| The Courier N°139 May- June 1993- Dossier: Factors and development - Country Reports: Trinidad and Tobago : Zimbabwe |
THE CONVENTION AT WORK
EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENT FUND
The Commission has taken decisions to finance the following schemes from the 5th, 6th and 7th EDFs:
- 24 February 1993 St Vincent & Grenadines: 7th EDF grant of ECU 3 200000 for land redevelopment at Mount Wynne and Peter's Hope Papua-New Guinea: 7th EDF grant of ECU 8 500 000 for the third structural adjustment support programme
Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles and Reunion: Grant of ECU 6 239 000 (ECU 4 739 000 from the 6th EDF and ECU I 500 000 from the 7th EDF) for a regional tourist development programme in the countries of the Indian Ocean Commission.
Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius and Seychelles: 7th EDF grant of ECU 11 000 000 to support environmental programmes in the countries of the Indian Ocean Commission Niger: 7th EDF grant of ECU 15 000 000 for a sectoral import programme (medicines and input for the system of production)
- 4 March 1993
Namibia: 7th EDF grant of ECU 40 000 000 (Sysmin) for a programme to support the country's mining sector
- 9 March 1993
Cote d'lvoire: 7th EDF grant of ECU 1 275 000 to support the cooperative movement
- 23 March 1993
Mozambique: 7th EDF grant of ECU 3 000 000 emergency aid as a contribution to humanitarian relief programmes for victims of the fighting and malnutrition
- 29 March 1993
New Caledonia: 5th EDF loan of ECU 700 000 to improve the Magenta Aerodrome (phase II - construction of the SSIS building)
Barbados: 7th EDF grant of ECU 2 750 000 for Barbados' reception institute
Dominican Republic: 7th EDF grant of ECU 8 800 000 for an integrated health programme in the south west
Grenada: 7th EDF grant of ECU 2 000 000 from the structural adjustment resources to support the structural adjustment programme (general import programme)
Mauritania: 7th EDF grant of ECU 18 000 000 from the structural adjustment resources to support the structural adjustment programme
Mauritania: Grant of ECU I 793 787 from the 5th EDF national indicative programme and remainders of the 3rd-5th funds, plus ECU 3 017 765.73 from the 6th EDF national indicative programme and remainders of the 4th-6th funds, plus 7th EDF grant of ECU 2 538 447.11 to rehabilitate hospitals in Nouakchott and Aloun
Guinea: 7th EDF grant of ECU 20 000 000 to raise the standard of living in the interior
Kenya: 7th EDF grant of ECU 4 000 000 for elephant protection and the community wild animal programme
Dominican Republic: 7th EDF grant of ECU 7 000 000 for an integrated local primary school development programme
- 16 April 1993
Gambia: 7th EDF grant of ECU 960 000 for the promotion of tourism
Seychelles: 7th EDF grant of ECU 250 000 for a line of credit for small firms
Namibia: 7th EDF grant of ECU 500 000 for abacus educational supplement
Namibia: 7th EDF grant of ECU 1 800000 for upgrading and rehabilitation of primary school physical facilities in rural areas
Kenya: 7th EDF grant of ECU 1 990 000 for revival and development of the Swahili culture
The Commission has taken the following decisions to provide food aid from the European Community budget resources:
- 10 March 1993
UNHCR: 3808 t milkpowder and ECU 5 000 000-worth of pulses
WFP (Protracted Refugees Operations): 180000 t cereals, 1000t milkpowder,5500 t sugar, 7500 t vegetable oil and ECU 8 000 000-worth of pulse
WFP (International Emergencies Food Reserve): 50000 t cereals, 1000t milkpowder, 5000 t vegetable oil and ECU 200 000-worth of pulses
WFP (Regular normal programme): 110000 t cereals, 10000t milkpowder, 5500 t vegetable oil and ECU 3 000 000worth of pulses
EURONAID: (Cofinancing) Food products, seed and tools worth ECU 2 500 000
Eastern Germany receives the first loan under the 'Edinburgh facility'
The European Investment Bank's first financing under the ECU 5 billion Edinburgh Facility is going to Deutsche Bundespost. The DM 300 million loan (ECU 153.4m) is for the expansion of telephone networks in six East German cities and will help finance the connection, via digital exchange equipment, of a total of 250 000 new subscribers in Dresden, Gera, Halle, Leipzig, Magdeburg and Rostock.
