To conclude, we can say that there is a need for a farmer-centred management-oriented approach as opposed to the existing paternalistic and bureaucratic approach to formulating and implementing agricultural policy. The farmer-centred approach to agricultural development is best exemplified by the Anand pattern co-operative model underlying the Operation Flood programme of dairy development which is currently underway in India. This model needs a serious consideration and wherever found appro-priate, it should be applied to the other sub-sectors of India’s rural sector. NGOs having the requisite financial discipline, professional and technical expertise and commitment to the cause of agricultural development could play an important role as catalysts in improving the effectiveness of agricultural development programmes. They should be treated by the government as partners in development and not as adversaries. Professionali-sation of agricultural development management can be achieved only slowly over a period of time by inducting professionally-trained agricultural development managers at all levels in the hierarchy of development administration. Reorientation of the existing staff through short-term training programmes in agricultural development management in good institutes of rural management is also necessary. Unfortunately, at present, supply of professional rural managers and facilities for in-service training of agricultural and rural development staff are both extremely limited in our country. There is, therefore, an urgent need to establish many more institutes of agricultural and rural development management on the pattern of the Institute of Rural Management, Anand. Appropriate programmes and facilities are also needed for imparting training to rural producers, rural women, rural bankers, agri-business dealers, local officials, policy makers and planners, and politicians.