Cover Image
close this book 9. Industry and Energy
View the document Foreword
View the document Introduction
close this folder Part I: General account
close this folder 1 Characteristics of projects within industry and energy
View the document 1.1 Introduction
View the document 1.2 Project categories
close this folder 2 The environment affected by the project
View the document 2.1 Natural conditions
View the document 2.2 Man-made conditions
close this folder 3 Possible environ mental impacts
View the document 3.1 Impacts of extraction of natural resources
View the document 3.2 Impacts of processing
View the document 4 Relevant literature
close this folder Part II: Documentation requirements for initial assessment of projects within industry and energy
View the document 1 Project description
View the document 2 Description of the environment
View the document 3 Checklist
View the document Will the project


The global natural resource base is currently exposed to constantly increasing pressures. Environmental problems are on the increase in developing as well as in developed countries. In developing countries, ecological stress strikes large and vulnerable population groups, and hinders social and economic development in many areas.

In 1987 the World Commission on Environment and Development, in their report "Our Common Future", described the problems we are facing and the measures which must be taken to solve them.

Environmental problems in the developing countries make demands on Norwegian development aid. Four Norwegian White Papers (Nos. 36 (1984-85),34 (1986-87) and 51 (1991-92) on major questions concerning Norwegian aid to developing countries, and White Paper no. 46 (198889), on Norway's follow-up of the recommendations of the World Commission, have stressed the importance of taking environmental issues into account in Norwegian-assisted development aid projects. In 1990 this was further articulated in the NORAD strategy document "NORAD in the nineties". In the NORAD strategy document Part 11, "Strategies for bilateral aid" (1992), it is determined that all ongoing and planned development aid projects must be assessed with regard to environmental impacts.

This booklet has been compiled to help NORAD desk officers and planners to integrate environmental considerations into industry and energy-related projects and activities at an early stage in the planning process. It is one of a series of booklets presenting guidelines for environmental impact assessment (EIA) of various types of development aid projects. Experience and ideas from corresponding material compiled by other countries (e.g. OECD, the World Bank) have been integrated into this EIA-system.