| Experiences From Asias Rural Co-Operatives Workshop report 9 |
|Abstracts of papers|
by Won Ho Suh
Agricultural co-operatives in Korea were established as multipurpose co-operatives in 1961 by the government in order to enhance the economic and social status of farmers and to develop agriculture and rural communities.
Ever since these top-down approach to development of agricultural co-operatives throughout the country, they have endeavoured to consolidate the organizational base, to strengthen the managerial viability, and to expand co-operative business operations.
Thanks to the active participation of member farmers, governmental support, and unsparing efforts of the co-operative officers and staff, agricultural co-operatives have recorded remarkable growth and development, thereby providing member-farmers with an integrated package of various co-operative services. However, in line with the industrialization, urbanization, liberalization and internationalization of the nation, agriculture and rural communities have been undergoing a rapid change.
In order to effectively cope with the rising expectations and diversification of needs among farmers caused by such rapid change, agricultural co-operatives have to strengthen their role as a centripetal force for the development of agriculture and rural communities. These must also work for the improvement of farm household economy, and to further expand their businesses in order to improve the welfare of farmers.
The paper reviews the historical background and development of agricultural co-operatives, lists factors responsible for their rapid development, and discusses their present situation and problems, finally suggests the tasks which should be performed for further enhancement of the economic and social status of member-farmers in Korea.
5. Fishery Co-operatives viable models for future development - Resources management in Japan
by Takahisa Murakami
The paper discusses model co-operatives, which aim at harmonious development between fisheries and their environment, with maintenance of the ecosystem, as the basic principle. Only such types of fishery co-operatives can expect a steady development in the 21st century.
Natural resources are generally destined to be exhausted if man should make endless and greedy use of them. Marine resources are somehow different. Ecosystems help them survive by way of the natural food cycle, whether in the vast ocean or in small closed water, on the condition there is no over-exploitation. They always continue to regenerate themselves, upon which fisheries production depends. What fish catch is to marine resources, interest is to the principal, in the banking business. Fisheries should live only on interest, without causing any reduction in principal.
There are, theoretically and practically, two approaches to maintain proper balance between catch and stock, namely,
a) positively try to restore and increase the amount of stock, by way of releasing artificially hatched fries or improving or constructing fishing grounds, etc.
b) have control on catch by regulating fishing operations, by say, limiting kinds of gears, mesh size fishing seasons etc.
Both require a broad range of scientific research, which only can make rational, efficient plans and practices possible.
Self-regulation and self control by fishermen themselves ought to be the basis of everything here. Forced regulations, legal or administrative, are very likely to be violated. On the other hand, self-control may work more effectively, when regulations are instituted by fishermen in co-operation, and they are informed by the knowledge that doing so will be in the long run, to their own benefit.