlds energy consumption, there is a need for increased energy consumption for basic needs and development. But the more efficient and locally based the energy structure is, the more will it support a stable development. A sustainable energy balance should give immediate priority to developing renewable sources of energy and to the end-user approach, involving local participation of consumers, NGOs, and R&D institutions. There are needs for local institutional development, training, information, promotion of renewable energy, efficiency technologies and energy planning.

The strategy also calls for international collaboration as described In the articles of NGO energy network and a sustainable energy agency.



The Success of Danish Wind Energy

by Henrik Lund, OVE

· Important improvements in technology

· Significant drops in production prices

· Major export orders

· Installation of more than 3000 wind turbines with a total installed capacity of more than 450 MW

· Production of approximately 3% of the Danish electricity consumption.

That is some of the results of the Danish development of wind energy utilization. These results were created by a public movement, a small-scale industry and a number of hardworking pioneers during the last one or two decades.

Technological development

The tradition for utilizing wind energy is long in Denmark. First as a source of mechanical energy, but early in this century electricity was produced on windmills as well. In modern times a rapid and remark able development began in the mid

70es in response to the energy crisis.

Different wind turbines was proposed such as darrieus, gyro mills and proceller types. One particular concept emerged from these attempts: the horizontal axis, 3-blade up-wind, grid-connected induction generator wind turbine.

The wind turbines have grown in size during the period. The first turbines from the mid-70es were small turbines with a capacity of 2.5 to 30 kW. In the early 80es the most common turbine was the 55 kW machine, the 99 kW machine dominated in the mid-80es and then the 150 kW machine. Now machines from 200 to 400 kW are the most common.

Price development

The price for wind turbines has risen during the period, but so has the size and the efficiency.

A typical 250 kW wind turbine cost 1.5 mio. DKK (250,000 US$) and produces approximately 500,000 kWh/year.

The electricity price for an optimally sited wind turbine has fallen from more than 1 DKK/kWh in 1980 to between 0.3 and 0.4 DKK/kWh in 1988 and is expected to fall to between 0.2 and 0.3 during the 90es (1 DKK = 0,14 US$). This makes windpower electricity nearly as cheap as electricity produced on coal fired steam turbines. And windpower Is, of course, much better for the environment.

Ownership and political circumstances

In the 1970es ail wind turbines were sited individually and owned by private persons. Then for a period, most of ail wind turbines were owned in partnerships between a number of families each having a share corresponding to their electricity consumption.

During the 1980es utility wind farms have gained increasing importance with offshore wind farms being the most recent development.

Tax-regulations, government subsidies and electricity settling prices have had a major influence on the development on wind power in Denmark. Without a constant public pressure and a positive attitude from a majority In parliament the development would not have reached the results mentioned here.



Brazilian Sustainable Energy Development

by Emilio Lebre La Rovere

The barriers and how to overcome them.

Taking advantage of the country's large endowment of natural resources, more than half of Brazilian primary energy consumption is supplied by renewable energy sources. Over 90% of electricity needs are covered by hydropower plants. Ethanol from sugar cane, sugar cane bagasse and charcoal give also considerable contributions to the energy supply.

This successful renewable energy strategy explains why present greenhouse gas emissions from Brazilian energy system are limited to around 70 mililon tons of carbon/year (only 1% of global emissions).

However, disruptive social and ecological impacts at the local and regional levels result from the building of huge hydropower dams, large sugar cane plantations and ethanol distilleries, woodfuel and charcoal production by ineffecient technology based upon deforestation or, at a lesser extent, extensive homogeneous eucalyptus forests.

A large number of unused technological alternatives for small-scale renewable energy production and rational energy use exists. Among them can be highlighted:

· An important energy conservation potential remains untapped.

· Co-generation schemes can maximize the power surplus generated in alcohol distilleries using sugar cane bagasse fuelled boilers.

· Small hydropower can foster regional development while playing a complementary role in energy supply policy.

· A wide spectrum of renewable energy technologies already available deserving further development and demonstration: biodigestion, high efficiency kilns for charcoal, wood gasifiers, wind power turbines a.o.

But the adoption of a sustainable energy strategy in Brazil is hampered by several obstacles, including: the energy pricing policy; the lack of appropriate credit lines and financial Incentives to the adoption of new equipment; poor institutional support; and the insufficient amount of resources allocated to scientific and technological development. Un doubtly only a strong political will can move government policies towards increased social and ecological sustainability of Brazilian energy strategy. In its achievement NGOs can play an Important role through the promotion of demonstration programmes of appropriate technology, illustrating the potential and the requirements for overcoming these barriers.

Further information by: Instituto de Ecologia e Desenvolvimento, Rua Erasmo Braga, 277/503, Rio de Janeiro Brasil, att. Emilio Lebre La Rovere, ph: +55-21-242 4951

SERO Energihushållning (Energy saving)

Blästadsg 126,582 62 Unkoping ph +46-(0)13-161578

SERO/SRF Small Hydro Power

Owners Association

Känsligrand 6C, 803 23 Gavle att Christer Söderberg ph +46-(0)26-111411 fax +46-(0)26-127127

SEROs Värmepumpesektion

(Heat Pump Section)

Solhyddan Ledberg, 585 99 Unkoping ph +46-(0)13-95051

Småkraftverkens Riksförening

SRF (Soc. ot Small Powerplants)

Member of SERO.

Köhlby Gård, 388 00 Ljungbyholm ph +46-(0)480-30017

Statens Energiverk

Governmental, the Swedish Energy

Agency, energy conservation

117 87 Stockholm att Hans Nielsson ph +46-(0)8-7449195 fax +46-(0)8-7440939

Svenska Biogasföreningen

(Swedish Biogas Association)

Member of SERO.

IVL, Box 21060, 100 31 Stockholm ph +46-(0)8-7020210

Svenska solanergiföreningen

SEAS (Swedish Solar Energy

Association) c/o SERC, Forskargatan 6, Box

10044, 781 10 Börlange ph +46-(0)243-73757 fax +46-(0)243-73750

Svenska Vindkraftförening SVIF

(Wind Power Ass.)

Member of SERO.

Erihstorp PI 7480, 533 92 Lundsbrunn att Lennart Blomgren ph +46-(0)511-57474

WISE - Stockholm c/o Box 1633, 742 91 Östhammar att Miles Goldstick ph +46-(0)173-70271 fax +46-(0)8-6422829



Arbeltegemeluschatt Swissaid

NGO, political advocacy and public awareness raising on environmental and development issues conceming 3rd world.

Monbijoustrasse 31, Posffach 1686, 3001 Bern att K. Spichiger ph +41-(0)31-261232 fax +41-(0)31-262205

Energy Efficiency 2000 Project International Trade Center

54-56 rue de Montbrilliant, 1202 Geneva 10 ph +41-22-7343300/7300590 fax +41-22-7343285

Network '92 The Centre tor Our Common Future

Newsletter, towards UNCED'92.

Palais Wilson, 52 Rue de Paquis, 1201 Geneva ph +41-(0)22-7327117 fax +41-(0)22-7385046

OIKOS Umweltökonomische Studenteninitiative

Hochschule St. Gallen, Dufourstrasse 50, 9000 St. Gallen ph +41-(0)71-252142

Sustainable Development Project Rocheteller Foundation c/o M. Stiefel, 9 Avenue des Arpillieres, 1224 Geneve-Chene Bougeries att Rob Lichtman ph +41-(0)22498493 fax +41-(0)22498493

Swiss Center for Appropriate Technology (SKAT)

Tigerbergstrasse 2, 9000 St. Gallen att Silvia Ndiaye ph +41-(0)71-302585 fax +41-(0)71-Z4656

Swiss Solar Energy Ass.

Organizing public RE movement, cooperates with CLER (France).

Belpstrasse 69, 3000 Bern 14 att Gerber Beat ph +41-31458000

World Meteorological Organization

41 Ave. Giuseppe-Motta, 1211 Geneva 2 att Dr. Sylvia Broere-Moore ph +41-(0)Z-7308315 fax +41-(0)22-7401439/7342326

Zentrum für angepassle Technolog. und Sozlalokologle Langenbruck

Active and passive solar energy, wind energy, combined heat-power plants, decentralized power supply, solar architecture.

Ökozentrum, Schwengistr.12, 4438 Langenbruck ph + 41 -62-601460




National contact:

Zelonij Svit (Green World)

One of the largest environmental movements in USSR, anti-nuclear. ul. Kirov 5a, 2s2021 Kiev att Sergey Kurykin fax +7 0442286992 (Zelonij Svit)

Green Help ul Malozhitomirskaya 13, kv.16, 252001 Kiev att Natalie Karpan


Centre for Socio Eco Research and Documentatlon

11000 Beograd, Rige od Fere 4 att Snjezana Milivojevic ph +38 (0)11 638081

Environmental Division of Federal Secr. for Dovelopment

11070 Novi Beograd, Omlandinskih

Brigada 1 att Sofija Vujanac-Borovnica ph + 38-(0) 11 -199128 fax +38-(0)11-2222 909

Green Party

Yoguslav Chamber of Economy

11000 Belgrade, Terazije 23 att Deyan Dimov ph +38-(0)11-336232/339461 fax + 38-(0) 11 -326691

Yugoslav Union ot Solar Energy Society

UL Knesa Milosa 9, P.O. Box 356,

11000 Beograd




The Yearbook of Renewable Energy 1992 - Actions, Events, Initiatives

Published by EUROSOLAR. This is the first Yearbook of Renewable Energy, which will be published every year. Contents include:

- Articles on the state of application of renewable energies (Photovoltaics scar thermics, wind- and hydropower, tidal energy, biomass, solar hydrogen, architecture).

- A debate countering the arguments and the restrictions against renewable energies.

- Reports on important political resolutions, initiatives and programmes by international organizations, NGOs, governments, parliaments in order to provide incentives for renewable energies.

- New projects and ideas for the introduction of renewable energies.

- Reviews of important renewable energy conferences.

- Statistics of the real supply of renewable energies and budgetary aims.

- Overviews of renewable energy activities of institutions and organizations.

The yearbook costs 38 US$ (27 US$ for EUROSOLAR members) and can be ordered from: Ponte Press, Verlags GmbH, Falkstrasse 3 F, 4630 Bochum, Germany. Fax: + 49-234-531841.

European Directory of Renewable

Energy Suppliers and Services 1992

Published by James 8 James Science Publishers and University of Wales College of Cardiff.

The directory lists companies and organizations active in the renewable energy field. Almost 2000 companies are listed alphabetically and by subject areas. Furthermore the directory contains:

- Editorial articles including country profiles written at government or national body level.

- Overviews of the state of activity in each of the main fields of renewable energy.

- Case studies.

- Maps showing resources available in Europe.

- Glosaries of terms.

- Listings of conferences and cources. - A bibliography.

- A detailed index

- A 56 page US supplement presenting a summary of renewable energy activity throughout the US.

The directory (360 + 56 pages) costs 45 US$ and can be ordered from James & James Science Publishers, 5 Castle Road, London NW1 8PR, UK. Fax: + 4471 -2843737

Organizations/companies interested in being included in future issues can obtain a form of inclusion at the above mentioned address. The 1993 edition is already in edition.

Energy Efficiency and Renewables: Recent Experience on Mainland

Europe by David Olivier.


Examples of energy effecient building in Germany, Switzerland and the Netherlands.

Price: 75 £. Published by Energy Advisory Associates, 8 Meadow Drive, Credenhill, Herefordshire HR4 7EF, England. Fax: + 44432-760787.

Solar Energy by Harald N. Rostvik. Describes the posibilities for utilization of solar energy. The book is not very technical, as the barriers today for large utilization of solar energy are not technical or economical, but political and institutional. Published by SunLab, Steingatan 87, 4024 Stavanger, Norway. Fax: +47 524062.

Nuclear Power: way forward or cul-de-sac ? by Peter Bunyard

A follow up to "Nuclear Power - Shut it Down". Argues that nuclear cower Is not the solution to global warming.

Price: 7 £ (Eastern European NGOs: 4 £). Published by The Ecologist, Worthywile Manor Farm, Camelford, Cornwall Pi 32 9 TT. Ph: +44-840-212711.


A SEED - Action for Solidarity, Equality Environment and Development. Background issue, february 1992. Includes description of actions in 1992.

Further information: EYFA, Eschholzstrasse 86, 7800 Freiburg, Germany. Fax: +49-761-36269.

Streetwise - The Magazin of Urban Studies

Quarterly bulletin of the national association for urban studies. NAUS, Lewis Cohen Urban Studies Centre at Brighton Polytechnic, 68 Grand Parade Brighton BN2 2JY England. Subscription rate (NGOs): 15.50 £/year.


Newsletter in french, published 22 times a year since 1981. A column is dedicated to soft energies and its green agenda, with almost 200 activities a month, announces all ecological events.

International subscription: 10 US$lyear. Published by Brabant Ecologie, Route de Renipont 3, 1380 Ohain, Belgium. Ph:+32-2 6331048.



Success Stones in Post Communist Countries - it must take time

Adam Gula, Polish Ecological Club & Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

Poland was the first country in the former communist bloc, which initiated radical political and economic reforms. This is, perhaps, why our experience should be considered as instructive in the present time of historic transition in Eastern and Central Europe.

It is amusing for environmental activists, who once opposed the communist regime on the environmental grounds, to observe that it may take more time to have success stories now, than it took in some cases under the old rule or in the early, honeymoon days of the new system. For example, the campaign which led to the spectacular environmental success in 1981 which was the decision to close the aluminum plant near Krakow in southern Poland, took merely several months. The deliberations on whether the nuclear power plant project near Gdansk should be abandoned cancelled. It was easier then to have such achievements, as we all didn't like the communist heritage - and the notion of unemployment had been known only from the textbooks about the capitalist system. Moreover, recession, which may last, and fascination with the western consumption-minded life-style will hamper fast progress in near future. Therefore, it will take some time before we have new success stories after 50 years of mindless devastation of the environment by communist governments.

This is why, some campaigns or efforts, which are by no means spectacular, and which may bring results only in several time. Let me give one example. Polish industries (and economy at large) are on average 3-5 times less energy efficient when compared with the Western European standards. Since energy production in Poland is dominantly based on burning coal, this means more pollution, more burden on our shattered economy and smaller chances of economic and environmental recovery. increasing energy efficiency is, therefore, both an economic and environmental priority for Poland. To achieve this, one has first to convince the cadres of engineers, manegers and decision-makers that SAVED ENERGY is as good as PRODUCED ENERGY and that producing LESS energy can be profitable for the economy. It is not always an easy task, if one considers the 45 years of the "production-for-production" doctrine in the then communist countries.

The success story in Poland is that this work has been done, or rather, nearly done - notably due to the work of the Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency which has persistently lobbied for accepting this new philosophy, since it has been established in April 1991. At many meetings and seminars the people who decide or influence Poland's energy policies have been mostly convinced that Integrated Resource Approach, Demand Side Management or Least Coast Planning make sense for the Country. The Polish Power Grid Company has committed itself to develop a Least" Coast Plan for the power sector. Several municipalities, notably Bielko-Biala (180,000 inhabitants) embarked on similar programs for their heating systems. When implemented and disseminated, these pilot projects will become a real success story for the whole country.



Rural Community Supply in India Using Sterling Pump

by Gunnar Olesen, based on information from H.C. Srivastava

The sterling machine is one of the promising technologies for converting biofuels to mechanical energy. It is an external combustion machine, that can use any kind of fuel for the heating.

Such a machine is the basis for a water supply project in the Suketi Village, Fetehpur District, not so far from Allahabad in India. The system provides water for community wafer points, and toe health station. The machine is operated and maintained by local youth, and it is powered mainly with sawdust and rice-husk, which is delivered by the users from their surplus.

The use of a sterling machine has a number of advantages:

· 100% elimination of fossil fuel for water pumping..

· The fuel, 10 kg of dried biomass per hour, is easily available, and is under full control of the users, the village inhabitants. In many situations the machine provides a cleaner disposal of the biomass than before.

· The technology is simpler and easier to maintain than diesel pumps.

· The running costs are much lower than diesel pumps

However, there are certain barriers for wider dissemination:

· There is only one manufacturer of sterling engines in India, and the availability is a problem.

· The project has identified a number of technical features of sterling engines that require immediate improvement to make the system run trouble free for longer periods. With-out these improvements, large scale dissemination will be a problem.

Further information by: H.C. Srivastava,

Agro Energy 8 Rural Development Society, 30 Clive Road, Allahabad 211001, India, ph- 91-532 602293.

Woodstoves in India

During the last years, there has been considerable success for the implementation of efficient woodstoves in India.

One of these woodstoves has been developed by "Development Alternatives". They have carried out detailed research and development work in designing the stove, made market research and field research. As a result of this, there is now developed a woodstove, that is produced by local manufacturers and that is selling well.

Further information by: Developing Alternatives, B-32, Institutional Area, TARA Crescent, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110 016, India ph-91 -11 665370, fax-91 -11 - 686 6031



The Improved KGJ Cookstove of Kenya

by Stephen Karakezi, The Foundation for Woodstove Dissemination, Nairobi.

Often referred to as one of the mod successful improved cookstove projects in Sub-Sahara Africa, the Kenya dove project developed and successfully commercialized an energy efficient metal-ceramic stove.

Over 500,000 stoves of this new improved design have been produced and disseminated in Kenya since the mid-1980es. Known as the Kenya Ceramic Jiko, KGJ in short, the improved stove is made af ceramic and metal components and is produced and marketed through the local informal sector.

One of the key characteristics of this project was its ability to utilize the existing cookstove production and system to produce and market the KCJ. Thus, the improved stove is fabricated and distributed by the same people who manufacture and sell the traditional stove design.

Another important feature of the Kenya stove project is that the KCJ design is not a radical departure of the traditional stove. The KCJ is, in essence, an incremental development from the traditional all-metal stove.

It uses materials that are locally available and can be produced locally. In addition, the KCJ is well adapted to the cooking patterns of a large majority of Kenya's urban households.

The KCJ design was not selected or identified at the onset of the stove pro gram but was arrived at through a series of iterative and dynamic ROD steps that involve a large number of individuals including existing artisanal stove producers; interested NGOs; Government

Ministries; and, research agencies.

Other important factors that contributed to the succesful commercialization of the KGJ is the conscious decision made by the project not to provide subsidies. This was instrumental in compelling the key actors In the project to utilize the existing stove production and marketing system and to convince interested private sector entrepreneurs to invest in improved stove manufacture. In their bid to recover their investment, private entrepeneurs contributed ensuring competition between producers reduced the price from a high of US $ 15.00 per stove to the current prevailing price of US $ 2.50 thus bringing the stove within the purchasing reach d a large section of Kenya's urban low-income households.

