Cover Image
close this book Development in practice: Toward Gender Equality
View the document Foreword
View the document Acknowledgments
close this folder Definitions and Data Notes
View the document Definitions
View the document Data Notes
View the document Summary
View the document Progress to Date
View the document Why Do Gender Inequalities Persist?
View the document Strategies for the Future
View the document Conclusion
close this folder Chapter one
View the document Gender Inequalities Persist
View the document Education
View the document Health
View the document Employment Work
close this folder Chapter two
View the document Gender Inequalities Hamper Growth
View the document Household and Intrahousehold Resource Allocation
View the document Linkages between Education Health, and Nutritious
View the document Household and Labor Market Linkages
View the document Formal Sector Employment
View the document Informal Sector
View the document Access to Financial Markets
View the document Access to Lund and Property
View the document Access to Extension Services
View the document Conclusion
close this folder Chapter three
View the document Public Policies Matter
View the document Equalizing Opportunities by Modifying, the Legal Framework
View the document Land and Property Rights
View the document Labor Market Policies and Employment Law
View the document Family Law
View the document Women's bargaining position in relation to household
View the document Financial Laws and Regulations
View the document Macroeconomic: Policies
View the document Inflation tends to hit women harder than men.
View the document Sectoral Investments
View the document Using Targeting Measures to Narrow the Gender
View the document Involving Beneficiaries in Public Policy
View the document Generating and Analyzing Gender-Desegregated Data
View the document Working in Collaboration
View the document Strengthening International Policies to Meet New Challenges
View the document Conclusions
View the document Notes
View the document References


1. Birdsall and Sabot (1994) use earlier findings by Barro (1991) to test the relationship between inequality and growth. They find that in Latin America unequal distribution of education. in terms of both quality and quantity, constrained economic growth in the region by reducing opportunities for increasing labor productivity. In East Asia open and relatively equal access to high-quality basic education led to a virtuous circle of high educational performance that stimulated growth and reduced inequality

2. Subbarao and Raney (1993) estimate that a doubling of family planning services in 1982 would have reduced the fertility rate from 5.5 to 5 0 and the number of births by 3.5 percent

3. The Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) is a series of multitopic surveys designed to study multiple aspects of household welfare

4. Deforestation is represented by the time required to collect a standard load of fuelwood

5. It would be more illuminating to compare wage differences across three categories of women workers: women without children: women with children but with no interruption in employment except for statutory maternity leave: and women with children and with interrupted employment

6. Among women workers. 53 percent are in commerce. compared with 33 percent of men. In manufacturing. 16 percent of the workers are men. compared with 14 percent for women. In services, 37 percent are men anti 33 percent are women (World Bank 1995c)

7. In Bolivia informal moneylenders require borrowers to write postdated checks. If borrowers tail to make timely repayments, these checks are deposited and, as the lender knows will bounce for lack of funds A bounced check is a criminal offense in Bolivia. and the lender can have the borrower arrested The World Bank estimates that about 20 percent of all Bolivian prison inmates-and 40 percent of female inmates imprisoned for 'bouncing' checks and for other collateral-related crimes. In many cases children must live in prison with their mothers (winkler and Guedes, 1995)

8. The International Conference on Central American Refugees (CIREECA) was held in Guatemala City in May 1989 A total of 126 projects in seven countries were introduced. with an overall investment of $365 million Areas with high densities of returnees were targeted. and special attention was given to projects to support displaced women