| 9. Industry and Energy |
1. Cause pollution of water, air or soil?
• Could the discharges be prevented through choice of alternative products, production processes, raw materials or energy sources?
• Will it be possible to reduce the discharges by implementing a preventive "cleaner production" programme?
• Is it possible to reduce the water consumption?
• Is it possible to reduce the energy consumption?
• Is there a need for assessments or measures addressing previous pollution in the area, and will it be necessary to clean up after previous industrial activity or energy production?
• Will discharge of dust or gases to air cause damage or discomfort for the areas in the vicinity or areas further away?
• Will the industry or energy production be based on the combustion of coal, oil, gas or big-fuel resulting in discharges to the atmosphere?
• Will there be discharges of solid or dissolved substances to waste water, causing pollution of ground-water, surface water or coastal waters?
• Is there a risk of accidental discharges or leakages which may pollute soil and ground-water?
• Will chimneys for gases and discharge pipes for waste water be located and dimensioned so that the ambient concentrations of discharge substances become as small as possible?
• Will houses and other sensitive areas be exposed to noise, especially at night?
• Will the products contain damaging substances, or be environmentally hazardous due to other reasons?
• Will the industry or energy production utilise the environmentally most responsible raw materials and technologies?
• Will the project be subject to local environmental regulations, and will these be sufficient?
• Will the activity have a system for environmental management which ensures that the top management assumes an environmental responsibility and which ensures that the organisation is enabled to address environmental issues in a responsible manner?
• Will the volume and composition of discharges be measured or put under observation in some manner?
• Will surveillance of the external and internal environments during construction and operation be implemented?
2. Cause waste problems?
• Will solid or liquid waste be formed during construction, operation or closing of the activity?
• Will waste be created which is hazardous to people or environment?
• Will it be possible to prevent or reduce the generation of waste?
• Will it be possible to recycle or otherwise re-use the produced waste?
• Will the activity have its own dump or other waste treatment facility which may cause pollution of soil, ground-water, surface water or air?
• Will slag, dust or other waste be deposited so that it can pollute soil and water resources (for instance usage for flu-ins)?
Will the management of hazardous waste be in accordance with national and international regulations and guidelines?
3. Affect areas with conservation-worthy fauna or flora or other especially vulnerable ecosystems?
• Will the activity with the related roads and other facilities create barriers for animals, or in any other manner expropriate important areas for fauna and flora?
• Will there be a sufficient distance to vulnerable natural areas?
• Will the activity supplant fauna or flora species that are economically important, vulnerable or conservation-worthy?
• Will the industry or energy project through physical location, pollution impacts or impacts on the composition of species and production contribute to destroy or change vulnerable or conservation-worthy ecosystems?
4. Affect areas with conservation-worthy objects or landscapes?
• Will houses, other buildings or landscapes that are of importance to the local population be affected by the project?
• Will areas or objects with a historic, cultural or religious value for the population be affected?
5. Contain a risk for accidents with serious consequences for the population and the nature?
• Will the factory utilise raw materials or auxiliary materials which are inflammable, toxic or environmentally damaging?
• Will there be a controlled use of dangerous substances?
• Is there a danger for accidental discharges of dangerous substances to air, water or soil?
• Will the factory have a system for marking, risk information, handling and stocking of dangerous substances?
• Will there be a quality control of products, waste and discharges with regard to the content of harmful substances?
• Will transport of dangerous substances on land or sea pass through settlement areas, agricultural areas, water supply areas or areas containing vulnerable or conservation-worthy ecosystems, fauna or flora species?
• Will there be a risk for explosions or fires in the industry or energy facilities?
• Will the industry have emergency routines for fires or other major accidents?
6. Change the population's way of life?
• Will the local population, or those who are to work in the activity, have long traditions within industry, or does industry represent something radically new?
• Can the work conditions in the industry or energy production potentially cause injuries or occupational illnesses to the employees?
• Will changes to the power structures, way of life and natural resource management cause conditions which indirectly increases the exploitation of the total natural resource base in the area?
• Will the project create a new division of labour between men and women?
• Will the establishment of industry or energy production lead to new population concentrations, and thereby different impacts on the soil, fuel and water resources?
• Will the project force other activity to relocate to new areas, so that natural resources and areas in the resettlement areas are excessively exploited?
7. Cause conflicts with regard to land tenure and land use?
• Will the project affect areas which are used for transport and movement?
• Will the project affect areas which are used for agriculture, forestry or animal husbandry?
• Will the activity cause extensive migration to the area, slum settlements and potential conflicts between migrant groups and the groups already living in the area?
8. Prevent or cause considerable changes to the local population's use of other natural resources and areas than those directly affected by the project?
• Will the project cause increased exploitation of the water resources in the area, and how will the consumption needs be covered considered in relation to the consumption needs for other purposes?
• Will the project activities indirectly lead to a substantially increased or uncontrolled exploitation of other resources previously either insignificantly utilised or not utilised at all?
• Will the project create better living conditions for vermin (rats, insects) or parasites?
• Will the project entail the initiation of other activity, such as raw material extraction, industry, transport etc.?
• Will the new activities mentioned above cause impacts on the environment? Refer if necessary to the "Checklists for initial assessments" or the initial assessment booklets for the respective project categories.