The KCJ stove design has now been successfully replicated In Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, Sudan, Malawi and Senegal. In Tanzania, It is now estimated the national stove project financed by the World Bank has disseminated over 50.000 KCJ-type stoves over the last two years. By the mid-1990es, the KCJ is expected to be the stove design of choice in the most urban centres of Sub-Saharan Africa.



Informal Seminar on CO2/Energy Taxes

by Gunnar Boye Olesen, OVE

At April, 8-9 there was an informal seminar"Energy pricing policies for controlling C02 emissions". This was the first seminar on this topic with both "experts" from OECD, EC- Commission and USA, and a number of NGOs from both side of the Atlantic. An environmental tax on energy is an important part of most climate stabilization strategies, and more and more people favour tax on polluting energy consumptions over other taxes. So there were good reasons to make such a seminar. Also because the climate treaty is being negotiated now and EC is discussing C02/energy taxations.

At present only the the Nordic countries have CO-taxes, where the Danish C02-tax is in function from May, 15 this year. In USA, there will apparently not be any national CO2-tax in the first few years. But the individual states can make their own pollution-taxes, and at the moment the state of Maryland is preparing such a tax, that should come into function next year.

In Europe, EC is considering a CO2/energy tax, but the proposal is opposed by most industrial lobby-groups, and some of the Southern countries in EC. Spain is the strongest opposer among the countries. According to the information et the seminar, there has not been any deeper analyses of the consequences of such a tax in Spain. So it is quite possible that the Spanish government is opposing this because it does not know the impacts, rather than because of negative impacts for Spain.

On the seminar, there was also the discussion about a CO2-tax contra an energy tax. The Swedish NGOs preferred a CO2-tax as the easiest one to explain. Then they would combine it with a nuclear fuel tax, not to give nuclear power windfall profits. The NGO-representatives from other countries favoured an energy-tax, as they did not believe it possible to pass a nuclear fuel tax in any country. At present, there is no nuclear fuel tax in any country, that is comparable to the proposed or present CO2/energy taxes.

There was no conclusion from the seminar, but a large number of paper were presented. Further information can be obtained by OVE or:

Climate Network Europe 44, rue de Taciturne 1040 Bruxelles, Belgium Ph: +32-2-2310180. Fax: + 32-2-2305713.

World Resources Institute 1709 New York Avenue N.W. Washington DC 20006, USA Ph: +1-202-6386300. Fax: + 1 -202-6380036.


Alternative World Energy Conference, AWEC

by Kirsten V. Andersen, OVE

In September 19th, 20th and 21st the Spanish organization Aedenat, Asociazion Ecologista de Defensa de la Naturaleza is organizing an Alternative World Energy Conference (AWEC) in Madrid.


Because all the "big boys'' get together in Madrid, September 20th to 25th, to the official congress of the World Energy Conference (WEC). Like on previous WECs Aedenat expects them to use very much energy talking about nuclear energy and conventional energy production using coal, oil and natural gas. Especially they might promote nuclear energy as environmentally friendly minimizing the Green House Effect. As Aedenat says ''to give us the power we need until the advent of fusion, the new Holy Grail''.

Aedenat wants to show, that there are alternatives to the present energy policies. We don't need more nuclear energy that is risky and polluting to people and the environment. We don't need more fossil fuel to accelerate the Green House Effect. We need to change the way we produce and use energy, which requires a whole new way of arranging our political and social life.

Therefore Aedenat has arranged AWEC, and contacted NGOs all over the world to give presentations of renewable energy and energy savings.


What is energy for ?

· energy, basic needs and welfare

· energy and space: metropolis, housing and transport

· fulfilment of the basic needs in the South

· energy, matter and entropy: for a global concept

· ethical and moral aspects

An unsustainable model

· environmental consequences of energy transformation and use of resources scarcity

· acid rain

· climate changes

· nuclear power and waste

· big dams, big problems

North-South energy distribution

· international flows of energetic raw material

· energy problems in Eastern Europe

· energy efficiency in the North and South

Better with less energy in the North

· alternative energy planning

· the myth of nuclear fusion

· renewable energies

· instruments of intervention: fiscal and regulatory measures, and local planning

Working for a new energy model

· experience of international coordination and proposals of future action

Awec resolution and final statement, press conference

See you in Madrid on AWEC, and maybe at our European energy seminar the week before.

Further information: AEDENAT, Campomanes 13, 28013 Madrid, Spain. Ph: + 34-1 -541 10 71. Fax: + 34-1571 71 08.



European Conferences

NGO seminar

In the week before AWEC, the 14th to 18th of September, OVE arranges the yearly European seminar on sustainable energy development for grassroots. As AWEC it takes place in Madrid.

This years seminar will concentrate on organizational topics. There will be lectures and workshops. In the workshop we will prepare a poster exhibition for AWEC, and we expect that most of the participants at our seminar also will participate at AWEC.

We are looking foreward to this years seminar and all the important new personal contacts it will give between grassroots in Europe.

If you want more information, please contact: Ann Vikkelsø, OVE, Willemoesgade 14, 2100 København Ø, Denmark. Ph: +45-31429091. Fax: + 45-31429095.

"Viennesse Conference for the Ecological Reconstruction of Central and Eastern Europe"

The Austrian NGO Global 2000 is organizing this conference for Central and Eastern European NGOs to take place in Vienna November, 15-18, 1992.

The aim of the conference is to

· develop strategies for key environmental areas

· adapt an East-West-Environmental Charter

· coordinate political activities

Six central issues will be covered at the conference:

· nuclear, power

· energy policy

· restoration of Hot Spots - Preservation of Pristine Nature

· ecology as a factor in East-West economic cooperation

· cooperation between Eastern and Western NGOs (Charter)

· support of Central and Eastern European NGOs

Further information: Martin Kaspar, Global 2000, Hahngasse 15/14, 1090 Wien, Austria. Ph: +43-1-3104077/78. Fax: +43-1- 3105023.



Handbook for Energy and Environmental Organizations

by Karsten Plejdrup, SEK

During the last 10-15 years many grassroots movements have emerged in Denmark, and they have actively taken part in the Danish debate on energy and environmental questions.

This work has resulted in the establishment of a network of energy and environmental offices throughout Denmark. They primarily give information and guidance on renewable energy and energy savings.

The local energy and environmental offices are organized as associations based on individual members, and they have for some years received governmental support, which has allowed them to rent offices and have employees. The work of these employees are independent information and implementation activities within the fields of sustainable energy solutions and other environmental solutions. Beside this, they have coordinated local efforts for energy and environmental activities.

Now the Danish energy and environmental offices have a comprehensive knowledge, that we will describe in this handbook.

The handbook is going to be a reference book which energy and environmental organizations in Eastern and Central Europe can use when establishing local energy and environmental offices and for other activities.


The book will tee divided in two sections: a section about organization & administration and a technical section.

We will describe how an open and democratic association can be established, with a stabile structure with bylaws and a governing committee, as well as the rights to realize projects and get economical grants.

Beside this, we will describe how an association/office can be organized and administrated in daily life.

The technical section will be the largest, and it will describe the different forms of renewable energy: solar, wind, biomass/biogas and others. For each source it will cover issues as:

· the technical function of systems for utilization

· how to estimate energy-outputs

· environmental consequences of using renewable energy versus conventional coal-based energy supply.

Beside this, we will describe issues as conservation of heat and electricity, the importance of heat and power cogeneration, environmental consequences of the transport sector, some options for more environmentally benign industrial productions.


· the outline of the book is now ready for comments from interested organizations in Eastern and Central Europe.

· an English draft will be ready by August this year

· the English version will be sent out for comments by August to interested organizations.

· adaption and translation to Polish, Czech, Hungarian and Russian will be done by interested persons from these countries. These persons will be invited for 2 weeks concentrated work with this in Denmark.

· after proofreading by interested organizations, the handbook will be printed in 100 copies for distribution to interested organizations.

· the originals for each language will be transferred to organizations, that will publish the handbook in full or in part in their own country.

If you as organization or person are interested in participating in the process of writing this handbook, please contact me or OVE. Use for instance the coupon at the bottom of this page.

Contact to politicians

To raise the awareness of the politicians for the potential of local energy and environmental activities as a mean to realize energy savings, renewable energy solutions etc, we plan an information-brochure aimed at politicians and relevent public officials. This brochure will explain the ideas behind energy and environmental offices, based on Danish experience.

Among other things, the brochure will describe the fruitful dialogue between the local energy-and environmental associations and central and local decision-makers to promote sustainable solutions.

The work with the handbook will be in collaboration with OVE International Secretariat.

For more information and copies of the outline, please contact:

OVE International Secretariat, att. Gunnar Boye Olesen, ph: + 45- 31429091, fax: +45-31429095 or SEK, att Karsten Plejdrup, ph: +4586612321, fax: +45 86614641

*SEK (Cdlaborating Energy and Environmentai Offices) is the Danish network of local energy and environmental offices. It collaborates with OVE on a number of issues.



Building for the Long Term

By David Olivier, B.Sc., M.lnst.E


As well as Scandinavia, some countries on the mainland of Europe are making major efforts to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings, and utilise renewable energy sources. These countries include Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands.

In these countries, there are hundreds of energy/buildings projects underway. To review and report on this work, the author recently made a visit to a number of projects in these countries, and a report on the subject has just been published**. This article describes one of the many interesting schemes underway.


Ten semi-detached houses were built in this small town, near Zurich, in 1990-91. Four of them should use essentially zero energy for space heating. Even the other six should only use a few bottles of propane per winter.

The skill shown in the design of this project is one borne of years of experience. In most respects, it represents the state-of-the-art in energy-consciouS, solar building design.

The walls are concrete blocks, with external insulation of 180 mm extruded polystyrene, and the basement floor and footings rests on a raft of extruded polystyrene. There is a continuous layer of insulation around the houses, with minimal cold bridges. As a result, the houses achieve true U-values of about 0.15 W/m2K in the opaque fabric (by comparison, the measured heat loss through the walls of recent UK houses is six times faster).

Some windows use an advanced glazing system, with two selectively-coated thin plastic films suspended between the two layers of glass. Most windows are argon-filled triple glazing, with two selective coatings. The houses achieve a U-value of 0.85 W/m2K im the glazing (yet in new UK buildings, it is still legal to use single pane windows, which lose heat seven times faster).

Based on results from a previous house, the air leakage of these dwellings is expected to be less than 0.2 air changes per hour at a pressure difference of 50 pascals (5-15 times better than even the Swedish requirement, and 40-50 times better than new UK dwellings.) To ensure health and comfort, the houses have a mechanical ventilation system for winter use. This recovers 85% of the heat in the stale air, to pre- warm the fresh air.

The four "zero energy" houses also have a solar heating system with longterm heat storage, although because of the tiny heat loss, it is only 4 percent of the volume of the house. They should use no fossil fuel for space or water heating in average or mild winters. The other six have about 9 m² of solar collector area, for summer water heating. In winter, they are heated by a tiny pro pane-fired combined heat and power system.

The extra cost of building the four zero energy homes was 15%; the other six cost 10% extra (10% of Swiss building costs!). Compared to homes that just meet the Zurich building code, the annual fuel saving in these ten 180 m², three-and-a-half storey, semi-detached houses is about 850 GJ per year.


To prevent serious changes in world climate over the next 50-100 years, quite dramatic efforts will be needed to improve buildings' energy efficiency, and to use more renewable energy. The energy department of Zurich canton, which managed this project, should be applauded for its efforts.

It is clear from such projects on mainland Europe that new buildings can meet ambitious goals for reduced C02 emissions, with no further development. However, it is clear that present efforts in most countries, such as the UK, are totally inadequate. There is so much to learn.

* Principal, Energy Advisory Associates.

** Energy Efficiency and Renewables: Recent Experience on Mainland Europe. Available from Energy Advisory Associates, 8 Medow Drive, Credenhill, Herefordshire, England, HR4 7EF, tel. +44 432- 760787. Price £75 per copy incl. UK postage or surface mail.



Solar 91 - a Swiss Action

by Ann Vikkelsø, OVE

Solar 91, a Swiss working partnership for promotion of solar energy, in 1980 bunched the nationwide action "Solar 1991 - for an energy independent Swikerland" to take place in 1991, which is the 700 anniversary of Switzerland.

The partnership has members from all Swiss cantons, and they work professionally with solar energy at the local level. They want to mobilize the utilization of the big solar energy potential in Switzerland, which is today very dependent on imported fuels - 80% is imported. In Swhzerland h is possible to cover 100% of the energy consumption in commercial and housing buildings by solar energy, by installing solar systems at the roofs.

The aim of the project was to plan, project or install 700 solar heat or power plants at the size of 1 kW - 1 MW before August the 1st 1992. The goal was reached, as there were installed 789 scar systems.

For the future the aim is that there are installed solar systems providing heat or electricity in all Swiss hamlets before year 2000.

Source: ''Aktionsbericht der Schweizer Aktion 'Solar 91"' by Gallus Cadonau, project leader of "Solar 91" and vice-chairman of EUROSOLAR. Das Solarzehalter, Heft 1/1992, EUROSOLAR, Plittersdorfer Str. 103, Postfach 120618, 5300 Bonn, Germany.




June, 1-21, 1992

UNCED '92, Rio de Janeiro,Brazil. June, 4, 1992

Energy Workshop at UNCED. Succesa Stories ot sustainable Energy Development. Formation ot Sustainable Energy Network.

June, 5-13, 1992

UNSAID, Parallel Conterence to UNCED, Freiburg, Germany.

June, 3-5, 1992

Seminarand exhibition on Renewable Energies, Sevilla, Spain

Info: IDA,Secretaria Tecnica

Ph: +3491 -5568415.

Fax: + 34- 91 -5551389

June, 2426, 1992

North Sun '92, Solar Energy at High Latitudes, Trondheim, Norway

Info: Norweglan Institute of Techndogy. Ph: + 47-7-595266.

Fax: + 49-7- 517226

June, 25-27, 1992

The Potential tor Small and Medium Sized Wind Energy Appl. in Mediterranean Countries, Rhodes, Greece


Ph: + 30- 1 6626460.

Fax: + 30-1 6626462.

August, 19-21, 1992

Eco Logical Architecture, European Congress 92, Stockholm - Helsinki.

Info: Congrex,

Ph: + 46-8-6126900

Fax: + 46-8-6126292.

August, 30 - September 6, 1992

Exploring the great transition... Our one World, Prague '92

Info: The Institute of Cultural Affairs Praha '92 Team.

Ph: +32-2-2194943.

Fax: + 32-2-2190406.

October, 8-11, 1992

EEMI Conf Energy- Ecology- New Materials Intormatica, Serbia.

Info: Bratisiav Tosic, Zadruga Tehnicar.

Ph: + 38-21 - 300363

Fax: + 38-21 -56753

October, 22-23, 1992

Collective Biogas Plants- European Experience in Combined Manure and Waste Processing, Herning, Denmark Info: Renewable Energy Info Centre.

Ph: + 45-42996065.

Fax: + 45-42994744.

November, 15-18, 1992

Conf. for the Ecological Reconstruction Central and Eastern Europe

Organized by Global 2000

Ph: +43-13104077.

Fax: +43-1-3105023.



Saarte Renewable Energy Organization

by Urmas Mägi

The organisation was founded on 23rd of January this year on Estonia's biggest island Saaremaa (Osel) by people who care for clean environment and can't stand the wasting of energy that was common in the former Soviet Union.

The exsisting energy crisis in Estonia has started a debate about the use/useless and possibilities of renewable energy and although all energy experts from westerns countries emphasise on energy savings and using renewable energy the deciders have done nothing yet. So the organisation has started its activity.

The aim is to start environmentally safe energy production, based on wind, sun, energy forests and biomass ,on Estonian islands. It is a non-profit non-governmental organization uniting single persons, entreprises and organizations on equal basis. Although SREO is young the members have been envolved in renewable energy activities for decades. Jüri Ling and Endel Nöu from Muhu island have built themselves (without any governmental support) several windturbines that up of Saaremaa local energy planning has been started.

We are very interested in cooperation with similar organozations worldwide, especially with those situated on islands.

The preliminary investigations show that at least 30% of energy used today can be saved at very small expenses, other 30% by restructuring agriculture and industry, and most of the remaining can be replaced with renewable energy. And as the yearly consumption of fossile fuels that are imported cost in world prices over 26 million dollars (this year), there seems to be also an economic side. So anyone anywhere who is interested in mutual action is welcome to contact on address:

Urmas Magi

Saarte Renewable Energy organisation PO. Box103 Kihelkonna

EE3334 Saaremaa, Estonia


Soft Energy Worldwide - N°7 - September 1992

NGO newsletter on renewable energy and a sustainable energy planning, No. 7, September 1992.

ISSN 0906 9054


The sun is shining

Sun, Sun, Sun ... - I cannot remember any Danish summer like this before. Not a single cloud in the sky for nearly three months. It helped the solar heating campaigns, there has been a significant increase of installed solar heating systems.

But in the back of my mind the thought is growing: is this the first warning of the greenhouse effect (many will not call it a warning, and there are some "serious" analysis showing that global warming will mainly have positive effects in Denmark).

Sitting in the sun I was reading the dayly reports in the newspapers from UNCED. The general impression given was that the results were very poor, inspite of the more than 1000 pages of international agreements; the commitments are very. few. A lot of important persons met, a lot of papers were signed, - but will future actions be influenced by this ?

Well, - the Climate Treaty was adapted, as well as Agenda 21 includes a Climate chapter. But no timetables or specific targets have been set for reduction of green-house gas emission. The convention on Climate Change commits OECD and Central and Eastern European countries to aim at reducing their emission of green-house gases to 1990 level by year 2000. This goal is to weak compared to scientific recommendations. And it is even discussed if this means they shall reduce the emissions or just try to do it. Though of some importance can be the commitments for all countries to make and publish inventories of green-house gas emissions, as well as plans to reduce the emissions.

As often before more clear results were achieved by the NGOs. At Global Forum, the parallel NGO conference, a worldwide network of NGOs working for a sustainable energy future was established; INFORSE (International Network for Sustainable Energy). Also other NGOs made important agreements during the Forum.

The importance of a network like INFORSE lies both in the internal exchange of experiences and knowledge, and the international lobbying that will be carried out in a world where international bodies get more and more powerful.

But the work did not stop in Rio. Already this September man-y European energy grassroots get together in Madrid to continue the work. At ESES (European Sustainable Energy Seminar) we will exchange information, initiate future collaboration, and coordinate international activities. In connection with the seminar the first European regional INFORSE meeting will take place. Also AWEC (Alternative World Energy Conference) is held in Madrid, where NGOs from, the whole world will participate.

