| Abstracts on sustainable agriculture 1992 Gate- GTZ |
|Abstracts on soil fertility|
Publ. of the Institute of Agronomy in the Tropics, Univ. GÃ¶ttingen, Germany. Presented at the Int. Symposium on Management of Mycorrhiza in Agric., Hortic. and Forestry, Perth, Australia, 1992
The aim of the present paper revolves around the following questions: Are there differences between various VA mycorrhizal fungi in improving P uptake from different P sources with varying solubility? Do different P fertilizers exert an effect on the interaction of VA mycorrhiza and rhizobium? Does pigeon pea take advantage of a dual symbiosis?
The contribution of legumes in tropical cropping systems to maintain/restore soil fertility is gaining increasing importance. The most important aspect of tropical legumes is their ability to fix P in association with rhizobium atmospheric dinitrogen which becomes available to subsequent crops in rotational cropping systems. This is true for pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) which fits into many agronomic management systems because of its multipurpose use. However, unfavorable soil conditions in the tropics often impede development of pigeon pea and phosphorous is considered to be the most limiting factor. Studies indicate the need for application of between 20-100 kg/ha of phosphorus.
This, however, is a luxury most farmers in the tropics with very limited financial resources can ill-afford. Consequently, seeking other possibilities to overcome this problem deserves special attention. In this context, the management of effective VA mycorrhizal fungi could become a promising tool to increase the efficiency of applied P fertilizers and thus reducing financial expenses.
The present research work was conducted under greenhouse conditions using a non-sterilized P fixing soil. Three P sources were applied at the following rates (kg P/ha): single superphosphate 10, 30, 60; and two rock phosphated from Brazil; Patos de Minas (total P, 10.7%): 50, 150, 300; and AraxÃ¡ (total P, 12.1%): 50, 150, 300. The soil contained 2 native species of Glomales: Glomus albidum and Glomus intraradix. The mycorrhizal inoculum consisted of an air-dried mixture of soil/roots/spores and was applied at the rate of 2g/pot. Four VAM species originating from the Cerrado Ecosystem of Brazil were tested:
Glomus clarum, Glomus pallidum, Entrophospora colombiana, Acaulospora rehmii and Glomus manihotis from CIAT/Colombia (C-1-1). Cajanus cajan plants were not fertilized with N but inoculated with a peat-based inoculum of effective strains of rhizobium also from the Cerrado region.
The present results clearly indicate a strong dependency of pigeonpea on VAM fungi under P stress and Glomus clarum proved to be the most effective fungus irrespective of the P source and P level. In general, mycorrhizal infection rate was not influenced by the P source. However, with the exception of Glomus clarum, infection rate tended to decrease with increasing P levels. P uptake of inoculated plants corresponded well with the plant development and a similar tendency was observed with N uptake. With inoculated plants a significant relationship between P uptake/nodule formation and nodule formation/shoot dry weight was found, in particular with rock phosphate (AraxÃ¡s). This relationship decreased with increasing solubility of the P source. The present results bear evidence that the fertilizer efficiency of low grade rock phosphates is dependent on an effective VA mycorrhiza. With Cajanus cajan an additive interaction of effective VA mycorrhiza and rhizobium was observed resulting in: improved P and N uptake, increased nodule formation and, enhanced plant growth.
1252 92 - 12/78
USA, study, greenhouse experiment, sorghum, genotypes, mycorrhiza, phosphorus efficiency, cost/benefit analysis
RAJU, P.S. et al.