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close this book Agricultural development workers training manual: Volume II Extension Skills
close this folder Chapter III: Extension resources
View the document HANDOUT II - 3 - A - Information gathering strategy
Open this folder and view contents HANDOUT III - 1 - A - Foreign volunteer services: A host national perspective
View the document HANDOUT III - 1 - B - Assumptions about development
View the document HANDOUT III - 2 - A - Case study
View the document HANDOUT III - 2 - B - A peace corps agriculture extension worker
View the document HANDOUT III - 2 - C - Questions for discussion: Assumptions
View the document HANDOUT III - 2 - D - Effects of the project
View the document HANDOUT III - 2 - E - Different approaches
Open this folder and view contents HANDOUT III - 3 - A - The adverse impact of development on women
View the document HANDOUT III - 3 - B - Cross cultural attitude survey
View the document HANDOUT III - 3 - C - Women of the world: The facts
View the document HANDOUT III - 4 - A - Working style inventory
View the document HANDOUT IV - 1 - A - Agriculture extension
View the document HANDOUT IV - 2 - A - Extension worker roles and their implications
View the document HANDOUT IV - 2 - B - Extension, training and dialogue: A new approach for tanzania
View the document HANDOUT IV - 3 - A - Reaching small farmers (role play)
Open this folder and view contents HANDOUT IV - 3 - B - Extension guidelines
View the document HANDOUT IV - 5 - A - The result demo plot as an extension tool
Open this folder and view contents HANDOUT IV - 6 - A - The use of the method demonstration as a teaching device
View the document HANDOUT IV - 7 - A - Participative & directive training styles
View the document HANDOUT IV - 9 - A - Meetings
View the document HANDOUT IV - 11 - A - Field day check chart
View the document HANDOUT IV - 12 - A - Working within the system
View the document HANDOUT V - 1 - A - Some diseases which are found in Latin America (categorized in terms of how they are transmitted)
View the document HANDOUT V - 1 - A - Mini- workshops (summary of needed materials)
View the document HANDOUT V - 2 - B - Guidelines for purifying water
View the document HANDOUT V - 2 - C - Basic guidelines for personal and dental health
View the document HANDOUT V - 2 - D - Basic information concerning solid waste and excreta disposal
View the document HANDOUT V - 2 - E - Guidelines for assuring foods are clean
View the document HANDOUT V - 2 - F - Basic handout on immunization
View the document HANDOUT V - 2 - G - Antibody creation
View the document HANDOUT V - 3 - A - Description of the three main food groups
View the document HANDOUT V - 3 - B - Requirements, tables, and lists of nutrients & food
View the document HANDOUT VI - 1 - A - Personal stabilizers
View the document HANDOUT VI - 3 - A - Case situation # 1
View the document HANDOUT VII - 1 - A - Group maintenance oriented behavior worksheet
View the document HANDOUT VII - 1 - B - Task oriented behavior worksheet
View the document HANDOUT VII - 1 - C - Observers worksheet
View the document HANDOUT VII - 1 - D - Task oriented behavior/Group maintenance oriented behavior
View the document HANDOUT VII - 1 - E - On U.S. volunteers
View the document HANDOUT VII - 1 - F - Communication skills: Self rating form
View the document HANDOUT VII - 2 - A - The decision- making process
View the document HANDOUT VII - 2 - B - Observation sheet for decision making
View the document HANDOUT VII - 2 - C - A group decision making model
View the document HANDOUT VII - 3 - A - Personal interest
View the document HANDOUT VII - 3 - B - Transferring responsibility
View the document HANDOUT VII - 4 - A - Problem- solving
View the document HANDOUT VII - 4 - B - Patty peace corps
View the document HANDOUT VII - 4 - C - Situation
View the document HANDOUT VII - 4 - D - Case study of a head bund
View the document HANDOUT VII - 4 - E - Management

HANDOUT VII - 3 - B - Transferring responsibility

When an extension agent sets out to improve agriculture in a community he/she is interested in ideas actively accepted and hence he/she accepts all the responsibility for their acceptance. Once the farmers or community recognize it as in their personal interest, then it is time to transfer the responsibility to the farmers themselves for introducing the new ideas and making them work.

Making a farmer's work hie/her own. Since the extension agent must teach each aspect of improved agricultural practices, he/she must demonstrate each activity or have someone do it with or for the farmer the first time. It is important to transfer the responsibility for accepting and using new practices by handing over a farmer's work to him as soon as possible and as many times as necessary. Adherence to the principle of self- help responsibility transferring go far.

Creating a limited and clear role. A terribly counter- productive fallacy under which farmers, villagers, and some development workers labor is that extension is the act of doing something for a client and not with him/her. Prom the very beginning the role must be reiterated many times. it is essential that in everything the extension agent does to facilitate" work going on in a village, a native counterpart must participate and the how and why of what is done must be explained to the farmers. The extension agents' role should run a standard course: it should expand as farmers' interest in specific extension services grow initially, then it should slowly contract as farmers' responsibility and self motivation grow, until the role virtually dries up as farmers approach self- sufficiency and self- reliance with regard to those specific services. Being an extension agent involves attaining complete empathy with farmers, but it does not include doing all of a farmer's work. The extension worker teaches and transfers responsibility to farmers who are initially and repeatedly made aware of what they must do and what responsibilities they have in the new work they espouse.

Why Do It? One way of helping a community to solve its own problem is to create indigenous problem solvers. These people not only operate as a resource to be called upon by villagers, but also serve as role models. In addition they insure that organizations created to solve group problems are maintained.

Identifying and Training Leaders. Part of the analysis which an extension organizer makes of the community involves the identification of local leaders. Leaders are of two types, formal and informal. Formal leaders like Presidents, alphas, chiefs, generals are complemented by people like the weathly, those who speak well, those who do something well (master farmers), who are informal leaders of people.

Obviously a technically skilled farmer who Just wants to be left alone will not be a good leader, nor will a bright 13 year old, or an important man who has no interest in the work.

Leaders are people who have followers. During contacts with the village people the extension organizer identifies the people who have followers. As part of the process of testing people, defining an issue, and determining who are interested in those issues, the extension agent tests leaders to ascertain their skills and their personal interests. In the case of leaders who express interest, the extension agent asks them to help as leaders of people working on Pertinent issues. The organizer- agent can develop the skills of these leaders by giving them more and more responsibility for the work people have undertaken. It is advisable to maintain a group of leaders initially, loosely organized so the best and most interested leaders can eventually find their way to the top. By an increasingly demanding and insistent transfer of responsibility for the work from the organizer to these local leaders, the agent helps develop the local leadership and- - coincidentially- - the organization of the people who work. Training leaders is the key to the extension agent eventually "working him/her self out of a Job . It is an on- going, very, very long process, however, that must begin immediately after the agent arrives in a village.

From: Extension writings of Michael Gibbons.