This issue of "Soft Energy Europe.' (in future "Soft Energy Worldwide", newsletter of INFORSE) is written for these events, but hopefully it can give inspiration also to those of you who will not be there.

Ann Vikkelsø

Soft Energy Europe/World-wide Published by:

OVE (Danish Organization for Renewable Energy)

Willemoesgade 14 2100 København Ø Denmark

Ph. + 45-3142 9091 Fax +45-3142 9095

OVE has since 1975 worked for renewable energy in Denmark, and we are deeply involved in the Danish development of windpower, solar systems and other kinds of renewable energy.

The aims of our work are now further support for renewable energy and energy savings, development of energy plans for a sustainable future and to make energy questions into questions of public concern.


Ann Vikkelsø

Kirsten V. Andersen

Gunnar B. Olesen

Deadline for eighth issue: November, 1, 1992

The newsletter is published 4 times a year. Next Issue December, 1, 1 992.

If you want to receive the coming issues of this newsletter please inform OVE. The newsletter will as long as possible be free. Later a subscription price will be set.

This issue is supported by: OVE, Denmark. Plums Økologifond. Denmark.



INFORSE, International Network for Sustainable Energy

By Gunnar Boye Olesen, OVE

Background, the new sustainable energy NGOs

While the successes of the sustainable energy NGOs have been remarkable on local and national scale, there have been no international network, where these organizations have had a voice, that could be heard from the international communities, and that could spread the ideas and knowledge of the results from the organizations.

On this background there was established an NGO-working group on energy by the end of 1990. The group formulated in an open process an NGO-energy strategy "Sustainable energy development, towards a world strategy" in spring 1991. This strategy was presented for UNCED at Prepcom 3 in August 1991 with support from a large number of NGOs, as previous mentioned in Soft Energy. It is now supported by more than 50 NGO's worldwide.

INFORSE founded in Rio de Janeiro

With basis in the working-group behind the energy strategy, OVE organized three workshops on sustainable energy development at Global Forum, the NGO-forum parallel to the UNCED-conference in Rio de Janeiro. At-the first of these workshops, INFORSE was formed with the broad objective to encourage and support environmentally sound energy strategies for sustainable development at an levels. In the declaration from the workshop, the following specific tasks of the network are mentioned:

· Exchange of experiences and networking among NGOs.

· Public education and awareness creation.

· Establishment and support of focal points that will lobby international bodies, multi-lateral development banks, donor agencies and multinational corporations.

· Implementation of a mechanism for soliciting and channeling support to grassroots, local, national, regional and international NGOs.

· Liaising with concerned multilateral agencies such as UNCED and the proposed RE and Efficiency Agency and with NGOs as International Solar Energy Society.

· Formulating and supporting the implementation of a global sustainable energy strategy based on local, national and regional energy strategies.

In the declaration it is also stated that any organization supporting the NGO energy strategy "Sustainable energy development, towards a world strategy" can become member of the network. There is no membership-fee, but voluntary contributions are welcome.

Structure of INFORSE

The first workshop in Rio appointed OVE as a secretariat for the network and "Soft Energy Worldwide" as newsletter. The second workshop was used to choose contact-persons from the world regions and discuss initial activities of INFORSE. The task of the contact-persons is only to represent INFORSE in the initial phase and organize regional meetings, where INFORSE- coordinators can be elected in a democratic procedure among voluntary energy-NGO's of that world region. The regional meetings are the democratic basis of INFORSE. This has been chosen rather than worldwide meetings, because it gives poorer organizations better possibilities to participate.

The wider structure of INFORSE will develop with its activities and its future contacts to international bodies.

If the funds become available, INFORSE will set up a fund to support energy-NGO activities in developing countries.

INFORSE contact-persons chosen in Rio


· Adam Gula

Polish Ecological Club (PKE) priv. Poselska 20/15, 31002 Krakow,

Poland, ph: + 48-12-214587

· Gunnar Boye Olesen, OVE

Latin America

· Emilio Lebre la Rovere

Instituto de Ecologia e

Desenvolvimente, Rio de Janeiro,


· Martin Prieto Beaulieu

REDES FOE-Uruguay, Montevideo,


· Waldo Bustamente

Tekhne, Santiago, Chile


Northern America:

· Howard Geller

American Council for an Energy

Efficient Economy (ACEEE),

Washington DC, USA

· Alden Meyer

Union of Concerned Scientists

(UCS), Washington DC, USA


· Stephen Karekezi

Foundation for Woodstove

Dissemination (FWD), Nairobi, Kenya

· Youba Sokona

ENDA, B.P. 3370, Dakar, Senegal


· Raymond Myles

Action for Food Production

(AFPRO), New Delhi, India

· Benjamin Gertes

Philippine Center for Appropriate

Technology, Batangas City, Philip pines

In Europe, the first regional meeting is planned to be at September, 18 in Madrid. All organizations in Europe, that have supported the NGO energy strategy have been invited for the meeting.



UNCED and energy

by Gunnar Boye Olesen, OVE

When the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) ended at June, 14, there had been made more than 1000 pages of international agreements. While the governments of the world have never agreed upon so much before regarding environment and development, the actual commitments are few. The agreements affecting a sustainable energy development are mainly the climate treaty and the climate chapter in Agenda 21.

The sustainable energy agency, which many NGOs have called for, never got into the real negotiations at UNCED. On the institutional side, there was agreements about the formation of a UN Sustainable Development Commission to oversee the implementation of the outcome of UNCED, as well as special committees for the conventions. The Sustainable Development Commission will probably be formed at the UN General Assembly this fail.

Framework Convention on

Climate Change

While this convention does not set specific targets and timetables for reduction of greenhouse-gases, it sets a framework for international action:

· it recognizes the potential dangers of climate change

· it aims at stabilization of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere "at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic (man-made) interference with the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within a time frame sufficient to allow the ecosystems to adopt naturally to climate change".

· it commits all countries to make inventories of greenhouse gas emissions and publish these inventories

· it commits all countries and regions to make plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and enhance "sinks", and to publish these plans

· it commits OECD and Central & Eastern European countries to aim at reducing their emissions of each greenhouse gas to 1990 level at 2000, individually or jointly. The interpretation of this is not clear: should they reduce (European version) or just try (USA-version)

· it commits OECD countries to provide funds to help developing countries implement the convention

There are quite a bit more in the convention, as "the precautionary principle" and a commitment to make environmental impact assessments of new projects. It also states that measures should be cost-effective, and that there is need for economical growth.

The signing countries will meet formally in "Conference of Parties" (COP), probably for the first time in 1995. For the administration of the convention, there will be established a secretariat, a scientific committee and an implementation committee. Funds for developing countries will be channelled through the Global Environmental Facility (GEF). The International Negotiating Committee (INC), where the convention has been negotiated, will meet again in December this year to discuss the implementation of the convention.

All In all, the convention, signed by 153 countries in Rio, gives good opportunities for active NGOs to keep the discussion going on climate change and actions taken against it; but It does not in itself commit the nations to solve the problems of man-made climate change.

Agenda 21

In Agenda 21 chapter 9 "Protection of the Atmosphere", part b deals with action on energy, transport, industry, and resource development and land use. As the rest of Agenda 21 it is a guideline, the governments are not obliged to do anything.

It calls for actions by governments in collaboration with relevant UN-bodies and, as appropriate, international organizations, NGOs and the private sector. The actions called for are, among others:

· promote energy efficient technologies and practices

· promote environmentally sound energy systems including new and renewable energy systems, especially in developing countries review energy supply to determine how the contribution of new and renewable sources of energy could be increased in an economically efficient manner

· build capacity for energy planning and programme management In energy efficiency

· promote appropriate energy efficiency and emissions standards or recommendations at the national level

· encourage education and awareness-raising

· develop and promote, as appropriate, cost effective, more efficient, less polluting and safer transport systems, particularly integrated rural and urban mass transit

· develop or enhance, as appropriate, mechanisms to integrate transport planning strategies and urban and regional settlement planning strategies.

It is also defined that "new and renewable sources of energy" means scar energy, wind,-hydro, biomass, geothermal, ocean, animal and human power; it is what we call renewable energy, nuclear energy is excluded.

Now it is up to the countries to follow the guidelines. It will be quite interestiny to see it the Agenda 21 makes a difference, or the countries do as they would have done without it.



6 energy offices in Central and Eastern Europe

by Ann Vikkelsø, OVE

The Folkecenter for Renewable Energy, Denmark, in co-operation with Central and Eastern European organizations have established six energy offices in Central and Eastern Europe in June this year.

The offices will support the formation of the necessary infrastructure for renewable energy and energy savings in the countries. In this work they will make use of Danish knowledge and experiences with introducing renewable energy in the energy system.

The aim of the offices is to disseminate information on renewable energy to the public, decision makers, manufacturers and users of RE systems. The offices initiate demonstration projects, hold seminars and training programmes for experts, give advice to the public, conduct feasibility studies, etc.

Each office employee energy advisers, who have been involved in the environmental and renewable energy field for many years. The advisers have in June 1992 completed a two weeks course of renewable energy at the Folkecenter, including training at Danish energy offices.

The period of implementation is 1992-94. The initiative is supported by the Danish Environmental Agency with DKK 1.5 mio.

Energy offices:


Vladimir Shestakov, Ecoville Foundation, PO.Box 644, St. Petersburg. Ph: + 7-812-2710467. Fax: + 7-812-1135 896. E-mail: vshestak@sovamsu.uucp.


Marian Rutsek, EMS, PO.Box 135, Partizanska 94, 97401 Banska Bystrica. Ph/fax: + 42-8845183.


Kovacs Karoly, Reflex, Bartok B.u. 7, 9024 Gyor. Ph/fax: 36- 96-10988.


Arvydas Vaitulevicius, The Architects Association of Lithuania, Ziemgaliu 14, 20004 Vilnius. Ph: +7-0122- 226690 or 738919. Fax: +7-0122-632509.


Maciej Bartmanski, Ecobaltic Foundation, ul. Jaskowa Dolina 76, 80-286 Gdansk. Ph/fax: + 48-58-410082.

Alexandra Chodasewics, The information Centre for Air Protection (ICAP), Polish Ecological Club, Pl. Grunwaldzki 8/10, 40-950 Katowice. Ph/fax: +48-32594315.



Our Common Environment Forum

A forum with more than 500 participants concentrating on environmental problems in Russia (mainly the Leningrad area) took place in St.Petersburg from the 26th of July to the 2nd of August.

The participants was mainly from Russia and Finland. Environmental groups, conzerned citizens, researchers and politicians was represented.

Two groups were working on energy, one with nuclear power the other with alternative energy and savings. There were hard discussions on nuclear power is it environmentally acceptable or not ?

Though in the final declaration the whole forum agreed to work for phasing out nuclear power and introducing the use of well-known renewable energy technologies in the energy systems.




AWEC '92

by d. Carlos R. Murillo, Aedenat, Spain

Three years ago (September 1989) a "Green Energy Conference" took place in Montreal (Quebec, Canada), In parallel to the official XIV Congress of the World Energy Conference (WEC).

The alternative conference stated the need of abandoning the present prevalent energy policies, adopting a diamentrically opposed point of view: Demand-side options instead of supply-sidefix: energy efficiency in place of energy waste (be in form insufficient use of energy or superflows consumption): enviromentally sound renewable energy sources versus risky and polluting reliance on fossil or nuclear fuels. The conference concluded that the obstacles to the deep changes required are social and political, not technical or economic, having to do with the interest of big energy companies and with the lack of democracy in the decision making processes that shape the choice of an energy policy.

Now the XV Congress of the WEC is due to meet in Madrid (September 2026th). In spite of nice-sounding titles of sessions such as "quality of life'', "solidarity'' and ''international cooperation", experience leads us to expect very little debate on thorny issues like the unjust energy distribution between North and South, the insustainability of the present energy model, and the necessity of changing the prevalent Nonhern socio-economical system and life-styles to try to solve this unjust situation and to reach sustainability. The "business as usual" view as will be portrayed in the official conference will only aggrevate the problems of inequity, environment destruction and conflict in our world.

A different forum thinks about energy needed; The Alternative World Energy Conference (AWEC '92) intends to be such a forum. Two important general purposes of AWEC are to offer to the public opinion a social and environmental view of the energy question and to bring together people working on energy, and who criticize the official positions.

Public opinion may be misied by the fact that critics and supporters of such positions often use the same or pretty similar "green" vocabulary, that has been adopted by the establishment after recognizing the seriousness of the enviromental problems: a notorious example is the very concept of "sustainable development". There is no space here to discuss in deep this important point, but it will be of paramount importance to explain carefully to the public opinion the radically different meanings that are hidden behind each single word, depending on who is using it. The second general purpose of AWEC, namely, to assemble people working on energy, will permit to share experiences on alternative energy projects and energy planning and to strengthen the international coordination among NGO's working against the status quo energy.

AWEC programme

Saturday 19th, morning: What is energy for? Plenary: Basic need and welfare. Working groups: Energy and space: Metropolis as the biggest example of energy consumption. Energy and transport Energy, matter and entropy: for a global concept of energy. Ethical and moral aspects of the energy question.

Saturday 19th, afternoon/evening A Unsustainable Model. Plenary: Enviromental consequences of energy production and use resource scarcity Working groups: Climate change :strategies, priorities, local and global action. Acid rain: What has been done and what should be done. Nuclear pover, nuclear waste, An expansion of nuclear power towards the South and the East Europe?. Experiences from some countries. Big darns. big problems.

Sunday 20th, morning North-South Energy Distribution. Plenary: North-South energy distribution. A Global dualization. Working groups: International flows of energy raw materials. Energy problems in East Europe. The efficiency revolution". Introduction of energy efficiency in the North and South. Energy and sustainable development in South.

Sunday 20th, afternoon/evening Better with less energy in the North. Plenary: Alternative energy planning: experiences and results. Working groups: Nuclear fusion: a myth to help the present model survive The introduction of renewable energies Instruments of intervention: fiscal and regulatory

Monday 21st, morning Working for a new energy model. Plenary: Existing experiences of international coordination and proposal of future action. Resolutions and proposal of future action.




by Ann Vikkelsø, OVE

For the third time OVE is organizing a European NGO seminar. The aim of these seminars is to maintain and strengthen the co-operation between groups working with energy all over Europe. To work internationally it is very important to have close contact between the European NGOs both on formal and informal level.

The first two seminars was held in Denmark in 1990 and in Estonia last year. These seminars gave the participants technical knowledge and a general view


Monday, 14th Presentations NGO visions and strategies of a sustainable future regarding energy.

Presentation of workshop items

NGO-communities internally, why spend your time with the NGO's ? Concerned citizens approach, intelligentsia approach, members, activists and professionals in NGO-communities. Where and why do energy NGOs rise.

Tuesday, 15th

Present energy strategies in EC, Eastern Europe and Spain in relation to actual policy and to NGO strategies.

Presentation of country situation and local NGO strategy and capacity, 5 countries.

Workshops, discussion.

Wednesday, 16th

Presentation of country situation and local NGO strategy and capacity, 10 countries

Workshops, including poster-making.

Thursday, 17th

Presentation of country situation and local NGO strategy and capacity, 5 countries

Discussion of present and future NGO energy collaboration, EFRE (European Federation for Renewable Energy), Eurosolar, Climate Network, Sustainable Energy Network, Soft Energy newsletter. Discussion of needs and means.

Final workshop-session, finish of posters.

Friday, 18th

Lecture by Jørgen S. Nørgaard, the Technical University of Denmark, "The of the energy situation and possibilities for introducing sustainable energy systems in Europe. At the same time the seminars gave a lot of inspiration for continuing the work at local level.

This years seminar is concentrating on organizational and political topics and not the single technologies. There are already well-developed sustainable energy technologies developed, so todays task is how to change the existing structure in the energy systems and implement renewable energy technologies and energy savings. need for a sustainable energy development''

Presentation of workshops

Evaluation of seminar, closing of seminar

European INFORSE meeting.


· Energy-strategy-building by computer. Application of the greenhouse scenario system (G2S2) in the Central and Eastern European countries. By Susan Subak, Stockholm Environment Institute, Boston, and Tony Vidan, Green Action Zagreb.

· NGO energy information strategies: offices, centres, capacity- building, enhancing popular end professional involvement. Based on experience from Eastern and Western Europe. By Ejvin Beuse, OVE, and Adam Gula, PKE, Poland.

· Energy campaigning strategies aiming at decision-makers, politicians: strategies, alliances, roles of NGO's in the proces. Based on experience from Eastern and Western Europe. Case: Development of strategy for Latvian NGO's (in latvia the government right now is planning to build a nuclear power plant). By Diana Shulga, Information Centre, Latvia, and Ann Vikkelsø, OVE.

· Presentation of technology transfer and technical proposals for demonstration centers. By Marlies Ante, Umweltszentrum am Deister, Germany, and Peter Strycek, Energocentrum, Slovakia.



Low Electricity Europe

by Jørgen S. Nørgaard, Technical University of Denmark

In the wake of the Chernobyl nuclear accident a group of scientists decided to investigate whether it was possible to phase out nuclear energy in Western Europe and at the same time reduce the general environmental load from electricity production, especially the acid rain problem and the greenhouse effect. From the beginning it was recognized that electricity savings through more efficient end-use technology had to play the dominant role in achieving such a goal. The report Low Electricity Europe - Sustainable Options is the final report of the study. It describes the methodology used for the analyses, as well es two future options for electricity need in Western Europe. Besides the technological potentials for saving electricity, the report also describes the importance of changing path in the economic development in Europe.

From detailed technical analyses in Denmark and some other countries, it is known that pumps, lamps, computers, refrigerators, ventilators and other electricity consuming equipment can be designed to provide the same service with less electricity than today. To the surprise of many, it is not a matter saving a few percent. On average for all the end uses it is possible to do the same tasks as today using only 40 percent of the electricity necessary with presently used technology. Besides the environmental benefits from saving electricity, the cost of saving one kWh of electrify is usually only a fraction of what it costs to produce a kWh.

Despite all the advantages from the technological improvement, the study also stresses that we cannot in Europe go on increasing the general production and consumption forever. If we do continue the economic growth the environmental benefits achieved through technological improvements will be eaten up, and an environmentally sustainable development can never be reached. Actually economic saturation already seems to be emerging in the northern part of Europe, according to various surveys. If such saturation trends are supported, the economic growth in Europe over the coming two decades will mainly occur in the southern countries, before economic saturation occurs there, too. If this saturation scenario is combined with the introduction of very efficient end-use technologies, the analyses show that, with an electricity consumption 45 percent lower than present, it is possible for European to enjoy a material standard of living similar to the one in Scandinavia today. This reduction in demand makes it likely to reach a sustainable electricity path in Europe.