This is one of fourteen capital investment projects for which the EIB's Board of Directors recently approved loans totalling almost ECU I billion under the Edinburgh Facility established to promote economic recovery in Europe in the wake of the conclusions of the European Council meeting held in Edinburgh on 11 and 12 December 1992.
The loan for the East German telecoms brings total EIB lending in the five new German Lander since the beginning of 1993 to nearly DM I billion. EIB lending in eastern Germany in 1992 totalled DM 1.4 billion, of which DM 733m went to seven major projects and DM 702m, provided through global loans, to 369 smaller scale industrial, tourism and environmental schemes.
EUROPEAN POLITICAL COOPERATION
The Foreign Affairs Ministers of the Member States of the European Community have issued the following statements on the dates indicated:
2 March: Statement on combatting narcoterrorism- Colombia
The European Community and its Member States express their shock at and rejection of recent terrorist attacks in Colombia, and their sympathy for the families of the victims. They wish to record their solidarity with the Colombian Government and the Colombian people in their fight against narcoterrorism.
The European Community and its Member States condemn the illicit production, processing and trafficking of drugs, and the violence so often associated with it. The illicit drugs trade damages innocent individuals and undermines democracy and the rule of law.
12 March: Statement on Burma
The Community and its Member States welcome the adoption on March 10,1993, by the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNHCR) of the consensus resolution on the human rights situation in Burma (Myanmar), which was co-sponsored by the Community and its Member States.
The Community and its Member States especially urge the Government of Burma (Myanmar) to release immediately and unconditionally the Nobel Peace laureate Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, detained without trial for the last four years, as well as other detained political leaders and all political prisoners excluded from the preparation of the new constitution.
They urge the Government of Burma (Myanmar) to accelerate the process towards democracy by allowing all citizens to participate freely in the political process, in particular through convening the Parliament elected in May 1990, and restore full respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.
The Community and its Member States attach strong importance to the international consensus shown by the adoption of the resolution and strongly urge the Government of Burma (Myanmar) as a member of the United Nations and signatory to the United Nations human rights instruments to fulfil its obligations under these instruments.
15 March: Presidential election on Madagascar
The Community and its Member States warmly welcome the respect for democracy shown during the Presidential election by the two candidates and the Malagasy people. They hope very much that the development of democracy in Madagascar will continue in the same spirit and would urge all parties concerned to achieve this objective by peaceful means.
24 March: Statement on the situation in Malawi
The Community and its Member States welcome the recent encouraging signs of improvements in Malawi regarding political freedom and respect for human rights and urge the government to continue the democratisation process. They note the decision of the President to reschedule the referendum on the maintenance or rejection of the single party system until 14 June 1993 in accordance with the recommendation of the United Nations. The Community and its Member States hold the firm view that whatever political framework emerges it should safeguard all rights enshrined in international conventions.
It is of fundamental importance that the referendum should be declared free and fair. To allow for this the referendum must be prepared and conducted properly in accordance with international standards. An important part of the preparations is the existence of conditions which allow all parties, including those advocating multi-party democracy, to conduct campaigns prior to the referendum. The presence of international observers during the registration phase as well as during the referendum itself will contribute to the general acceptability of the result.
The structure of the Referendum Commission and its independence will be of crucial importance. As soon as satisfactory agreement on this is reached the Community and its Member States will be prepared to send observers to monitor the registration process and subsequently to consider sending observers to monitor the referendum.