The methodology applied in the study, as well as the main input data about technological efficiency improvement, makes it relatively easy to transfer the analyses to countries at different stages of development.

The report is available at Physics Lab. 111, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark. Price: 75 plus postage, 45 in Europe and 70 elsewhere.




by Toni Vidan, ZAZ, Croatia

Application of the greenhouse gas scenario system in the CEE countries Expectations that the pure fact that many technologies for significant improvement of energy efficiency and use of renewables exist, will force CEE governments to seriously try to implement them, have shown to be too optimistic. Obviously, there is a need for building capacities of environmental NGOs for long-term arguing with national energy establishments.

Providing arguments for discussions about energy future of the region will be one of the most important tasks of involved environmental NGOs. Climate change problems (especially greenhouse gas emissions) could become very strong arguments in our hands.

The idea to initiate a project which will give opportunity to CEE enviromental NGOs to use arguments of climate change was born in discussions (Susan Legro, SEVEn; Jan Hrebec, EkoWATT; Toni Vidan, ZAZ) during International Negotiating Committee (the UN governmental body responsible for negotiating of the Climate Convention) meetings.

In the light of that, ZAZ and EkoWATT in cooperation with other NGOs including Climate Network Europe are organizing the application of the Greenhouse Gas Scenario System (G2S2).

G2S2 is a database and policy assessment tool that estimates the net anthropogenic flux and allows analysts to project greenhouse gas emissions using alternative technical assumptions and policy options. It includes greenhouse gas data for 145 countries for the major sources of greenhouse gas emissions including: energy consumption, cement prodution, CFC use, land use changes, livestock production, rice cultivation, landfills, and fertilizer consumption. The software was designed by Susan Subak, at the Stockholm Environment Institute-Boston Center (SEI-B), and is used by environmental NGOs in Africa and Asia.

The project will start with a presentation and individual G2S2 training at European Sutainable Energy Seminar in Madrid, 14-18 Sept. 1992, organized by OVE. An SEI/Boston expert will be present and detailed explanations will be given to the participants. The work will continue with the application of G2S2 by interested NGOs at national level in their own organization. Green Action Zagreb, EkoWATT, Climate Network Europe and SEI-B will keep providing all support needed to progress with the work.

Hopefully this project could serve as a first step towards on-going CEE environmental NGO activities in the field of climate change and energy.

Second step will be carried out during 1993: dissemination and implementation of the tools needed for the elaboration of "alternative" energy policies will be organized (e.g. tools like LEAP, Longrange Energy Alternatives Planning System, also developed by SEI-B).



The situation of renewable energies in Spain

by J. Carlos H. Murillo, Aedenat

As in the majority of countries in the world, renewable energy sources in Spain are plentiful and very little used. From the environmental point of view this is both surprising and regrettable, but there are yet other reasons to develop these energies, like energy self-reliance, security of supply and promotion of local and regional (sustainable) development.

Official forecasts for the development of renewables (National Energy Plan, NEP) can be seen in the table. Contribution of renewables in primary energy grows from 2.74% to 3.17% with the biggest emphasis put on wind energy and municipal waste incineration.

Almost 30% of the public money for renewables goes to pay for waste burners; such method of dealing with waste is unanimously rejected by the Spanish environmental movement. NEP keeps renewables as a marginal option, following the ''business as usual" logic of growth in energy production and consumption as the main goal. There are better news for wind energy, with the public utility ENDESA accepting to increase installed wind power from 175MW (NEP forecast) to 750 MW by year 2000. Lobbying from AEDENAT (which presented a plan for the development of wind energy - 1000 MW by year 2000 - supported by the two main Spanish trade unions, UGT and CC.OO) played its modest part in this decision.

The barriers to the development of renewables in Spain are the usual ones: Low prices for "conventional" energies, preference of power companies for big, centralized generation, lack of technical, industrial and commercial infrastructure and lack of consumer information. Proposed instruments to overcome these problems are fiscal and price policies that take into account the environmental and social costs of non renewable energies, public investment on R&D and public information and support for renewables.

Primary energy demand in Spain was 89.70 millions of toes (Mtoe) in 1990 and is expected to grow to 110.90 Mtoe by year 2000 according to the official National Energy Plan. The Alternative Energy Plan considers realistic a reduction of 12.5% on primary energy by 2000. In that year, 6,6% of primary energy may come from renewables (big hydro not reckoned), as well as 6% of power generation (31 % if big hydro is included).



Wind energy in the UK August 1992

by Marc Groves-Raines, EcoGen, England

The 1991 -1992 order under the Non Fossil Fuel Obligation, announced in November 1991, awarded contracts for the purchase of electricity to some 50 wind energy projects in England and Wales totalling about 200 MW of installed capacity. This was seen as a much needed boost for the British wind energy industry, although the fact that the NFFO contracts at the end of 1998 has meant a degree of pressure exists for those wanting make the most of the premium price on offer. The 1991-1992 NFFO is the second such order for renewable energy projects; the first awarded contracts amounting to 31 MW of installed capacity.

The first windfarm development comprising ten 400 kW Vestas machines was completed in December 1991 and is now generating and feeding the National Grid. Other projects have since been granted planning permission and are currently under construction, notablya 103*300 kW turbine development in Mid Wales which will be the largest windfarm in Europe when it comes on stream later this year.

Windfarm developments have had some difficulties in reaching fruition. Undoubtedly, the fact that they represent a significant addition to the British landscape has meant that planning authorities have trodden cautiously and perhaps wisely so. The lake of firm government guidelines for planners and developers on issues such as noise standards has invited inevitable controversy and led in some cases to lengthy appeal procedures which, due to the time constraints imposed by the NFFO contracts, compromise the viability of certain projects. It is, however, important that windfarms should be sited sensitively to ensure their popularity and acceptance.

It is anticipated that there will be an announcement later this year of a further "tranche" of the Non Fossil Fuel Obligation enabling more renewable energy developments, including wind, hydro, waste and landfill, to be realised. The size and length of the contracts are uncertain, but it is likely that many more wind energy projects will tender for contracts the prospect of a wider use of wind power in Britain as we approach the turn of the century.



The introduction of renewable energies, Danish experiences

by Ejvin Beuse, OVE, Denmark

The danish (relative) success concerning introduction of renewable energy sources (RE) in the energy supply system is mainly founded on two reasons. One: The local approach carried out by a large number of independent energy groups - mainly cooperatives establishing private-owned windturbines. Two: A massive and continuously political activity carried out by several energy organizations or other environmental organizations.

Ail these initiatives started in the early seventies (the energy crisis) and increased during the eighties.

Actors of importance

Parallel to this development a number of local RE information centers were founded. They early organized in "The collaborating energy offices" and had in the beginning a tight connection to the Danish folk high schools. Today there are 15 local information centers placed all over the country. They are all organized as membership organizations on non-profit basis and the leadership is carried out by a local elected board.

The information centers has a comprehensive amount of tasks. Going from sending out material on energy savings in households to being consultants for windturbine cooperatives or local urban renewal projects. For small consulting duties the payment is simply a membership. When it is about larger tasks there usually is set up a contract with a fee according to the qualifications of the concerned consultant.

For the time being 12 of the information centers receives financial support from the Danish Energy Agency according to some standard rules for their information duties. Because of this support these offices are properly equipped with office machinery and regularly manned. But a main reason why these information centers are able to solve a wide variety of tasks is that a number of volunteers is carrying out many of the neccessary functions - such as editing the local information newsletter.

In 1983 a center for developing RE technologies was founded: ''The Danish Folkecenter for Renewabrle Energy". The center has been d tremendous importance for the implementation of RE in Denmark. The "Folkecenter" is receiving financial support from the Danish Ministry of Energy and is now about to be a full scale demonstration center for all kinds of environmental technologies in the project "Green Village at Skibsted Fjord".

The purpose of this project is to demonstrate that a community can be self-sufficient with energy from non- polluting renewable energy sources. It is connected to the utility grid to sell electricity - but not to buy! Neither other types of energy such as oil or natural gas are bought. The objective is to integrate different green technologies in low energy housing such as sewage water treatment and ecological agriculture.

The political activities during this period were mainly carried out by ''OVE, The Danish Organization for Renewable Energy" in Denmark, but also the Danish windmill owners organization (DV) and the organization for information on nuclear power (OOA) has been important partners in this field of action.

3500 windturbines - a case story

For a period of 10 years - from 1982 where the first large commercial windturbines (55kW) were available - it has succeeded to erect approximately 3500 windturbines either as single standing or in small groups with 2 or 3 turbines on the same location. With an exception of a very small number all these windturbines are connected to the public grid. In a few places there are established so-called parks sized from 10 to nearly 100 windturbines. The energy production from the windturbines covers approximately 3% of the total electricity consumption in Denmark.

The reason why this relatively fast development in using windpower took place is based on the following circumstances:

State subsidies from 30% in the beginning - scaling to 20%, 15% and finally 10%. From 1990 there has been no subsidy for windturbines (but still for solar energy, biogas and other RE sources).

Long term fairly favourable arrangements for sale of electricity and terms of connection to the grid. A new arrangement which is being judged as a simplification in many ways and economically not being too dis-favourable has just found place.

A strong and independent sector of energy/environmental groups, independent technology developers, a number of small/medium sized manufacturers, scientists and others with interests in energy planning.

Political capacity with a majority of the parliamentary members to promote RE and make room (although a small one!) for these new technologies in the official energy planning.

The future

The implementation of RE not only in Denmark is distinguished by being a large number of small units spread over a huge space and without any mutual connections (except with the grid). The utilities have been fighting these local initiatives, which they consider as a threat (and they most certainly are!).

The present situation in Denmark now is the same as we got concerning the weather: Everybody talks about it, but nobody does anything about H. Of course that is not quite true - at least all the NGOs are doing a hard work. This is however the reality: The political "climate" is acceptable as far as the members of the parliament is concerned. But in spite of all the good intentions a lot of obstructions are taking place. According to the windturbines we now have a de-facto stop in establishing plants because of a new and very long- winded planning procedure, which is forcing many local communities to declare a temporarily stop.

So although Denmark is being given relief as one of the prosperous countries concerning introduction of renewable energies we only for a period of nearly 20 years have succeded in reaching approximately 6% of the total consumption of energy. Talking about "the real stuff'-solar-, wind- and hydropower - we get less than 1% from these RE sources. So we too need some help!




September, 8-11,1992

The Potential of Windfarms,

EWEA Conference, Denmark

Info.Conference Secretariat.

Ph. +45-97224777

Fax. +45-97225380

September, 14-18, 1992

NGO Energy Seminar, Madrid, Spain. European grassroot seminar on sustainable energy, lectures and workshops.

September, 19-21, 1992

AWEC, Alternative World Energy Conference, Madrid, Spain.

Conference and exhibition on renew able energy and efficiency parallel to the World Energy Conference.

September, 25 - October, 5, 1992

Environment and Natural Ecosystems, Sochi, SNG

Info: Dr. Yu.R.Ozorovich. Fax:+7-0952331625 or 2889512 or 9752028.

October, 8-11, 1992

EEMI Conference, Energy- Ecology New Materials Informatics, Novi Sad, Serbia.

Info: Bratislav Tosic, Zadruga Tehnicar. Ph: + 38-21 - 300363 Fax: + 38-21 -56753

October, 15-18 1992 "Days of Volga", Russia Info: Zelyoni Mir, Nizhni Novgorod. Ph: + 7-8312-243941. Fax: + 7-8312-440285

October, 20-22, 1992

Organic Agriculture and Fair Trde, the quality of food, Bonn, Germany.

Info: Katalyse. Ph: + 49-221 -2359645. Fax: +49-221-243820.

October, 22-23, 1992

Collective Biogas Plants - European Experience in Combined Manure and Waste Processing, Herning, Denmark Organized by Energy Centre Denmark, OPET. Info: Renewable Energy Information Centre Ph: +45-42996065. Fax: +45-42994744

November, 15-18, 1992

Viennese Conference for the Ecological Reconstruction of Central and Eastern Europe

Organized by Global 2000 Ph: +43-1-3105023.

November, 18-21 1992

Energy Market Hamburg

Trade exhibition for renewable energy and rationel use of energy at Hamburg Exhibition Centre Info: Hamburger

Messe und Congress GmbH. Ph:+4940-35690. Fax: + 49-40-35692180.

November, 19-20, 1992

Energy Forum, Hamburg

4th international congress. Europe on the Move, a common market for energy and environment. Info: Hamburg Messe und Congress GmbH. Phj: +49-4035692247 Fax:+49-40-35692343.

January, 20-21, 1993

Conference on Domestic Energy Efficiency Policy, Birmingham

Organized by Energy Nelgbourhood Action. Ph: +44-91 -2615677. Fax: + 4491-2616496.

June 1993

Problems of Environment and Development, Russia.

Conference on board a ship travelling from Perm to St.Petersburg. Info: Centre of Ecology and Biotesting, Bolshevistskaya street 116, Perm City, 614000 Russia. Ph:+7-3422-488419.

August, 23-27,1993

ISES Solar World Congress 1993, Bu dapest, Hunga

Info: ISES SWC Malev Air Tours.

Ph: + 36-1 - 118783

Fax: + 36-1 -1187359.



World Bank Energy Strategy

The World Bank is planning new policies on the electric power sector and on energy efficiency. They are preparing Operational Directives on these issues If you are interested in details about it, please contact INFORSE, c/o OVE or Glenn Pricket, Natural Resources Defence Council, 1350 New York Avenue N.W., Suite 300, Washington DC 20005, USA, fax + 1 -202-783 5917, Econet: nrdcdc



EEC update


The energy/CO2-tax has now been finalized by the EEC - Commission The proposal is a tax of 3 US$/barrel crude oil, and graduated after the CO2 emission of the fuel. Renewable energy including hydropower below 10MW should not pay the tax, and large industrial consumers can have tax-reductions. The proposal is now to be discussed by the council of EEC- countries, where it will have a hard time, before it eventually becomes



The EEC renewable energy program ALTENER have now been finalized by the EEC-Commission after years of preparation. The proposal is a modest program aiming at standardization, information exchange and identifying barriers for renewable energy. It does not include the programs for energy research (Joule) and demonstration (Thermie). The aim of the program is to supply 8% of the EEC energy consumption with renewable energy in 2005.

OVE has critised the proposal, among other things because It does not assure to solve problems for renewable energy from other EEC-policies, and because the aim (and the program) is too small.

The proposal will be discussed by the council of EEC- countries in September, and it is likely to be approved in Spring'93

Internal Market

The proposals for Internal markets in the gas and electricity sectors will be discussed in the EEC-Parliament in September and October.


Soft Energy Worldwide - N°8 - December 1993

INforSe - International Network for Sustainable Energy - newsletter. No. 8, December 1993.

ISSN 0907-7693


Global collaboration, local solutions

While most of previous global collaboration have put central solutions in focus, the processes around and at the Rio-conferences put more emphasis on the many local solutions, that are essential in solving the global problems. Now, in the wake of the Rio-conference, the good intentions from Rio should be transformed into practical solutions, that can cater a both prosporous and sustainable development in all parts of the world.

The governments of the richer countries, which could lead the changes, seems more occupied by internal problems, than in the previous years. There are positive signs from the official side, as the preparations for the UN-Committee for Sustainable Development and the commitments of new and additional resources from some countries. But these signs are in many ways off-set by negative signs, as continuing of trade-barriers and priority to centralized solutions at home and abroad.

There are, however, still untapped resources, which can be mobilized for a more sustainable development. A better coordination between sustainable energy NGOs and exchange of experience and knowledge can make us more equal with the governmental and commercial interests working for the centralized solutions. And with coordination between energy and development NGOs, the sustain" able energy solutions can be included in all relevant NGO-based development projects.

This is the ways, that we are following with the International Network for Sustainable Energy (INforSE). Not with one center in Washington or in Copenhagen, but as a cooperation between organizations and networks from all parts of the world. And as described in this newsletter, there are many signs that the activities will boom in the coming year.



Soft Energy Worldwide

This paper, Soft Energy Worldwide is the newsletter of INforSE. It will follow the activities of this network, as well as of all other networks working along the same path. It will track success-stories and barriers in the sustainable energy development. It will follow international processes, that influence this development.

The major part of this issue deals with activities in Europe, but in the coming issues we will develop the newsletter into a truly worldwide source of information covering the developments along the soft energy path from all parts of the globe.

The newsletter is set up as a fusion between "Soft Energy Europe" issued by OVE and "Renewable Energy Center News" issued by Folkecenter for Renewable Energy.

Do not hesitate to write to Soft Energy Worldwide (letter, fax, or e-mail). Articles and notes on projects and energy policy, as well as information about events and litterature are very welcome from all parts of the world. All will be printed or mentioned as soon as possible.

Photos at front page:

Poster presented at AWEC (Alternative World Energy Conference, Madrid, 1921,1992). The poster that was produced at OVE's graasroot seminar, questioned the context between energy consumption and quality of life. The figures at left is the energy consumption in Denmark and Czecho-Slovakia per inhabitant, at right is shown, how much one can buy for an average monthly salary in the two countries, of bread, milk and - condoms!

Aedenat and GreenPeace held a press conference right outside the building, where WEC (World Energy Congress) is ending. Madrid, 25,1992.

Soft Energy World-wide Published by: INforRE c/o OVE (Danish Organization for Renewable Energy) Willemoesgade 14 2100 København Ø Denmark Ph: + 45-3142 9091 Fax: + 45-3142 9095 e-mail: pns.ove

INforSE International Network for Sustainable Energy is a worldwide NGO network formed at Global Forum in Rio, June 1992.

OVE has since 1975 worked for renewable energy in Denmark. We are deeply involved in the Danish development of windpower, solar systems and other kinds of renewable energy, as well as promotion of RE and lobbyism.

Editors: Ann Vikkelsø, OVE Gunnar B. Olesen, OVE Rene Karottki, Folkecenter for RE

Deadline for ninth issue: February, 14,1993 The newsletter is published 4 times a year. Next Issue March, 1993.

If you want to receive the coming issues of this newsletter please inform OVE. The newsletter will as long as possible be free for NGOs.

This issue is supported by: OVE. Denmark.



Organizing INforSE

by Gunnar Boye Olesen, OVE

Since its formation at the Global Forum in Rio de Janeiro, INforSE, International Network for Sustainable Energy, has been in a phase of organizing.

The first meeting of the European region has been held in Madrid, two new contact persons are chosen for the Northern American region, and a large number of organizations have shown interest in INforSE and the energy strategy behind it. The secretariat of INforSE, hosted at OVE, is now functioning, and it seems as a new "Forum for Energy and Development" in Denmark can secure funding for the secretariat and other activities for 1993.

Meeting of the European region

The first regional meeting of INforSE was held at La Tablada (near Madrid), Spain, at August, 18. At this meeting the two European contact persons were elected as coordinators until the next INforSE Europe meeting. The elected persons are Adam Gula from Polish Ecological Club and myself.

There was agreed upon a number of activities:

· World Bank monitoring - contact lan Tellam, WISE

· Energy Charter lobbying - contact Ann Vikkelsø, OVE; Pax Calta, EYFA; Toni Vidan, Green Action Zagreb

· Fundraising for Secretariat in Denmark - contact OVE

· EC funds analysis - contact Stephanie Roder (Energiecenter, Jugendwerkstatt Felsberg)

· Hard News service - contact Toni Vidan, ZAZ; Paxus Calta, SNEEEZ

The persons working with each activity will form a workinggroup. The workinggroups will work autonomous.

It was decided that INforSE Europe will work as one network for Europe, no split between East and West. It will work after the trust - principle: InforSE members are free to use the name for any project which is consistent with the NGO Energy Strategy. They will communicate to the other INforSE members about their activities. Anyone that has trouble with an activity done in the name of INforSE should directly contact the organization behind this activity. INforSE Europe make decisions by consensus.

The next INforSE Europe meeting will be held at July, 17, 1993 at Folkecenter for Renewable Energy, Denmark. This meeting will among other issues discuss bylaws for INforSE Europe.

New contact persons in Northern America

While there have not yet been made a regional meeting in Northern America, the current contact persons have proposed two adjacent coordinators:

· Nancy Hirsh, Energy Conservation Coalition.

6930 Carroll Ave., suite 600, Takoma Park, MD, USA.

Ph:+ 1-301-891 1100, fax: + 1-3018912218

· Ken Bossong, Sun Day Project Director, Public Citizen.

215 Pennsylvania Ave., S.E. Washington DC 20003, USA.

Ph.-1-202-546 4996, fax-1-202-547 7392

Computer conference

INforSE now has a computer conference at Greennet/Peacenet (accessible from all APC-networks). It is called energy network, and has English and Spanish versions of papers describing INforSE and the NGO energy strategy. It is maintained by OVE and REDES in Uruguay. If you want to be connected, please contact OVE.

Forum for Energy and Development in Denmark

To facilitate cooperation between energy and development NGOs in Denmark there have been formed a network consisting of the major Danish energy and development NGOs, named "Forum for Energy and Development".

It is our plan that this new network can give a broader basis for Danish participation in INforSE activities and fund INforSE secretariat and activities.

Danish new and additional resources for development

Many developing countries have in the Rio-conference process called for new and additional resources to secure sustainable development. As a response to this, the Danish parliament has just decided to allocate 100 mill. DKK (16 mill. US$) for this purpose in 1993. The aim is to gradually increase this to 4 bill. DKK/year (600 mill. US$/year), equivalent to 0.5% of GNP. This aid will be additional to the current Danish development aid (including catastrophe aid) of 1.0% of GNP and 0.5% of GNP to support economies in transition.

The "sustainability aid" will follow the general guidelines of Danish development aid with focus on the least developed countries and possibly a part restricted to Danish products. A part of it will be allocated for sustainable energy development; but there are no details about this at the moment.

After Rio: Proposals for Sustainable Development with Focus on Energy

OVE is now cooperating with the Balaton-group about a new project, where we will evaluate all the NGO energy related proposals made as preparation to and under the Rio-conferences. The proposals will be compared with the proposals in Agenda 21 and the Climate Convention. Based on the proposals, there will be formulated an Energy Action Programme, that will include operational proposals for its implementation.

The project is coordinated by Phys.Lab.3 at the Danish Technical University on behalf of the Balaton Group, a worldwide group of scientists working for sustainable energy solutions. The project will lead to a report, which will be published in March 1993.

Inputs for the project are most welcome: e.g. proposals for UNCED and sustainable energy strategies made during the last years. Send your input before 31.01.1993 to OVE.



Village power from Dung

by Rene Karottki, Folkecenter for Renewable Energy, Denmark

Electrification of villages in Ghana on basis of cattle dung is an economical and technically viable alternative.

The present power situation in Ghana.

Ghana is well known for its power generating Volta dam. Indigenous hydro power is currently covering 89 % of all electricity demand in Ghana. The possibilities for increasing the hydropower capacity are however limited and future increase in demand for the national grid is expected to be met from thermal power plants, based on imported fuels. Electricity will reach the world market price level.

At the same time the national electrification scheme is planning a major extension of the power grid. Due to geographical and economical reasons the extended grid will not reach the majority of rural communities and for these communities other decentralized power sources must be found.

Due to the expected price increases on electricity and the prohibitive costs of grid extensions renewable energy, especially biogas, is expected to be viable solutions for the rural communities.

Biogas power in Ghana.

Since 1986 the Ministry of Energy in Ghana has done research and development on biogas technology for local communities. In order to demonstrate the technical and socio-economic viability of biogas technology the Ministry established the Appolonia Integrated

Biogas Project, that has now proven that biogas can be a viable solution for off-grid energy supply.

Appolonia is a village 46 km from Ghana's capital Accra. It has 1500 inhabitants. A biogas station with ten 50 m³ digestors are producing gas for two motor/generator units with a combined capacity of 10 kW

The electricity is fed into a local grid, providing streetlights to the village and power to an increasing number of connected households.

To meet the sanitary needs of the village a community latrine is connected to the biogas plants, also contributing to the energy production.

Besides, the project comprises six 10 m³, one 18 m³ and two 30 m³ digestors providing biogas for cooking directly to the households. The gas is used in standard gas cookers and is becoming a popular and clean substitute for wood.

The Appolonia biogas power system has recently been reviewed regarding its economic performance and compared to alternative means of power supply such as diesel, solar power (photovoltaics) and grid extension.

The comparison is made on basis of traditional economic methods, involving investment costs and operational expenses, but not involving externalities such as benefits from reduced oil imports, environmental benefits, social benefits etc.

The review shows that for electricity supply to the relatively small loads of a rural village biogas power with the present fuel costs is 10-20 % more expensive than diesel power, that biogas power is competetive to grid extension if the village is more than 10 kilometers away from the power line and that solar power is 5-6 times more expensive than biogas power.

The results implies that it is technically and economically feasible to install biogas power in remote villages in Ghana. Within a relatively short time frame the benefits of a reliable power supply can thus reach villages, that for many years to come will not be electri



New World Bank Electricity Policy

By Gunnar Olesen, Based on information from Glenn Prickeff, Natural Resources Defense Council, USA

On October, 15, the World Bank executive directors approved a new set of policy papers for the banks policy on the electric power sector and on energy efficiency.

When these papers come into force, the lending policy of the bank should "be based on, and where necessary support, the development of integrated energy strategies that help borrowing countries take advantage of all energy supply options, including cost-effective conservation measures and renewable energy sources". This should be done as part of the banks country assistance strategies

The new strategy of the bank is promishing in the respect that efficiency and renewables have to be taken into consideration when loans in the energy sector are given. It is however unclear how the required "integrated energy strategies" will be interpreted. Is it strategies based on integrated ressource planning, where all obtions are evaluated according to economic, environmental and other social costs and benefits? Or does it cover all strategies, where i.e. more than one option is considered? Hopefully the final version (available in January '93) will include the first of these possibilities.

The INforSE network will follow this new World Bank strategy and its implementation as much as possible in cooperation with Natural Defence Resource Council and others.

Copies of the strategy can, when available, be obtained from att. Robert J. Saunders, Energy Development Division, The World Bank, 1818, H Street, N.W. Washington DC 20433, USA.



Report on Sustainable Energy in Slovakia

by Milan Janak, EnergoCentrum, CSFR

The need to introduce renewable energy technologies and practices into the energy system has never been greater, now that the Czech and Slovak Republics will become individual states on January the 1 st 1993. Slovakia will again completely control over its future.

Subsidized energy has been one of the primary causes of excessive dependence on fossil fuels and the ecological nightmares that have resulted from its exploitation. The need to influence future political decisions and persuade the public to adopt energy efficient lifestyles, demands that people seize responsibility for themselves.

With these facts in mind, EnergoCentrum has been established in the Slovak capital Bratislava, to help in the acceptance of soft energy pathways and practices.


EnergoCentrum is a non-profit foundation seeking to promote energy efficiency, renewable energy, and energy conservation in the built environment through the provision of information, research, consultancy, and training services. These activities are accomplished through the application of new computer-aided systems and technologies, as well as the utilization of the skills of specialists. EnergoCentrum works in collaboration with the Civil Engineering Faculty of the Slovak Technical University. Current projects cover the following areas:

Research and Policy Development

EnergoCentrum has aided in the creation of a detailed study of the window industry in Czechoslovakia. This analysis covers all aspects of window and window component production, and catalogues the energy effectiveness of all parts of this output. The study is being used to link foreign firms with their counterparts in Czecho-Slovakia in order to bring more efficient products to the region.

In similar fashion, EnergoCentrum is preparing a brochure outlining strategies to improve energy efficiency in the built environment. To be available for the public and the private, it will cover present conditions as they exist in Slovakia and target specific areas which need improvement.

Education and Training

To ensure that the best technology and knowledge is available in Slovakia, EnergoCentrum staff have attended indepth training courses at many institutions in the West.

They include training in bioclimatic architecture in Dublin; training in renewable energy in Denmark; training in active solar energy systems in Australia; training in energy simulation research in Great Britain, training in district heating technologies in Denmark; and up-coming training in environmental computer aided design in great Britain. Each of these courses provides the staff with the best ability to create educational material and training programmes for the people of Slovakia. The provision of applicable and understandable energy related educational tools is one of the primary goals of EnergoCentrum.

Energy Information Services

EnergoCentrum has office space at the Slovak Technical University and holds regular open hours for the public to access information and resources in the energy library.

Advising and Consultancy Service

Consultancy services are focused on the application of computer-aided systems and technologies to building design and building performance evaluations.

Demonstration Projects

EnergoCentrum will undertake the retrofitting of a single family house in the center of Bratislava, in order to turn it into a low-energy demonstration house. The project is very important as a visible symbol that low-energy lifestyles are very possible.

For more information, contact:

En ergo Cent rum


Radlinskeho 1 1

813 68 Bratislava


Ph/fax: + 42-7-490460



OVE seminar in Spain

by Ejvin Beuse & Ann Vikkelsø, OVE

The NGO co-operation was strengthened when 45 grass root energy experts from 19 European countries participated in a 5 day seminar. The aim was to discuss strategies of the energy and environmental movements work for a cleaner world. In spite of very different backgrounds and experiences we succeeded to strengthen the basis of future co-operation across the borders.

For the third time OVE organized a European grassroot energy seminar. This year the place was La Tablada 45 km north of Madrid.

Much time at the seminar was spend on exchange of information and sharing of knowledge between the participants. In plenaries we had presentation of the energy situation in many of the European countries and local NGO strategies to change structure in the energy systems and implement renewable energy technologies and energy savings. Further input to the discussions at the seminar was given by Annie Roncerel "Climate Network Europe) who told about the European Energy Charter and EEC Energy Policy, and by Jørgen Nørgaard (Technical University of Denmark) who made a lecture on energy savings.

Nuke problems

The overwhelming environmental problem in the former Eastern bloc countries is nuclear power. Partly because they plan to build many new plants, but particularly because of big safety risks at the existing plants.

Professor Tudor Demchev from Bulgaria claimed that within a period of 2-3 years a nuclear accident will happen at one of the plants based on Soviet technology. An accident that would be of an extent many times bigger than the Chernobyl accident. His recommendation therefore was to concentrate all efforts on forcing through the shut down of the plants - alternative demand considerable safety improvements.

Milan Salek from Children of the Earth in the Czech Republic told about Czechoslovakian plans to build out the nuclear power capacity. The plants are expensive to build, it is therefore done by money borrowed in the West. The loans have to be paid back in hard currency, which can only be done by selling the electricity to Western Europe. And as the interest is high, the plant will probably not be paid until it has to be closed down. Pushed a little to extremes, Milan thought that the Western countries took advantage of the weak economical situation in the Eastern countries to build the nuclear plants they cannot be allowed to build in their own countries.

Don Quiote

And how is it then with energy in Don Quiote's own country? Well, his fight against windmills must have been quite successful, because there are not many of them - except the old wind roses for water pumping in the country.

In Spain RE sources - mainly biomass and hydropower - only cover 5% of the total energy consumption. 40% of the electricity consumption (16%ofthetotal energy consumption) comes from 9 nuclear power plants. Spain has own coal, oil, and gas resources, but is however dependent on huge amount of imported oil and coal. The oil makes up about 53% and coal about 21% of primary energy and finally natural gas covers about 6%.

In September the government presented an energy plan (Plan Energetico Nacional, PEN) for the period until year 2000. They calculate with an increased energy consumption of 27% in 10 years - even after including the effect of an energy saving programme with -7.6%. The most significant is increasing share of natural gas (from 6%to 12%), construction of one out of five planned nuclear power plants, bigger exploitation of domestic coal reserves, whereas RE is only counted to make up about 3% of the total consumption - and even more the greater part comes from waste incineration.

The plan is a catastrophe for the environment: 25% increase of CO2-emission, 4% increase of SO2-emission, whereas the NOx-share approximately will be the same. Even though there are a lot of discussion on developing hydropower, they continue with the present policy.


The main element at the seminar were four workshops with the themes: information strategies, campaigning strategies (especially aimed at decision-makers), demonstration centres (technology development and exchange) and finally a group on pc-based calculations of energy source's influence on the green-house effect called G2S2 (Greenhouse Gas Scenario System).

To ensure a concrete final result of the groups work, each group produced posters, which was used at the following Alternative World Energy Conference, AWEC. Particularely one of the posters (campaigning strategy group) was so good that it was moved into the plenary room, so that it was included in much of the press coverage that were here.

It will be too wide to set out the result of the individual workshops, but it shall shortly be mentioned that the group on demonstration centres made an overview of centres in Europe. The Greenhouse group used computer graphics and tables to demonstrate how choice of energy source influence the greenhouse effect

Thanks to support from the Swedish NGO Secretariat on Acid Rain, PlanEnergi and Plum's Ecology Fund it was possible to finance travel and stay for 22 participants from Eastern Europe.

And Aedenat deserves great thanks for their efforts according preparation of the seminar.



Alternative World Energy Conference, Madrid

by Ejvin Beuse (translation Kirsten V. Andersen), OVE

It is easy to be the clever guy afterwards. But with the messages that came from the congress of the World Energy Council (WEC) at the end of September in Madrid, it was really good, that somebody took the initiative to arrange an alternative part (AWEC). The most radical thing WEC concluded was to recommend Western Europe to change the "energy-mix" by using more natural gas and nuclear power and less coal and oil.

It began with a loose idea on a monthly meeting in Aedenat one and half year ago: We ought to make an alternative to the World Energy Conference, now when it takes place here in Spain. If they had known, what they started, it is not certain that they had carried on with the idea, they told us during the more relaxed part of the conference Saturday evening.

But they did. And with the help from 89 volunteers from all over Spain they succeeded. Saturday morning there was almost panic because much more people showed up than had been registered. From what we could see in the faces of the organizers, the success was a little too much.

About the sequence

Well, how did it go. A big conference is almost always hard to stand. Several things happen at the same time, and you have to choose, so you won't get too much. The structure was plenary sessions in the morning and after lunch, and after these sessions workshops relating to the sessions. There were 5 plenary sessions and 4 workshop-periods with each 4 workshops. What follows is therefore expressing my choises during the conference.

In general some of the plenary sessions were too technical. An enormously amount of quickly changed overheads with for example copies of report tables documenting the different kinds of energy sources influencing the green house effect. Already I had a strong aversion against overheads, but used for unreadable microtext in front of 250 people, combined with simultaneous translation, then I get off. Therefore I will concentrate on one of the best presentations - both concerning content, form and use of AV-aids. I must say, that there was more than one good presentation - among others Jørgen Nørgard who made a presentation about "Welfare and basic needs".

Are we trustworthy

Here I will tell about a presentation held by Simon Roberts from Friends of the Earth (FoE). The title was "Realisation of a sustainable energy policy", and it was about what we do wrong and how we can do it much better.

He started by saying: Too often, we (grasssroots, alternative organizations) stand far out in the horizon waving to the politicians: "Come over here! This is where you must go!" But do we also tell them, how they can come over here? Which route shall they follow, how fast should they go, and which obstacles must they be aware of? Unluckily no!

Four questions

If we, as Simon Roberts says, shall reach the renewable energy or sustainable society which is not only technological possible but also necessary for the environment, it is not enough to produce beautiful paintings of this society. If we only do that all we can hope for from the politicians is that they wave kindly back to us from the bridge on the super-tanker of energy politics, while it pass us on the way to the cliffs and the unpreventable catastrophe. To avoid the catastrophe we must also calculate the course of the new and safer destination, and give the captain the necessary instructions during the trip.

As Simon Roberts says, there are 4 questions you have to ask as a grassroot organization when you want to realize a new reality: Which politic is needed to come from where we are to the place we want to go? Does the suggested policy start from todays society? Will the suggested policy make the necessary changes in the way we behave? Is the suggested policy realistic or does it assume a restructuring that we have never seen before?

Unfortunately I think it is not very many suggestions of plans, where you can answer yes to all 4 questions - including much of what we do in FoE, was Simon Roberts honest comment. What he means is, having a strong and convincing vision (what we do think we have), does not guarantee, that it will be reality. You also need a policy that - if not secures then makes it possible - that all the nice computer-models for a sustainable future will be the reality in which we all will live in, and that we must avoid that the vision only becomes a new mantra for the politicians: Sustainability.

Efficiency without tears

Of course it is a good thing, that the politicians have started using our words, ideas, and way of talking. The problem is how to make them act. Now we must move the politicians from where they are (the talking phase) to where we want them - and ourselves too (the acting phase), says Simon Roberts. To do that, it is necessary to redefine the whole energy market.

FoE has recently made a study based on the situation in England, called "Efficiency Without Tears". One of the conclusions is, that the energy market to which the official energy policy is directed, is not the most relevant to work with. Instead we must work with the market for energy services which, after all, is what we all want: heating, lightning, transportation etc. Of course the "delivery" of these services uses energy, but the amount of necessary energy depends on the efficiency with wich it is produced.



NGOs in Vienna

by Ann Vikkelsø, OVE, Denmark

Central and Eastern European NGOs want renewable energy instead of nuclear power. This is one of the conclusions from 'Vienna Conference on Ecological Reconstruction of Eastern Europe"(November, 15-11) organized by Global 2000. More than 150 European environmental NGOs met in Vienna to discuss East-West cooperation and future activities.