The European Community and its Member States reiterate their continued interest in economic and political progress in Malawi and earnestly hope that the referendum, together with the pursuit of appropriate human rights and economic policies, will lead to conditions for a resumption of a full aid partnership with donors.
26 March: Statement on Bosnia Herzegovina
The Community and its Member States warmly commend the decision of the Bosnian government to sign the Vance/Owen Peace Plan. They reiterate their unequivocal support for the plan and pay tribute to the valuable efforts of the two co-chairmen.
They also welcome the agreement between the Muslim and Croat parties on the interim arrangements which form an important part of the peace package.
They hope the Security Council of the United Nations will endorse the Vance/ Owen Peace Plan, and they express their readiness to contribute substantially to its implementation.
The Community and its Member States demand that the Serb side now accept the plan in its entirety and cooperate fully in all aspects of its implementation. The Serbs must stop all aggressions at once, preparing the way for the cessation of hostilities by all sides.
If the Bosnian Serbs refuse to accept the plan now, full international pressure will be brought to bear on them. The Community and its Member States will continue strengthening sanctions and will consider further measures leading to the total isolation of Serbia-Montenegro.
30 March: Statement on South Africa
In spite of the general downward trend of violence since the beginning of 1993 the wave of violence has continued in certain areas of Natal and Transvaal culminating in a recent series of senseless murders of children and other innocent victims.
The Community and its Member States express their abhorrence and condemnation of these crimes and appeal to all parties engaged in the effort to reach a negotiated settlement for a future political dispensation in South Africa to do their utmost to bring the violence to an end and to renounce violence in all its forms.
In this connection the Community and its Member States have taken due note inter alla of the Goldstone Commission's report of March 15, 1993 by the Committee conducting a preliminary investigation into the activities of the Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA) as well as of the Commission's recommendations addressed to the international community.
The Community and its Member States have in many ways demonstrated their support for the peace-process in South Africa in particular through the deployment of the European Community Observer Mission in South Africa (ECOMSA). Together with the missions of the United Nations, the OAU and the Commonwealth, ECOMSA has the mandate to observe the situation on the ground in areas most affected by violence and to facilitate dialogue between the relevant parties in order to defuse potential situations of conflict when needed.
The Community and its Member States urge all parties to support the international observer missions in fulfilling their tasks and stress the importance of allowing the international observer missions free access to all parts of South Africa, including the so-called homelands.
They renew their call to all parties to sign the National Peace Accord and to participate in the peace structures. They welcome the forthcoming resumption of multiparty negotiations and urge all parties who have not yet done so to commit themselves to a speedy and peaceful transition to democratic, nonracial, and united South Africa.
5 April: Statement on Surinam
The European Community and its Member States are seriously concerned at recent developments in Surinam in connection with the appointment by the Surinamese government of a new commander of the armed forces. They reiterate their full support for the President of the Republic of Surinam, Dr R.R. Venetiaan, and his government and recall that subordination of the armed forces to civil authority is of prime importance for the strengthening and consolidation of democracy and the rule of law.
The European Community and its Member States strongly urge all those concerned fully to respect these principles. Any infringement of these principles could not but have negative consequences for the cooperation between the European Community and Surinam.
7 April: Statement on Zaire
The Community and its Member States are unable, in the context of their relations with Zaire, to acknowledge the appointment as Prime Minister of Mr Faustin Birindwa by Presidential order
on the proposal of the political Conclave consisting solely of the President's men, without the approval of the High Council of the Republic and consequently without this move forming part of the process of transition defined by the Sovereign National Conference.
Such a Government cannot therefore enjoy the cooperation of the Community and its Member States, which have agreed inter alla to impose an embargo on arms sales and a policy restricting the granting of visas. The Community and its Member States have also been informed of the adoption by the former National Assembly of a so-called 'harmonised' transitional act. The Community and its Member States are unable for their part to acknowledge this harmonised transitional act and its adoption by the National Assembly, since such moves are in violation of the process of democratic transition which the Community and its Member States continue to support.