Energy was one of the main issues at the conference, and more than 50 people participated in the working groups on "Nuclear Power" and "Energy Policy". The main aim was to initiate cooperation activities, but it was a little hard really to elaborate projects with that big groups. Nuclear power is one of the main environmental threats, and a campaign is needed to stop Western nuclear industry going East. Lobbying and actions will e.g. be aimed at:

· World Bank, EBRD, and EC; no financing of nukes in CEE

· Public education in CEE on the costs and dangers of nuclear power

· Western governments: assist nonnuclear energy solutions in CEE

· Eastern governments: develop energy policies for phasing-out nuclear power

We decided to held coordinated actions all over Europe on april, 26, 1993 to commemorate the nuclear disaster at Chernobyl.

The statement of the Energy Policy working you find at left. Further information and conference statement: Global 2000, Hahngasse 15/14, A-1090 Vienna.



Baltic Nordic Energy and Environmental NGO seminar

by Tore Braend, The Norwegian Society for Protection of Nature

On February, 5-7, 1993 there will be held a seminar in oslo with a limited number of specially invited participants from environmental NGOs in the countries around the Baltic Sea plus Norway. The main theme for the seminar will be the consequences for the environment of the European Energy Charter. The Basic Agreement of this Charter is being negotiated at present by a great number of European governments as well as USA and Japan. From an NGO point of view it is also interesting to find out how to include environmental protection as part of the Charter's Basic Agreement.

The primary goal for the governments is to use the European Energy Charter as a tool for opening up the Russian and Eastern European energy markets for foreign investors, and to secure energy supplies to Western Europe from this region. M present USA and Japan are blocking an environmental paragraph in the Basic Agreement.

The participants at the seminar in Oslo in February will discuss how the NGOs can influence the negotiations, so that environmental protection becomes part of the Charter. At the Vienna conference the participants wrote a letter to Bill Clinton and asked him to not resist the environmental Clause in the Charter. The NGOs will meet in Oslo to develop their strategy further on how to influence governments and the public opinion.

The seminar is mainly financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers, as well as The Swedish and Norwegian Acid Rain Campaigns. Inquiries about the seminar may be directed to The Norwegian Society for Protection of Nature (Norges Naturvernforbund), to Mr Tore Braend (Ph: + 47-2-715520).



Statement on Energy Policy adopted at the Vienna Conference

Pollution from energy production and use is one of the main causes of environmental degredation in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Energy sectors are also in many cases an important obstacle to the democratization of our societies. Urgent and comprehensive reform is Imperative. Ways for achieving reform have been elaborated by environmental NGOs from the CEE region in the Celakovice Conference Statement. In addition to the recommendations contained in that document, there are some recent developments and demands that need to be made.

Action Programs - Official

The European Energy Charter - If the European Energy Charter is to prevent increased environmental degradation in CEE, the legally binding Basic Agreement must include binding ' provisions incorporating environmental concerns in trade and investment rules established by this agreement. Currently we are not concerned by the proclaimed aim to develop energy, markets, but we are concerned that current negotiations are going to preserve present distortions ,: in the energy market. A fair market must include external costs, and equal economic and political conditions for both centralized and decentralized supply systems, as well as demand-side projects. Follow-up to the UNCED - UNCED was disappointing to CEE NGOs. Despite these concerns, : we call upon our parliaments to urgently ratify documents signed there, specifically the UN, Framework Convention on Climate Change. Prior to ratification, work to implement the convention is necessary. Recognizing the strong influence that EC governments have through example, ,' we call for the implementation of measures such as financial mechanisms including energy pricing in the EC. ' Electricity Trade - Hard currency earned in the present electricity trade tends to perpetuate the ' existing pattern of energy production and use in CEE that is not environmentally sound. Therefore, Western import of electricity produced in ways that do not meet the environmental standards in Western countries should be eliminated. - European Ministers Conference - We urge the European environmental ministers to address ' energy sector issues more resolutely. The Taskforce should give more attention to elaborating alternatives to the present energy situation. "

Program of Action - NGOs

We are dedicated to continue our efforts and have decided to improve further cooperation. NGOs, from CEE have established the Greenway Energy Group within the legal framework of Greenway, oriented specially towards energy problems in the region. Concrete proposals initiated at this workshop with contact persons/groupscommitted to working , with them included: Collection, translation, and dissemination of materials on least-cost planning and Integrated resource planning. Initiative team: Jon Jeffer, Green Circle of Pecs, Hungary; Georg Loser, FoE Germany; Peter Pal, Naturinform, Romania.

Demonstration projects on renewable energy and energy efficiency leading to success stories. Initiative team: Vladimir Dvoretzky, Academic Youth Ecological Club, Bulgaria; Green- way Energy Group staff; Gunnar Olesen, OVE Denmark. Dissemination of build-it-yourself solar collectors and self-sustaining systems. Contact ' group: Jon Jeffer, Green Circle of Pecs, Hungary; Johan sander, FoE Austria. Alternative Energy Strategies. Possibilities for elaboration will be explored by Toni Vidan, Green Action Zagreb, Croatia; Gunnar Olesen, OVE, Denmark. ,'

Follow up activity by Toni V den will take place concerning the Climate Change Convention



Greenway Energy Group, GEG

by Ann Vikkelsø, OVE, Denmark

A Central and Eastern European NGO Energy Network was formed in November during the Vienna Conference. The basis of the network strategy is the Celakovice Statement from June 1991.

The need of such a CEE network has been discussed several times, latest at La Tablada in September where NGOs from the CEE region agreed upon the need. The network GEG will provide the following functions:

· Share Experience

· Fundraising

· International pressure on national governments

· Monitor energy related foreign investments in CEE

Structure of GEG

The Network has a loose structure. All Central and Eastern European NGOs working with energy related subjects can be member of the network, if they do agree to the Celakovice Statement.

Working groups within the network are autonomous. The individual project groups select who they want to work with and are free to operate (with their own funds) as they like.

The network will have an annually meeting. GEG will attempt to schedule this meeting with other big meetings which will be taking place on the topic.


In order to exchange information GEG is planning three seminars to take place in 1 993:

· Renewable energy seminar for experts and NGOs; to figure out the previous renewable energy projects and why did they fail.

· Least-Cost Planning seminar for utility people and NGOs

· East West cooperation - Energy Charter

GEG organizations will also permanently monitor and exchange information on energy policy in the CEE region. Furthermore a directory of organizations and contact persons in each country working on different energy related topics will be put together and distributed to all the members.

A project on spreading the climate modelling software G2S2 (Greenhouse Gas Scenario System) to NGOs is ongoing. The project started with a presentation and individual G2S2 training, and is now continueing with the application of G2S2 at national level by interested NGOs. The next step in the project will be dissemination and implementation of tools needed for the elaboration of "alternative" energy policies.

At last it has been decided to establish a working group on national alternative energy strategy development.

GEG Office in Budapest

GEG has established a service office in Budapest. The office staff will organize and keep on regular information change between member organizations, which will be assured with a monthly letter. The office is also responsible for organizing seminars and meetings of the advisory body.

Further information can be obtained from the office: Greenway Energy Group, att. Tunde Etter, c/o Voda, Frankel Leo ut 102-104, 1023 Budapest. Ph/fax:+ 36-1-1363370



Do You SNORE ?

A week ago I found a letter sent by Support Network on Renewable Energy, SNORE in my e-mail (we have now started using our e-mail at OVE !) - here is part of it Ann.

What is SNORE ???

The Support Network on Renewable Energy, together with SNEEEZ (Stop Nuclear Energy in the East European Zone), forms the Energy group of EYFA (European Youth Forest Action).

SNORE evolved from Ecotopia (an annual 3-week ecological festival), that was held in Bulgaria last summer. A more elaborate introduction should follow once we start a public conference.

SNORE addresses itself to the following aims:

1. spreading information and knowledge to individuals and NGOs about Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency;

2. providing contact between individuals (and NGO's) so that it might be easier to install RE and use energy efficiency in one's own daily environment;

3. keep individuals (and NGO's) in touch about ongoing projects;

SNORE tries to reach these aims in the following ways:

1. setting up a database of useful information about renewable energy and energy efficiency (preferably on-line);

2. facilitating individuals (and NGO's) in seeking funds for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects.

SNORE seeks funding for a small office (currently under EYFA) to be able to facilitate the network. SNORE takes part in the INforSE network.

Why this message?

The SNORE network is at a very early stage now, but has great potential. Right now we are interested in addresses, books or complete databases on renewable energy and energy efficiency. If you have them, please let us know. Also we are looking for funding... any help is welcome.

Please let us know if you are interested to hear more about SNORE or want to take an active part in it by sending:

· an e-mail to

· a postcard to SNORE, PO. BOX 566, 6130 AN SITTARD, Netherlands

· or call: + 3146-513045

· We would not encourage you to fax but anyway: + 31-46 516460

(In the near future we will change the telephone number)

I'm working now on the conference. Cheers, Ace.

If you want more information on EYFA or receive their bi-monthly magazine 'Green Free News'. (Formerly GTN), you can send a postcard to the above mentioned address or e-mail to

State the name of your organisation, your own name as a contact person, a brief description of what you are doing or interested in, your address and e-mail username. If you are on e-mail, you'll receive SNORE newsletters.




Empowering Development: The New Energy Equation

Worldwatch Paper 111, by Nicholas Lenssen.

This report is adressing the dilemmas of energy and development. It questions the interest of developing countries to follow the same energy path as the developed countries do. It mentions a number of possibilities for energy efficiency measures and renewable energy solutions that will support the development of a Southern country more than solutions based on fossil fuels.

57 pages, US$ 5, to be ordered at WWI, 1776 Massechsetts Avenue NW, Washington DC, 20036 USA

Green Fees: How can a Tax Shift Work for the Environment and the Economy Robert Repette and others, World Resources Institute

Describes how taxes on garbage, CO2 and traffic congestion can help the environment and strengthen the economy of states and towns in USA.

96 pages, to be ordered at WRI, 1709 New York Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20006, USA

Energy Efficiency and Job Creation: the Employment and Income Benefits from Investing in Energy Conserving Technologies.

Howard Geller and others, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy.

Describes employment consequences in USA of an energy strategy with emphasis on efficiency. The work is based on the proposals in "America's Energy Choices".

46 pages, to be ordered at ACEEE, 1001 Connecticut Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20036, USA

Green Globe, Yearbook 1992

Helge Ole Bergesen, a.o. The Fridtjof Nansen Institute

How far has the international community come in solving specific environment and development issues? What are the main obstacles to effective international solutions? What needs to be done to overcome them? The Yearbook focuses on the achievements and failures of international cooperation, making it possible to distinguish clearly between the rhetoric and reality of environmental politics at the global level.

320 pages, £ 25, to be ordered from

Oxford University Press Distribution Services, Saxon Way West, Corby, Northants NN18 9ES.

Emerging Energy Technologies, Impacts and Policy Implications

Michael Grubb, a.o.

250 pages, June '92, £ 29.50.

Paradise Deferred: Environmental Policymaking in Central and Eastern Europe

Duncan Fischer

80 pages, £ 10, June '92.

The Environment in International Relations

Caroline Thomas

300 pages, May '92, £ 25.

All to be ordered from Energy & Environmental Programme, Royal Institute of International Affairs, 10 St James's Square, London SW1Y 4LE.

Rural Electrification in Africa

V. Ranganathan (editor). AFREPEN, African Energy Policy Research Network Studies of Zambia, Ethiopia, Botswana, Lesotho, and Somalia. Detailed data and information on experiences with rural electrification in Sub-Saharan Africa. Problems involved and prospects for the future.

To be ordered from Distribution Manager, ZED Books Ltd, 57 Caledonian road, London Nl 9BU, UK.

Efficiency Without Tears: 'No Regrets" Energy Policy to Combat Climate Change

Dr. Tim Jackson. Friends of the Earth.

The study shows that a lot of distortions exist in the UK energy market today (e.g. VAT on energy efficient products but not on energy supply). A shift in policy to remove the distortions could stimulate cost-saving investments in energy efficiency improvements, and cut UK C02-emissions by up to 40% by 2005.

August '92, to be ordered from FoE, 26-28 Underwood St., London, N1 7JQ, United Kingdom.

Energy without End

Friends of the Earth

Describes how UK can switch from fossil fuels and nuclear power to less polluting energy sources. Looking at examples from around the world, it explains how modern systems like wind and water turbines, solar panels, photovoltaics, and fuel cropping can harnesh the "renewable" natural energy flows.

£ 7.95, to be ordered from FoE, 26-28 Underwood St., London, N1 7JQ, United Kingdom.

Russian Roulette: Nuclear Power Reactors in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union

Frinds of the Earth, Greenway

Dangerous and understaffed nuclear power reactors CEE need lo be closed down. This report shows the possible and needed actions to be taken to close the reactors, e.g. energy conservation measures and installation of co-geneation facilities.

Second edition 1992. Contact: Eka Morgan, FoE International, PO Box 19199, 1000 GD Amsterdam, Netherlands.


Down To Earth

Fortnightly Science and Environment magazine. Especially on environmental issues in Asia, includes also world news. Annual subscription: US$ 65 for individual, US$ 100 for institutions.

Society for Environmental Communications, E-6, Kailash Colony, New Delhi-110048.

East West Environment

The Business & Environment Newsletter of Central and Eastern Europe. Monthly newsletter with informed news and views on the environment business.

Annual subscription: £ 200, small NGOs £ 50, large NGOs £ 100.

East West Environment, 158 Buckingham Palace Rd, London SW1W9TR, UK.

IT Power News

Newsletter on Photovoltaics

IT Power Ltd, The Warren, Bramshill Road, Eversley, Hants, RG27 0PR, UK.

Doctors for the Environment

International Bulletin published by ISDE. International Society of Doctors for the Environment. Health aspects of pollution (radiation, air pollution, etc.)

Annual subscription: US$ 10 for individuals, US$ 100 for institutions.

Via della Fioraia, 17/19, 1-52100 Arezzo.

WISE News Communique biweekly newsletter from World Information Service on Energy (selected articles are also published in Spanish. Japanese, Finnish). special edition on Energy & Development, November '92. Annual subscription: US$ 45 (monthly mailing US$ 25) for individuals, US$ 150 (montly mailing US$ 85) for institutions. Sponsors are needed for groups in Third World and Central and Eastern Europe.

WlSE-Amsterdam, PO.Box 18185, 1001 ZB Amsterdam, Netherlands.



Democratic and Sustainable Energy Systems

European NGO Energy seminar organized by OVE, the Danish Organization for Renewable Energy

Folkecenter for Renewable Energy, Denmark. July, 12-16, 1993.

The 1993 seminar will be the 4th European NGO seminar on renewable energy and energy savings, organized by OVE. Like the first year we will hold the seminar at the Folkecenter for Renewable Energy, where we can take advantage of the tecnical expertice and demonstration plants at the center. During the seminar we will also visit other renewable energy installations in the area (in Thy 40% of electricity is produced by wind turbines, many of them owned by wind turbine co-operatives).

At this years seminar we also want to discuss and elaborate strategies for democratization of the energy policy. Most energy systems in Europe today are centralized, and with very little public influence. There will also be time for "getting to know each other" and make contacts for future cooperation.

Practical Information

· The working language at the seminar will be english

· Participation fee is equal to 900 DKK and covers materials, accomodation (in tent), and food (you have to help cooking)

· We have the possibility to support a limited number of Eastern European Participants

· If you want to join the seminar send the form and pay an advance equal to 150 DKK to OVE before June, 15,1993.

· When you sign up, please include a short description of yourself and your organization: interest, former activities, future plans, ...

· The day after finishing the seminar on July, 17, 1993 the European InforSe meeting will take place.

Introduction to FC

The objectives of the Folkecenter are to promote dissemination of know-how and information and to develop renewable energy technologies designed for manufacturing in small and medium scale industries. Over the past 8 years the Folkecenter has acquired a comprehensive know-how on solar energy, wind energy, biogas and co-generation, as well as integrated systems. All systems are of a modular design and can be adapted to local conditions in Denmark and in other countries. The Folkecenter is organized with technical divisions for wind energy, solar energy, biogas/co-generation, measurements, and green technologies. The international division organizes training programmes, conferences, international co-operation projects. Since 1990 the international department has developed a number of contacts between enterprises in Denmark and in Eastern Europe regarding renewable energy. Besides the Folkecenter is part in a worldwide network on renewable energy centres.

All folkewcenter know-how, such as construction drawings, manuals, measurement data, and the experiences of staff are available to the public.


The Folkecenter is an independent institution, supported by the government and local authorities since 1983, Half of the annual turn-over is core funding and the other half is obtained as project funding from Danish and international organization, commercial companies, etc.

Folkecenter for Renewable Energy, Kammersgaardsvej 16, Sdr. Ydby, 7760 Hurup Thy. Ph:+ 45-9795 6555. Fax: + 459795 6565.

If you want more information or want to participate at the seminar, inform: OVE, Willemoesgade 14, 2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark, att. Ann Vikkelsø. Ph:+ 45-31429091. FaX+ 45- 31429095.




January, 20-21, 1993


Towards an Energy Efficient Europe, Birmingham, England

Conference on Domestic Energy Efficiency Policy. Organized by Energy Neigbourhood Action. Ph: + 44-91-261 5677. Fax: + 44-91- 2616496.

February, 5-7, 1993

Baltic-Nordic Energy and Environmental Seminar, Oslo, Norway

Theme: Consequences for the environment of the European Energy Charter. Organized by The Norwegian Society for the Protection of Nature. Info: Tore Braend. Ph:+ 47-2-715520. Fax:+ 47-2-715640.

March, 4-5, 1993

Conference, org. by the Green Group in the European Parliament. I: The Internal Energy Market: a major challenge for the European energy policy. II: New Cooperation between East and West. III: Strategies for a sustainable energy Development in Europe. Info: Wilgos. Ph.

+32-2-2842508. fax:+ 32-2-2849196

March, 9- 10,1993

Energy Efficiency 2000, Switzerland

Forum and meetings, organized by UN

Economic Commission for Europe.

EE2000 is a project to improve efficiency of energy use, through enhancing trade and co-operation with CEE countries.

Info: Mr. Olivier Fahrni, Palais de Beau lieu,

P.O.Box 89, CH-1000 Lausanne 22.

Ph:+ 41 -21 -6432111. Fax:+ 41 -21 -643


March, 24-28, 1993

Eco '93, Romania Seminar on Pollution and its Implications. Organized by LC Craiova. Ph/fax:+ 40-94-111593.

March, 1993

Seminar on Renewable Energy Org. by Greenway Energy Group. Info: Tunde Etter. Ph/fax:+ 36-1-1363370.

April, 26, 1993

Chernobyl Day Coordinated actions in Europe to commemorate the nuclear disaster at Cher-nobyl. Coordinator: Paxus Calta, e-mail, gn:wisepaxus. (Info: Greenway Energy working Group. Ph/fax:+ 36-1-1363370.)

May, 10-19, 1993

ICEPTE'93, Russia. The 1993 International Conference on Environmental Pollution, Toxicology and Epidemiology. On board a ship travelling from Perm to St. Petersburg. Info: CIS-participants: Dr. A.V.Lyubimov, Centre of Ecology and Biotesting. Ph:+ 7-3422- 488419. Other participants: Dr. J.Kinross, Napier Univ., Scotland. Ph:+44 -31-4552526. Fax + 44-31-4528023.

May, 17-21, 1993

Solar Energy in Architecture Urban Planning, Italy European conference on Architect organized by CEC. Info: WIP, germany. Ph:+ 49-89-7201232. Fax:+ 49-89-7201291.

May, 1993

Seminar on Least-Cost Planning Org. by Greenway Energy Group. Info: Tunde Etter. Ph/fax:+ 36-1-1363370.

June, 1993

The Other EEC Summit, Copenhagen, Denmark

Parallel activities to the EEC summit, organized by Junibevægelsen (The Danish June Movement), OVE, a.o. Info: Gunnar B. Olesen/Ann Vikkelsø, OVE. Ph:+ 45-31429091. Fax:+ 45-31429095.

July, 12-16, 1993

Democratic and Sustainable energy Systems, FC, Denmark

Eropean NGO summer seminar at the Danish Folkecenter for Renewable Energy (FC), organized by OVE. Info: Ann Vikkelsø/Gunnar B. Olesen, OVE. Ph:+ 45-31429091. Fax:+ 45-31429095.

July, 17, 1993

European INFORSE meeting, FC,


Info: Gunnar B. Olesen/Ann Vikkelsø,

OVE. Ph:+ 45-31429091. Fax:+ 45 31429095.

August, 1993

Sustainable Energy Solutions vs Brown Coal in former DDR, Germany Seminar in Cottbus, Sorbia organized by Netzwerk Energie Dezentrale, a.o. Info: Gunnar B. Olesen, OVE. Ph:+ 4531429091. Fax:+ 45-31429095.

August, 23-27, 1993

Harmony with Nature, Budapest, Hungary

ISES Solar World Congress 1993. Covers solar energy and other RE. Info: ISES SWC, c/o Malev Air Tours. Ph: + 36-1-1187836. Fax: + 36- 1-1187359.


Soft Energy Worldwide - N°9 - April 1993

INforSe - International Network for Sustainable Energy - newsletter. No. 9, April 1993.

ISSN 0907-7693


Decentralizations for the future

In this issue you will find articles about two large-scale energy projects: the Narmada hydropower scheme in India and the Temelin nuclear power plant in Czech Republic. These large projects, being very different in technology and thousands of kilometers apart, have a number of similarities: they are put forward by central governments, they have gained strong local resistance, they are partly made with help of international funding and they are made in spite of the fact that they are creating unsolved environmental problems.

Large power projects, as those mentioned above are the latest results of the recent history of the power sector. This sector has developed increasingly centralized supply systems, based on large coal, oil, hydro or nuclear plants. At the same time the utilities have become a strong political and economical factor, often out of government control. They generally have not shown interest in the necessary transformation of the energy-sector to sustainable systems.

These centralized systems are gradually, like dinosaurs, growing out of time. New decentralized and participatory ways of organizing energy systems are emerging, and will play an increasingly important role in future sustainable energy systems.

In recent years decentralized energy production and new organizational forms have had remarkable successes in a number of countries. In India millions of biogas plants are providing farmers with gas for cooking and lightning; often the plants are constructed by nonprofit NGO's. In Denmark more than 100,000 families are members of wind energy cooperatives, that have installed 80% of the windturbines in Denmark. Decentralized power production holds a promising future in most countries, North or South, East or West.

The independent power producers, the IPPs, are more and more common in a number of countries. Supported by new legislation providing the framework, the IPP-organizations are negotiating tariffs and conditions for grid connection with the central utilities.

One objective of the global community, in terms of sustainable energy development, should be to create the framework for development of local energy systems that efficiently can provide the energy services needed and at the same time contribute to a sustainable development. Contemporary experiences show that local participation is very important in order to reach these goals. We can only be confident that the development towards a sustainable future will continue, if we change the energy consumption level in the industrialized countries and involve the end-users in the process, i.e. by decentralizing the energy sector.



Sustainable Energy News

This is the last issue of Soft Energy Worldwide. In the future the worldwide newsletter for INforSE will be named Sustainable Energy News. For all European readers Sustainable Energy News will be supplemented with Soft Energy Europe. The newsletters will be issued jointly four times a year.

Non-European readers will only receive Sustainable Energy News, unless they request to have Soft Energy Europe included as well.

Soft Energy World-wkie Published by:


Organizational Secretariat:c/o OVE (Danish Organization for Renewable Energy)

Willemoesgade 14

2100 København Ø, Denmark Ph: +45-31429091

Fax: +45-31429095 e-mail: pns.ove

Technical Secretariat: c/o Folkecenter for Renewable Energy

Kammersgaardsvej 16, Sdr.Ydby 7760 Hurup Thy, Denmark ph: +45-97956555 fax +45-97956565


International Network for Sustainable Energy is a worldwide NGO network formed at Global Forum in Rio, June 1992.

OVE has since 1975 worked for renewable energy in Denmark. We are deeply involved in the Danish development of windpower, scar systems and other kinds of renewable energy, as well as promotion of RE and lobbyism.

Folkecenter f. Renewable Energy has since 1983 worked for development and dessimination of renew able energy and green technologies. Based in Denmark but involved in projects worldwide.


Ann Vikkelsø, OVE

Gunnar B. Olesen, OVE

Rene Karottki, Folkecenter for RE


Deadline for the coming issue of Sustainable Energy News and Soft Energy Europe: June,, 10,1993

The newsletters are published 4 times a year. Next Issues :July 1 993.

The newsletters will as long a. possible be free for NGOs.



Go ahead for INforSE

by Rene karottki, FC

Tha Danish parlbment haa decided to provide financial support 10 the International Network for Sustainable Energy. The support will be channeled through the Forum for Energy and Developmerd, that originally was formed in 1992 but was restructured in 1992 after the Rio-conterences. It is now time to go ahead with the INforSE-activities.

The Forum for Energy and Development

The Forum for Energy and Development was originally an informal meeting place for energy and development NGOs. It was formed in 1987 to open a dialogue between the experiences and activitites of NGOs working with renewable energy and NGOs working with developing countries. In the autumn of 1992 the Forum was reorganized to be a legal body and thus able to recieve Government funding. So far funding has been secured for 1993 and there are good chances for a continued support in the coming years.

Member organizations of the Forum are: the Association for International Cooperation (MS), the project division of Danish Missionary Council, Ibis, the Union's International Forum (AIF), CARE-Denmark, The Danish Organization for Renewable Energy (OVE), the Folkecenter for Renewable Energy (FC), the Association of Energy Of flees (SEK) and the Energy Movement OOA.

The Forum will be active in the following fields:

1. Providing financial, organizational and technical support to INforSE. This will be done in close collaboration with the Folkecenter for Renewable Energy (FC) and the Organization for Renewable Energy (OVE) that are the host organizations for INforSE in Denmark and for the INforSE secretariat.

2. Project cooperation with 3rd world NGOs. Ml projects will be based on the needs of the developing countries and will be developed in close collaboration with organizations in these countries. On the Danish side project cooperation is expected to be developed mainly with the Forum's member organizations. The Forum will try to influence funding organizations such as Danida and international donors to provide financing of sustainable energy projects organized by NGOs.

3. Maintaining a dialogue with international organizations. The focus will be on Rio-follow-up programmes. The objectives are to contribute to strategies and policy development, e.g. within the climate negotiations, and to project activities within specific programmes such as e.g. the Global Environmental Facility. INforSE members are expected to be important partners in these activities.

4. Dissemination of information on sustainable energy activities and experiences. The Forum will organize seminars and workshops and will publicise pamphlets and other publications, especially presenting positive experiences with sustainable energy development.


Based on the resources available from the Forum for Energy and Development, INforSE and the secretariat in Denmark will now be ready to start its operations.

Among activities suggested for 1993 are the following:

A. Regional coordinator meeting in Denmark, August 1993. The meeting will be a forum for planning of future INforSE activities. An important part of the agenda will be to prepare the development of action plans for the regions and to discuss strategies and specific project proposals. The coordinators are expected to interact with INforSE-members in their region on the input to the coordinator meeting. It is the intention to have coordinator meetings once a year some

B. Regional INforSE-meetings, where the organizational set-up, action plans and project ideas will be discussed. The meetings will be organized by the regional INforSE members and the coordinators. It is expected that such meetings can be held on a regular basis, e.g. once a year.

C. Issuing 4 volumes of the INforSE newsletter. This Is the last issue of Soft Energy Worldwide, that was a fusion between the Folkecenter's Renewable Energy Centre's Worldwide and OVE's Soft Energy Europe, especially mace for the Rio conference. Soft Energy Europe will make a come back as a European newsletter. The worldwide INforSE newsletter will be called "Sustainable Energy News". INforSE-mernbers are expected to contribute with articles, news and other inputs.

D. Systematizing e-mail and other communication channels to be available for INforSE-members.

E. Printing of introduction leaflet and other presentation materials on INforSE.

F. Continue development of sustainable energy strategies.


The INforSE-Secretariat will be shared between OVE and the Folkecenter. OVE will continue to host the Organizational Secretariat, producing newsletters, organizing e-mail, organizing meetings and other member related activities. Gunner Olesen will be the organizational secretary. The Folkecenter will host the Technical Secretariat, providing training and technical support to the network, e.g. for project planning purposes. A technical secretary has yet to be appointed.

Soft Energy

This is the last issue Soft Energy Worldwide.

In July you will receive the 1st issue of the worldwide INforSE newsletter called "Sustainable Energy News". European readers will together with this receive Soft Energy Europe which gets a come back as an European newsletter.

Other readers who wish to receive the Soft Energy Europe, please inform us !



Join the INforSE-network

The International Network for Sustainable Energy (INforSE) is open to membership from NGOs interested in sustainable energy development. Membership is free of charge.

INforSE is based on the NGO-document "Sustainable Energy Development - towards a world strategy". INforSE members can use the network for exchange of experiences, strategy development, planning of actions and cooperation projects or as a forum for discussion. A network newsletter is issued 4 times a year and e-mail service is available at the secretariat. Coordinators or contact persons are appointed for each region of the world. They will be focal points for the development of regional action plans, projects and other INforSE-activities.

If your organization wishes to become member of INforSE and support the NGO-energy strategy, please use the coupon beside the text. You will recieve a copy of the document "Sustainable Energy Development - towards a world strategy", you will enter the mailing list for Sustainable Energy News and you will be contacted by the regional coordinator/contact person for participation in INforSE-activities.

Go ahead for INforSE, continued from page 3 where in the world to follow-up on action plans and to discuss current activities.



Call for INforSE Europe Meeting

The coming regional meeting for Europe is scheduled to Saturday, July, 17, 1993 at Folkecenter for Renewable Energy.

The proposed program is:

· Election of Chairman and Rapporteur

· Report from European INforSE coordinators, INforSE working-groups (groups formed at the INforSE Europe meeting in September, '92 in Tablada, Spain) and member-organizations.

· Discussion on current energy-political situation in Europe In relation to possible NGO-action. This point will include a discussion of worldwide affairs, that need common action from NGO's from more continents than Europe.

· Discussion on action plan for INforSE Europe for the coming year common activities, regional and local strategies, priority pro|ects/activitTes.

· Discussion on structure for INforSE Europe, common information system, newsletter.

· Election of European coordinators and participant for the INforSE co ordinators meeting in August, 93.

Ail INforSE member-organizatlons can send one representative, the meeting itself will be free of charge, and OVE will try to raise support for travel - costs, if necessary. Participants are recommended to combine the INforSE meeting with the European NGO Energy Seminar that is taking place the days before at the same location.



INforSE Africa Meeting

The regional INforSE meeting for Africa is scheduled to November, 93 following the AFREPREN Energy Planning Seminar. The location will probably be Nairobi, Kenya. More information In the coming issues of Sustainable Energy News or by Foundation for Woodstove Dissemination, aft.. Stephen Karekezi or Mumbua Munywoki, P.O.Box 30979, Nairobi, Kenya.



OVE European Energy Seminar

Democratic and Sustainable Energy Systems

Denmark, July 11th -17th,1993


Sunday 11th pm. Arrival at Folkecenter

Monday 12th am. Presentation of all participants and seminar Visions about a sustainable future by Preben Maegaard, director of Folkecenter


Presentation of workshop themes: Democracy in energy systems and planning

· Organizing Non Governmental Organizations, NGO's

· Wind

· Solar e Biomass

· Building sustainable energy strategies Organizing workshop groups Presentation of the Folkecenter

Tuesday 13th am Democracy in energy systems and planning presented by Lillian Battais from CLER in France and Jane Kruse from OVE in Denmark Discussions



Wednesday 14th

Excursion to biogas plant, large solar

Practical Information:

· working language: English

· participation fee 900 DKK (ap.150 US$) including food and accommodation in tents

· limited possibility to support Eastern European participants

· registration before June, 15 at OVE, Willemoesgade 14, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, att. Ann Vikkelsø system, wind turbine park, ecological low energy house

Thursday 15th am International cooperation:

· presentation and discussion of EEC Internal Energy Market

· presentation and discussion of European Energy Charter

East NGO meeting and West NGO meeting (parallel)


NGO networks, discussion of potential European initiatives and present structure


Friday 16th


Future cooperation

Presentation of workshop results


10 Years anniversary of the Folkecenter:

An open discussion about needs and future tasks for popular centres for renewable energy

Evaluation of seminar



Saturday 17th

For those interested there will be:

- INFORSE meeting from 13-17 pm


Proposal for sustainable energy strategies for Central and Eastern European countries.

One of the planned workshops will deal with the development sustainable energy strategies for CEE countries. The intention is to start the development of NGO-based sustainable energy strategies, that can give the involved NGO's a better basis for promoting soft energy technologies. Among others, Toni Vidan from Green Action Zagreb will be involved in the workshop. Proposals from the workshop will, when appropriate, be presented for the INforSE network for initiating of pro|ects for interested countries/NGO's.



World Bank out of Narmada

By Gunnar Olesen, OVE

During the last years local citizens and a large number of environmental organizations have protested against the plans of the Narmada Dam in Western India, where 240.000 citizens have to move to give room for the reservoir of the 140 m high dam and its 76.000 km of irrigation channels. An Indian organization calls it "the largest planned environmental catastrophe in India". Many of the protests have been aimed at the World Bank because of its involvement in the project. In 1991 the World Bank established as a result of the protests an independent committee chaired by the former UNDP Director, Bradford Morse to make an assessment of the project. The committee finished its report in June 1992 and concluded that the environmental consequences of the Narmada project had never been properly assessed and that when the Word Bank funding started in 1985, there were no plans to re-settle the people displaced. Even the number of people to be displaced was unknown. The environmental problems of the project and the potential solutions are still unknown.

As a result of this critique, the majority of the donor-countries decided In October last year to give the Indian government 6 months to make the necessary assessment and planning. A minority of donor countries wanted simply to stop further World Bank funding.

On March, 31, Just before the deadline for the assessment and plan, the Indian government Informed the World Bank that it will continue the project without funding from the World Bank and according to its own standards for environment. This decision suddenly took the World Bank "off the hook" regarding) its new environmental profile; there Is now no need for a delicate decision of the Bank about continuation of the Narmada-Project.

It is, however, doubtful whether the continuation of the Narmada-project without the World Bank will give a more environmentally benign project. A continuation without international involvement could even have worse effects for the environment and for the local people. But hopefully the billions of $ saved by the World Bank can now be used for more sustainable development projects.



The Other European Summit in Denmark

by Gunnar Boye Olesen

A group of Danish organizations are planning an alternative to the EC-Summit in Denmark in June, 93. The event is made as an activity of the network SIMU, The Danish Cooperation for international Environment and Development. Secretariat for 'TOES in Denmark" is OVE in Copenhagen (Willemoesgade 14, 2100 Copenhagen 0)

TOES in Denmark Is planned to take place June, 18-20, just before the official EC-Summit, June 21-22. The location will be at the meeting-center Gimle with a meeting-hail for 300 people and 10 smaller rooms for workshops and smaller gatherings. On the first two days (Friday and Saturday), there will be presentations and workshops about the themes mentioned below. On Sunday, June 20 there will be press-meetings and presentation of TOES- recommendations from the 4 themes and from participating organizations. Beside this, there is planned a hearing on environment and development with EC-Parlismentarians and governmental representatives

The event will be only cost 100 DKK (apt 17 US$) for three days and it is free of charge for Eastern Euroepan NGO-participants. Food and accommodation is not included. If funding is available, there will be support for a limited number of participants from Eastern and South em European countries.

Themes for Friday, 18



· Environment and EC-lnternal Market, EC environmental gurantee (Treaty of Rome, art. 100 A, part 4)

· Environment and EC structural funds, including the new Cohesion fund

· EC-regulation of waste, transport and trade with waste


· the progress of the EC CO2 reduction plan, C02/energy-taxes, the progress (or lack of progress) of the EC- proposal in the light of Initiatives from a number of EC- countries. Compared with outcome of NGO roundtable of energy/environmental taxation.

· EC internal energy Market, TPA, compared to existing free electricity markets In USA, Holland, Norway a.o. Presentation and discussion of European Energy Strategy made by NGO's (European federation for Renewable Energy and others). Presentation of IPSEP proposals by Florentin Krause, IPSER California

Themes for Saturday, 19: Connections to third world:

· EC third world policy in ight of the UNCED conferences. Additional funding? New Initiatives?

· Trade, for instance re-negotiation of Lome-treaty, GATT


· Urban traffic in EC, vision and reality, EC Green book and white book

· Motorways, freight, and long-distance transportation

Organizations participating in program:

· Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke, Danish Association for International Co-operation

· KULU, Voman Development Committee

· CASA, Center for Alternative Social Analysis

· A Seed

· Greenpeace-Denmark

Please contact OVE for program (ready in the beginning of May) and to register participation.



Renewable Energy at Ecotopia

Renewable energy is one of the themes at this years ecological camp Ecotopia organized by EYFA. It takes place in Southern France on the first 3 weeks of August. Workshops will explain renewable energy systems and work with Installation of systems for the camp. The workshops include;


Photovoltaics will be used for lighting at the camp and a solar battery kit with two solar panels will be build.

Solar Thermal Installations

A solar hot air collector for drying herbs and solar ovens for baking bread, pies and meals. Installations for hot water.