The Community and its Member States reaffirm their support for the President of the High Council of the Republic and his efforts to make possible a smooth transition to the holding of free and democratic elections.
11 April: Statement on the assassination of Chris Hani in South Africa
The European Community and its Member States strongly condemn the assassination of Chris Hani yesterday. They extend their deep felt condolences to Mr Hani's wife and family.
It is indeed tragic that Chris Hani who has been appealing for an end to violence and a return to peace should himself die from the bullets of an assassin. A full and thorough investigation of the murder is called for. The European Community and its Member States stand ready to help in any way it can, e.g. through its observers already in South Africa or its experts to the Goldstone Commission.
While fully understanding the grief of many South Africans over the loss of Chris Hani, the European Community and its Member States appeal for calm and restraint in this difficult situation. Those elements wanting to prevent a speedy and peaceful transition to a democratic, non-racial and united South Africa must not be allowed to succeed. The European Community and its Member States therefore renew their call to all parties engaged in the multi-party negotiations to redouble their efforts to reach a negotiated settlement, to do their utmost to bring the violence to an end and to renounce violence in all its forms.
14 April: Statement on Malawi
The Community and its Member States have noted with satisfaction that the government of Malawi and other parties, including those advocating multiparty democracy. have reached an agreement on April 6, 1993 on the composition of the Referendum Commission. The Community and its Member States have therefore decided to send a joint EC Observer Mission to monitor the voter registration process within the common framework established by the UN.
Members of House of Lords visit the Commission
Four members of the British House of Lords' Select Committee on External Relations Lords Hunt, Boardman, Shepperd and Bonham-Carter, visited the Commission's Directorate-General for Development on 17 March 1993. They were received by the Deputy Director-General, Mr Peter Pooley and other officials. Present also was Mr Oursin of the European Investment Bank.
The aim of the visit was to learn how EC development cooperation works in practice, the division of responsibilities between the Commission and Member States, and how best complimentarily and coordination can be achieved at both national and Community levels in order o have 'value for money'.
NGOs 19th General Assembly of European Developments NGOs
The 19th General Assembly of European non-governmental organisations involved with development (development NGOs)washeldin Brussels from 14 to 16 April. The opening session was addressed by Maria Luisa Cassanmagnago-Cerretti, co-President of the ACP-EEC Joint Assembly; Francisco Granell, Director in the Commission's Directorate-General for Development; Guido Dumon, President of the General Assembly of European NGOs; and Alfred Sawadogo, UNDP's project coordinator for African NGOs in Lome. European development policy was the keynote theme.
The meeting, which was attended by more than 100 development NGOs from the 12 Community Member States, representing a network of some 700 NGOs, as well a considerable number of European observers and representatives of organisations from countries of the South, was an opportunity to look at that policy in greater detail.
Development NGOs, together with the Commission, the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers, are among the agencies in Europe prominent in efforts to formulate a genuine common development policy. The European Community's shared involvement in the solidarity expressed by Europe's citizens with the most disadvantaged peoples off the Third World is embodied in the cooperation between development NGOs and the Community which first began l 8 years ago. This includes the co-financing of development activities in the developing countries, awareness-raising measures targeted at European public opinion, food aid, emergency assistance and support for inter-NGO coordination, which is important in enhancing the effectiveness of their work.
The central theme of the General Assembly was chosen quite deliberately to reflect the commitment and endeavours of the European institutions to redefine the Community's development policy in the run-up to the year 2000. indeed, the meeting was an opportunity for debating the 'Horizon 2000' report and the discussion paper on 'European Development Policy: a non-Governmental Perspective' drawn up by the Liaison Committee of development NGOs.
To make the General Assembly of development NGOs an occasion for more thorough-going dialogue between NGOs and the representatives of the Community institutions, four workshops were set up. These looked respectively at action to alleviate poverty; sustainable development; human rights, democracy and development; and migration. A number of reports were drawn up and discussed in the plenary sessions.