Wind Energy

Visits to the windmill of Labarth.

Hydro Power

Visit the small scale hydro plant.

Contact: Ace Suares, Support Network On Renewable Energy/EYFA e-mail: PO.Box 566, 6130 AN Sittard, The Netherlands.



NGO demands on European Energy Charter

by Gunnar Boye Olesen

At February 5-7, 1993 a Baltic - Nordic Energy and Environment Seminar was held, with NGO representatives from 9 countries in the Baltic - Nordic Area and hosted by Norwegian Society for Protection of Nature. The seminar mainly dealt with The European Energy Charter.

The Charter

The European Energy Charter, that was agreed upon in December, '91 by 48 countries including Russia, USA and Japan is now going to be followed by a Basic Agreement, that will be the main legally binding instrument of the Charter. As a number of disagreements still exist between the involved countries about the Basic Agreement, it is not likely that the Basic Agreement will be agreed upon before the end of this year; but nothing is certain.

NGO demands

The NGO-representative present concluded that the present version of the Basic Agreement of the Charter unfortunately will strengthen the existing inefficient and environmentally destructive ways of producing energy. The basis for this conclusion is an analysis of the Charter and the current draft of the Basic Agreement. These agreements will open up for trade and investments in all parts of the energy-sector, including nuclear. It will do so based on the existing environmental regulations in the countries subject to the investment/trade. The present environmental chapter of the Basic Agreement will probably not be sufficient to stop a number of environmental harmfully or hazardous investments, not to speak of securing a sustainable development of the energy-sector.

Based on this analysis of the Charter and Basic Agreement, the NGO-rep resentatives made a number of demands for the Basic Agreement. The major demands are:

· As a first step, environmental organizations should get a right to take part as observers in the negotiations.

· The costs of control and avoidance of the environmental damages caused by the production, transport and use of energy, should be calculated and added into energy prices.

· The Basic Agreement of the Charter must explicitly demand that the energy-related C02 emissions in the Charter-countries are substantially reduced to a level which will prevent dangerous anthropogenic changes of the atmosphere.

· Radioactive waste, as well as any radioactive material should not be treated as energy commodities as done in the current draft of the Basic agreement.

· The Charter must not contradict international environmental agreements, notably the principles of the climate convention, its coming protocols and the Espoo Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context.

· The Basic Agreement should provide for monitoring the activities of companies operating on energy projects abroad, and making the results of this monitoring freely accessible to the public.



Construction of Temelin goes on

by Paxus Calta, SNEEEZ and Ann Vikkelsø, OVE

In February the Czech government desided to complete the Temelin Nuclear Power plant. Temelin is not needed to meet the electricity demand In the Czech Republic. It is cheaper and without environmental problems to invest in improved efficiency and renewables.

A World Bank mission to the Czech Republic has suggested to delay the decision on continuing the construction. Anyway the Czech government went into an agreement with Westinghouse and the construction goes on. The Czech government is now seeking international financing for the completition of the plant, and right now the i_xport Import Bank of America is considering giving a loan for this. The original design of the plant is the Soviet WER 1000/320 model, which has a number of design flaws.

It is claimed by the Czech government and Westinghouse that the Temelin plant is necessary for the needs of Czech industry in the near future. In fact, numerous studies (by the World Bank and others) indicate that the Czech economy will not require additional generating capacity for the foreseeable future, following the current economic decline, which has resulted from the restructuring of the economy.


Further, the best investment in the energy sector in the Czech Republic (and the rest of Central and Eastern Europe) is in energy efficiency technologies. The Czech Republic consumes twice the energy per unit output as the OECD countries. Energy conservation costs (per watt saved) are approximately one tenth the per watt costs of building new capacity. The World Bank estimates simple energy conservation measures can reduce Czech domestic electricity demand by 20 to 30%. SEVEn (an independent Czech energy efficiency think tank, funded by Batelle and the US EPA) has evaluated the energy savings associated with 4 sectors of the Czech Republic (switching to fluorescent lighting, improving industrial electrical motors, improvements to the technology used for melting metals and household appliances). These changes in total could reduce electricity consumption by 55% of the total national installed capacity of 12,000 MW. This SEVEn program savings represents 3.4 times the total Installed capacity of the Temelin plant (2,000 MOO).

Additionally, there are numerous small scale, decentralized energy generating capacities available in the region. From cogeneration on the conventional side, to small scale hydroelectric on the renewables side. Before WWII, 400 MW of microhydro capacity existed, it was abandoned by the communists, the rivers are still flowing and new technologies could double this capacity to 800 MW - almost half the installed capacity of Temelin. Ail of these subsititute methods are safer, cheaper and faster to build than additional nuclear capacity, even when the costs already sunk Into the plant are considered (and even if you ignore or severely underestimate decommissioning and waste management costs, as both the US and Czech governments do).

Growing Local Resistance

There is a growing local resistance towards the Temelin Plant. Most of the municipalities in the nearby region Is against Temelin and want to utilize alternatives.

On April, 24 a large march against Temelin is planned, and at Chernobyl day April, 26 an action will take place at the construction site.

In the week before local grassroot activists and experts gather with people from the rest of Europe to discuss and educate each other on nuclear dangers and environmentally sound alternatives. The conference Is organized by the local group Hnuti Duha (Rainbow Movement) and SNEEEZ (European network) in cooperation with OVE and others.

Contact: SNEEEV/Hnuti Duha, Jakubske Namesti 7, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic. Ph: +42-5-25337.



Sustainable Energy Policy in Europe

by Ann Vikkelsø, OVE

This was the title of a conference held by the Greens from the European Parliament in March. The conference showed the collision course between development of decentralized energy systems based on savings and renewable energy on one side, and lending institutions like the EBRD (European Bank of Reconstruction and Development) and the European Energy Charter which favours large supply side projects.

It became clear that the structure of EBRD does not fit the needed decenbalized programmes for efficiency in Central and Eastern Europe. At the same time all speakers from the region stressed that it is much cheaper and environmentally sound to invest in energy efficiency instead of supply technologies like nuclear power (including upgrading of safety) and thermal power plants based on fossil fuels. E.g. in Poland it is possible to cut down energy consumption for heating by 40% with comparatively small investments.

Especially there is a big need for public information campaigns to raise the awareness of the environmental problems relating to energy consumption and the possibilities to influence the consumption by changing behaviour. Interviews made in Poland show that most people are concerned about the environment, but they do not realize their own possibilities for cutting down the energy consumption and pollution.

In this future work there is a big need for local energy groups. But it Is also needed to change the policy of EC and other International Institutions.

Contact: Gerard Wilgos, Green Group In the European Parliament, 97113 rue de Belliard, 1047 Bruxelles. Ph: +32- 2-2842508.



NEA-Conference: Towards an Energy Efficient Europe


Over 150 delegates from throughout Europe attended the first European Conference organized by UK energy efficiency charity Neighborhood Energy Action (NEA), January '93.

The NEA conference in Birmingham, UK, differed from other conferences in that it provided an opportunity to look at the social dimension of fuel poverty in some detail. The conference also provided the delegates with an opportunity to look at the experience of countries such as Denmark and the Netherlands, where large scale energy efficiency projects have been developed.

Regarding the social problem of energy inefficiency, it was felt that this could not be tackled in isolation. It was important that policies for building standards, pricing and taxation were developed to complement social policy initiatives.

The advantages and disadvantages of introducing carbon taxes were also discussed. Although it was agreed that such tax would benefit the environment, there was concern that low-income households would end up paying more proportionally. NEA is keen to develop the communication-lines which were established at the conference and believes that the charity's experience within UK could be of particular value to Central and Eastern European countries, and the Baltic Nations.

A conference summary and papers are available from NEA, price £15. Individuals and organizations are also invited to place their names on NEA's European mailing list by writing to:

Neighborhood Energy Action att. Brian Hart 2/4 Bigg Market, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 1 UW, UK



Conservenergy Week

Neighbourhood Energy Action (NEA) organized a Conservenergy Week, on December 7-11, 1992. Among the activities about 5.000 Iow-income households had their homes made warmer and cheaper to heat; there was presented certificates in Energy Awareness as a result of a training-course for bilingual advice workers and dozens of MP's took a closer look at home insulation and draughtproofing.

The week was supported by Elf Group (an oil company), Energy Action Northern Ireland and Energy Action Scotland.



Ass. f. Sustain. Communities in Denmark

15 intentional communities in Denmark, of which most have practical experience with renewable energy and other sustainable technologies, have formed an association in March '93.

One of the first job of the association will be to prepare a report on the barriers for eco-villages and available solutions to overcome these barriers (legal structures, funding, technology, lifestyle)


Kaj Hansen, Lollandsgade 52, 8000 Arhus C, Denmark, ph 45- 86194999 or Gaia Villages, Skyumvej 101, 7752 Snedsted, Denmark, ph-45- 97936655.



Energy Options for Africa: Sustainable Alternatives

By Stephen Karekezi and Mumbua Munywoki

The Foundation for Woodstove Dessimination, -The East and Southern African Focal Point for INforSE, in collaboration with The African Energy Policy Research Network (AFREPREN) and the UNEP Collaboration Center on Energy and Environment; has produced a publication entitled "Energy Options for Africa: Environmentally Sustainable Alternatives..

Although unsustainable energy generation and consumption have always been considered to be key causes of the degradation of the Earth's environment, it was often assumer) that in case of Africa, the very low consumption of modern fuels would result in limited energy-reiated ecological problems. The country case studies contained In this volume demonstrate that while the energy-related ecological problems that afflict the continent are different from those faced In more developed parts of the world, their negative Impact on the African populace is equally worrisome.

The biomass sector in Africa presents a bewildering array d challenges, opportunities and constraints to the African energy policy maker. The continent is endowed with a rich source of biomass energy in the form d forests, woodlands, grasslands, agriculture residues, and urban waste. Most of this abundant biomass energy resource base is either unexploited or utilized In an inefficient manner. Of special concern is the indoor air pollution associated with the use of bio-fuel cookstoves that Is increasingly perceived to be an Important contributor to high incidence d respiratory ailments particular In cooler highlands areas of Africa.

Partly due to non-energy activities such as clearing for agriculture and logging' the biomass resource base Is shrinking which might not only rob the world d an important sink of greenhouse gases, but could deprive future generations of Africans of a sustainable low-cost source of energy for development. This volume argues that efficient use of biomass and introduction of proven technologies such as improved cookstoves, energy efficient charcoal production, ethanol production from sugar cane as transport fuel and co-generation in agro-based industries offer attractive environmentally-sound alternative for meeting the region's growing demand for modern energy.

Africa is equally rich in a wide range d new and renewable sources d energy including hydro, wind, geothermal, peat, solar, plus abundant reserves d less-polluting fossil fuels such as natural gas. The use d this enourmous potential Is still inadequate.

For example natural gas, a by-product of oil production, is often flared which contributes to increasing green house gases In the atmosphere and deprives the region d valuable and relatively clean fuel. Country case studies In this volume provide innovative options for Increased utilization d the regions energy resources for development with out causing undue damage to the continent's ecology.

Recent developments in the end-use technologies and a long-term sustainable future energy path. More efficient vehicles, a skim to mass-transit transport system and energy-efficient end-use devices such as compact flouroscent lights are a few of the wide range of demand-side energy options available to Africa that would yield substantial economic benefit in addtion to offering further protection of the environment.

Wide-scale adoption d the aforementioned environmentally- sustainable energy alternative would require major changes In the Institutional and fiscal infrastructure of the region. One particularly pressing concern is the need to ensure level playing field between conventional fossil fuels with competing ecologically sound alternatives.

Training and development of an adequate human resource base that can ensure optimum implementation d the numerous opportunities for sustainable energy development is vital. By providing concrete examples of past and on-going ecologically sound energy initiatives, this volume is an important addition to the limited litterature on the nexus between energy and environment In Africa.

11 articles with strategies for and practical experience from Sub-Sahara Africa.

Stephen Karekezi a.o. 180 pages

Foundation for Woodstove Dessimination & AFREPREN

P.O. Box 30979, Nairobi, Kenya




Micro-Hydro Design Manual. A guide to small-scale water power schemes.

Includes: feasibility reports, economic indicators, river flow prediction studies, how to survey a site, civil work and penstock design, how to match a turbine and an electric generator to a site, energy demand studies, using electronic load control, using motors as generators, maintenance and operation. Adam Harvey a.o. 374 pp, £25. 1993.

Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd. 103-105 Southampton Row, London WC1 B 4HH, UK.

Renewable Energy: Sources for Fuela and Electricity

Thomas B. Johanson a.o. 1200 Pages, £30.

Eartscan Publications Ltd. 120 Pentonville Road, London N1 9JN, UK

Photovoltaic System Technology. A European Handbook.

Based on projects funded by The EC-Commission

M.S. Imamura, P. Helm, W. Palz, 566 pages, £140/170

H.S. Stephens & Associates, Pavenham Road, Felmersham, Bedford MK43 7EX, UK



Sun Day 1993

Earth Day, April 22, was the focus for activities being planned by 700 citizen groups, business a.o. participating in SUN DAY 1993: A Campaign for a Sustainable Energy Future. The organizations, located in USA and Puerto Rico collectively represent over 14.000.000 members.

The week-long "Solar Energy Forum'' in Washington DC, the ''Plan It for the Planet'' program to teach tens of thousands of school children abut renewable energy, and the "Ticket America Campaign" to discourage the purchase of fuel-inefficient cars are among nationwide activities being sponsered by SUN DAY 1993 participants. Solar homes tours, fairs, conferences, seminars, and workshops on renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies are also planned for dozens of cities throughout the US during the spring.

SUN DAY 1993 is an ongoing campaign, not a one-day event. It is working to create ongoing local and state-level coalitions to advocate its goals of reducing energy use and triple renewables.

Further information:

Public Citizen, attn. SUN DAY,

215 Pennsylvania Avenue, S.E., Washington DC, 20003, USA

ph -1-202-546 4996, fax- 1-202-547 7392



Green Niedersachsen

The German Bundesland Niedersachsen has decWed to shut down their four nuclear power plants (4000 MW) and instead aim at electricity savings, cogeneration, and renewable energy.

The plan is to change the energy system before the year 2005.



Danish People like windpower

There are huge discussions in Denmark on the environmental impact of wind turbines in the landscape. But a new opinion poll shows that 61% think that wind turbines suits the landscape quite well. Furthermore 82% of the population have the opinion that Denmark should aim at a larger part of wind in power supply, and 77% are willing to pay ten percent higher price for electricity produced by windturbines.



The Grand Coalition

A network campaigning to stop the Western nuclear lobby going East. More than fifty European organizations have joined the campaign until now. The Grand Coallition coordinates local campaigns and disseminate information.

Some of the activities are:

· petition to the European Parliament

· asking the Parliament to work for a stop of support and lending for nuclear projects, and aim at efficiency and renewables instead. You can sign until May 5,1993.

· Tchernobyl Action Day. Coordination of local activities at Tchernobyl Day, April 26.

· - Twinning Groups

· - European Energy Contest

Contact: ContrAtom, 7blvd Carl

Vogt, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland.

Ph: + 41 -22-7814844. Fax: + 41 -22~204

567. E-




May 10-19, 1993

ICEPTE '93, Russia.

The 1993 International Conference on Environmental Pollution, Toxicology and Epidemiology. On board a ship travelling from Perm to St. Petersburg. Info: CIS-participants: Dr.A.V.Lyubimov, Centre of Ecology and Biotesting. Ph:+7-3422488419. Other participants: Dr. J. Kinross, Napier Univ., Scotland. Ph:+4431 - 4552526. Fax: + 4431 -4528023.

11-15. May, 1993

Energetika, exhibition, Maribor, Slovenia

May 17-21, 1993

Solar Energy in Architecture and Urban Planning, Italy

European conference on Architecture, organized by CEC. Info: WIP, germany. Ph: +49-89-7201232. Fax: +49-897201291.



26-30 May,1993 Filsd, exhibition, Ussabon, Portugal

May 1993 Seminar on Least-Cost Planning Org. by Greenway Energy Group. Info: Tünde Etter. Ph/fax: + 36-1-1363370.

June, 1-5, 1993 The Energy Efficiency for Europe, Rungstedgard, Denmark

June 18-20, 1993 The Other EEC Summit, C' e hagen, Denmark Parallel activities to the EEC summit organized by OVE, SlMU a.o. Info: Gunnar B. Olesen/Ann,Vikkelsø, OVE.

Ph: + 45-31429091. Fax: + 45-31429095.

June 22-24, 1993

Energy-forum, Varna, Bulgaria

July 12-16, 1993

Democratic and Sustainable energy Systems, FC, Denmark

European NGO summer seminar at the Danish Folkecenter for Renewable Energy (FC), organized by OVE. Info: Ann Vikkelsø/Gunnar B. Olesen, OVE. Ph: +45-31429091. Fax: +4531429095.

July 17, 1993

European INFORSE meeting, FC, Denmark

Info: Gunnar B. Olesen/Ann Vikkeisø, OVE. Ph: +45- 31429091. Fax: +4531429095.

July21-24, 1993

1993 European Wave Energy Symposium, Edinburgh,Scotland

August, 1993

Sustainable Energy Solutions vs

Brown Coal in former DDR, Germany

Seminar in Cottbus, Sorbia organized by

Seminar in Cottbus, Sorbia organized by

Netzwerk Energie Dezentrale, a.o. Info: Gunnar

B.Olesen, OVE . Ph: + 45-31429091 Fax: +45-31429095

August 23-27, 1993

Harmony with Nature, Budapest, Hungary

ISES Solar World Congress 1993. Covers solar energy and other RE. Info: ISES SWC, c/o Malev Air Tours. Ph: +36-1-1187836.

Fax: +36-1-11873559.

Protection of land and soils, Virtsu, Estonia September, 1993.


August, 1993.

AFREPREN African Energy Planning

Seminar indicative location: Nairobi, Kenya

Info: FOOD, PO.Box 30979, Nairobi,

Kenya, ph-221-224229

October 12-15, 1993

Energie'93, exhibition, Paris, France

November, 1993 AFREPREN African Energy Planning Seminar, indicative location: Nairobi, Kenya Information: FOOD, P.O.Box 30979, Nairobi, Kenya, ph-221-224229

November, 1993 INforSE Regional Meeting for Africa, indicative location: Nairobi, Kenya Information: OVE, Denmark or FOOD, Kenya

November, 1993 Renewable Energy Conference, Maputo, Mocambique Information: Prc~w~ci, Maputo, Mocambique

June, 2-5,1994

Towards the world governing of the environment, Venice, Italy

September 11-16, 1994

World Renewable Energy Congress,

Reading, UK

June 21-25, 1995

Energy Visions, Basel, Switzerland