The Assembly also discussed and approved the Liaison Committee's 199293 report, the policy priorities for 1993-94 (which include issues arising out of the 1993 Assembly, contributing to emergency aid, and rehabilitation in Africa) and the various recommendations put forward by the various national development NGO fore, particularly as regards the main problems facing developing countries and the role of development NGOs.
Ramses 93 Annual world report on the economic system and strategies - Compiled by IFRI, the French Institute for International Relations, under the direction of Thierry de Montbrial, 6 rue Ferrus, 75683 Paris Cedex 14 - 456 pages 1992
Ramses is back. As always, it has been produced by a team of IFRI specialists who bring out an annual summary of world events, classifying the main happenings and putting them into perspective and underlining trends, particularly in strategies, policies and the economy. This edition covers August 1991 to August 1992. All editions in fact complement each other to some degree because each new Ramses takes account of topics dealt with in previous ones. Ramses 94 will concentrate on Africa.
Ramses 93 is divided into three. Part one, 'A World without Anchors', deals with international politics. The two-camp system disappeared with the collapse of Communism, but the present period is unstable despite various moves towards regional grouping, it says. In the pages on sub-Saharan Africa, which are particularly instructive, the author highlights the fact that 20 or so countries have scheduled elections for between June 1992 and the end of 1995. 'But their biggest problem is probably the famine hanging over many States and threatening to hold up, if not jeopardise, the process of democratisation'. Part two, 'A Lacklustre World and Regional Dynamics', contains a telling account of the current problems of international trade. Part three, 'The Law in International Relations', is based on the idea that the institutions set up at the end of World War II are no longer the right ones for today's world and pose the problem of where the law stands in relations between citizen and State and in international relations. There are also a chronology (August 1992 to August 1993), a statistical appendix, maps and an index of proper names.
This is an extensive work, but the hasty reader should not skip Thierry de Montbrial's introduction. He would do well to think about this paragraph: 'Here, at the end of the 20th century, the European system is on the way to overtaking the order of the Nation-State, just as, from the early 17th century onwards, it slowly freed itself from inherited power and the earthly projection of a divine cosmology. People learned that they could legitimately claim the right to decide for themselves, but they still have to accept the fact that they do not have the right to decide for others.' What he means is, we should learn tolerance. A. L.
Les paradoxes de la pauvretÃ© - Reportages (Reports on the paradoxes of poverty) - Preface by Rene Dumont 'ActualitÃ©s' collection - Le Monde-Editions, Paris - 190 pages, FF 98, 1992
This is a small collection of reports which journalists and correspondents of the French daily, Le Monde, published in 'Champs Ã©conomiques', one of the paper's weekly supplements.
The title could equally well have been: 'The paradoxes of wealth', because, although the articles on the dozen or so industrialised countries selected indeed highlight the fact that there is poverty on the fringe of their populations, the picture is very different when it comes to the developing world, where the writers describe the wealth of a small minority, sometimes only a few families even, in contrast with the masses living in great poverty, especially in South America and Asia. In Asia, Thailand, clearly in the throes of development, is not an underdeveloped country any more, but this
case apart, it is striking to see the lack, or meagre importance, of proper tradesmen's classes in all the other Third World countries discussed in this collection. There are enormous disparities. The impression is that the writers of the articles sought out the poorest people in the rich countries and the richest people in the poor countries.
In the preface, Rene Dumont is harsh on Nigeria, the only African country to be the subject of an article. 'In Nigeria, wealth usually comes from feudal legacies, the oil boom (which ruined farming and craft) and, above all, connexions with people in political power. Import licences bring vast profits in return for no work. The average wealth has considerably diminished because of this, as the race for personal advancement is a barrier to development and brings poverty for traders, peasants and slum dwellers alike. Ultimately, it is turning the country into a drug trafficking centre'.
This is an inevitably piecemeal collection, but it makes for easy reading. And of course, without sinking into caricature, it often simplifies situations, which, although clearly presented, are nonetheless more complex in reality. A.L.